### Elizabeth C Female, 37 Years

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 Class 9 - 10 Physics ICSE CBSE Local State Board IGCSE All Medium INR 350 / Hour Class 11 - 12 Physics CBSE Board All Medium INR 400 / Hour Class 6 - 8 Physics Chemistry CBSE INR 350 / Hour

### 3 Notes written by me

• #### Collision

Files: 1

Collision in one dimension

• #### Linear Momentum

Files: 1

linear momentum

• #### Alternating Current Short

Files: 1

Brief note of the chapter AC

• ## Question: What is the difference between diffraction and interference?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 11/09/2015

By definition

When two light waves of same frequency, same amplitude and same phase or constant phase difference travelling in the same direction superpose each other, the intensity in the region of superposition gets redistributed, becoming maximum at some points and minimum at others. This phenomenon is called interference of light.

The phenomenon of bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or an aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of obstacle is called diffraction of light.

Interference bands

1. Formed by the superposition of  waves from two wavefronts.

2. Equal width

3. All bright fringes are of same intensity

4. Regions of dark fringes are perfectly dark.

Diffraction bands

1. Formed due to superposition of waves coming from different parts of the same wavefront.

2. Unequal width

3. All bright bands are not of the same intensity.

4. Regions of dark fringes are not perfectly dark.

• ## Question: What kind of frame of reference does the earth provide?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 11/09/2015

Earth by itself doesnot give any frame of reference.When we study the motion of some object on earthor about something moving with a zero relative velocity with earth it can be considered as an inertial frame of referencce.

When there is a relative velocity for the ovject with respect to earth it can not be an inertial frame

• ## Question: State theorem of perpendicular axis for moment of inertia.

Posted in: Physics | Date: 11/09/2015

Theorem of perpendicular axes

The moment of inertia of a lamina about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the lamina is equal to the sum of moments of inertia of the lamina about any two mutually perpendicular axes in its plane and intersecting at the point where the perpendicular axis passes through the lamina.

• ## Question: Define the term scalar product and vector product of two vectors.

Posted in: Physics | Date: 11/09/2015

VECTOR PRODUCT OR CROSS PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS

The vector or cross product of two vectors is defined as the vector whose magnitude is equal to the product of the magnitudes of two vectors and sine of the angle between them and whose direction is perpendicular to the plane of the two vectors and is given by right hand rules. Mathematically, if is the angle between vectors  and , then

where is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of and and its direction is given by right hand rule. Thus, the direction of   is same as that of unit vector .

Rules for determining the direction of

(i) Right hand screw rule. As shown in figure, if a right hand screw is placed with its axis perpendicular to the plane of the vectors  and and is rotated from to through the smaller angle, then the direction in which screw advances gives the direction of

(ii) Right hand thumb rule

As shown in figure, curl the fingers of the right hand in such a way that they point in the direction of rotation from to through the smaller angle, then the stretched thumb points in the direction of .

• ## Question: What is current density and conductance ?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 11/09/2015

CURRENT DENSITY

The current density J is defined as the current per unit area perpendicular to the direction of flow of current. It is a vector quantity having the same direction as that of the conventional current (motion of positive charge). It is the characteristic property of any point inside the conductor and is denoted by"j"

CONDUCTANCE :The conductance of a conductor is the ease with which electric charges flow through it. It is equal to the reciprocal of resistance and is denoted by G.

• ## Question: State three laws of motion. Define impulse and state its SI unit

Posted in: Physics | Date: 11/09/2015

Newton’s First Law of Motion or Law of Inertia

According to this law: In the absence of external force, every body continues its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line.

Newton’s first law of motion gives the idea (definition) of inertia and force.

Newton’s second law of motion

It states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the external force applied on the body and the change takes place in the direction of the applied force.

Newton’s third law of motion

According to Newton’s third law of motion, ‘To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction’.

ImpulseA large force acting for a short time to is called an impulsive force.

impulse of a force is equal to the change in momentum.

Impulse is a vector quantity. Its direction is same as that of force or the change in momentum.

The SI unit of impulse =kgm/s

• ## Question: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each of amplitude modulation.

Posted in: Physics | Date: 11/09/2015

Advantages Corverage area of AM Reciever is wider than FM because atmospheric propagation 2- AM is long distance propagation because λ 3- AM Circuit is cheapter and non complex than FM. Disadvantage of AM 1- The only one way to withance to noise happen is increasing power transmite 2- Signal of AM is not stronger than FM when it propagate to obstacle. (Urband) 3- Only one sideband of AM transmites Information Signal, So it loss power on other sideband and Carrier. 4- Noise mixes AM Signal in amplitude when it propagates in free space that it make difficulty to recover Original Signal at reciever.

