(i) Plantation agriculture is highly sophisticated and scientific
(ii) There is specialization of single crop in plantation agriculture, e.g., coffee in Brazil, tea in India, rubber in Malaysia, etc.
(iii) Plantation crops are usually raised on large estates, of more than 40 hectares (100 acres) each, though the success of such crops has often encouraged other farmers to grow them so that small holdings exist side by side with the large estates.
(iv) Foreign ownership and local labour:
Most of the largest estates are owned by Europeans. For example, most Malaysian rubber estates were originally in the hands of British companies with their head offices in London, and were managed and supervised by Englishmen.
(v) Farming in estates is scientifically managed:
Work in estates is executed with specialised skill, and wherever possible with the application of machinery and fertilizers. It aims at high yields, high quality production and a large output, most of which is exported.
(vi) Heavy capital outlay:
This is a very expensive undertaking especially under tropical conditions where maintenance costs are also high. Plantations are manned more and more by local staff, however, less administrative expenses are incurred, but the overall production cost is still high, especially where labour is highly unionised as in Indian and Sri Lankan tea estates.
(vii) Plantation agriculture is an export-oriented agriculture:
Nearly the entire product of plantation agriculture is generally exported to the international market. Therefore, it requires a better communication network, packaging and processing facilities.
(viii) Unlike other forms of agriculture, plantations are well-planned not only in terms of field structure but also having facilities like residence, transport, hospitals, retail markets, etc., for workers and associated people and their families.
(ix) Plantation agriculture often encourages migration from other countries. In colonial period thousands of people migrated from one place to another for work. In this way, cultural exchange occurs.
(x) Most of the crops grown in plantation agriculture have a life cycle of more than two years. Natural rubber, coconuts, oil palm, tea, cocoa, and coffee are all tree crops and take years to mature, but afterwards they are productive for long periods.