• ## Question: define impact parameter

Posted in: Physics | Date: 12/11/2015

The impact parameter is defined as the perpendicular distance of the velocity vector of the alpha particle from the centre of the nucleus ,when it is far away from the atom

• ## Question: Can you please distinguish between Dia–, Para – and ferro – magnetism?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 12/11/2015

Such substances that experiences a weak force of repulsion from a magnet are called diamagnetic substance.they move from stronger to weaker parts of the magnetising field . eg antimony, bismuth, gold

Paramagnetic substances are which wxperinces a very weak force of attraction towards  magnet. eg aluminium ,sodium, copper chloride, liquid oxygen.

Ferromagnetic substances are those which experience a very strong forcd of atrtaction towards a magnet. eg Alnico, steel

• ## Question: Can you help me to understand Huygens' Principle?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 12/11/2015

In simple way the principle says that each point on a wave act as a source that produces the furtheer propogation of light in the forward direction

It tells how a wavefront propagates through a medium. Using this principle, new position and shape of a wavefront can be located at some later instant if its shape and position at some earlier instant is known. This principle is based on following assumptions:

1. Each point on a wavefront acts as a fresh source of new disturbance sending out secondary wavelets in all directions with the speed of light in that medium.

2. The envelope or surface covering these secondary wavelets in the “forward” direction at any instant gives the position and shape of the new wavefront at that instant.

• ## Question: how is unit of electric current Ampere defined in terms of Magnetic force acting...

Posted in: Physics | Date: 15/11/2015

The ampere is that constant current which through flowing in two infinitely long, straight parallel conductors of negligible cross-section, placed in vacuum one metre apart, produce between them a force of 2x10^-7per metre of their length.

• ## Question: Describe the process of space wave propagation used in communication system.

Posted in: Physics | Date: 15/11/2015

When radiowaves from the transmitting antenna reaches the receiving antenna directly, the wave propagation is called space wave propagation. It is also called tropospherical propagation. Due to curvature of earth, the range of spacewave propagation is limited to the line of sight distance i.e., the maximum distance at which the transmitting antenna and receiving antenna can see each other.

• ## Question: Why do we hear some radio stations better at night than during the day?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 15/11/2015

Short wave transmission make use of ionosphere in the atmosphere. the waves from a ground station is reflected back from the ionoshere to other part of earth. aThis reflection depends on the characteristics like density and fluctuations of ionosheric layer which varies considerably during day time, where as much more constant at night

• ## Question: How X-rays are produced?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 15/11/2015

x rays are produced by the sudden decceleration of fast moving electrons

• ## Question: is the initial velocity always zero in a free fall?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 15/11/2015

Not necessarily,

In the case of a stellite which is a freely falling body, its initial velocity is adjusted in such a way that it reahea the particular orbit

• ## Question: State Coulomb’s law of charges.

Posted in: Physics | Date: 15/11/2015

Coulomb’s law states that the magnitude of force of attraction or repulsion between two stationary point charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This force acts along the line joining the two charges.

• ## Question: What is geocentric?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 04/12/2015

gEOCENTRIC MEANS EARTHIS THE CENTRE OF SOLR SYSTEM ,INSTEAD OF SUN. eARLIER IT WAS BELIEVED THAT ALL PLANETS AND EVEN SUN MOVE AROUND THE EARTH

• ## Question: What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a Solar cooker? Are there pla...

Posted in: Physics | Date: 04/12/2015

pollution free, cost effective on long run

EFFICIENCY is less, takes more time to attain the steady temperature, cannot be used on cloudy and riny days,tmperature maintainance is difficult,

• ## Question: Why we wear cotton clothes in summer?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

Cotton allows better air circulation which helps in maintaining the body temperature

• ## Question: Why in the working of a nuclear reactor naturally occurring uranium need to be e...

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

the concentration of fissionable uranium isotope is very feeble in the natuarally occuring uranium,for sustained chain reaction there should be a minimum amoint of fisssioanable material(fuel) in the reactor. So it need to be concentrated so that the chin reaction will continue

• ## Question: What is the Big Bang Theory?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

Big bang theory is one of the most accepted theory regarding the evolution of universe, which says that the energy and matter were highly concentrated and about 13.8 million years back a huge explosion took place and since then the universe is continuously expanding

• ## Question: What is meant by the term 'Volume'?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

the amount of space occupied by a substance is called its volume

• ## Question: What is Density?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

Mass per unit volume is called density. or its the mass of any substance whose volume is unity

• ## Question: What is the Faraday's laws of electrolysis?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

1. the amount of substance deposited is directly propotional to the quantity of charge passing

2. when same quanity of charge is passed through different electolytes the amount of substance deposited is direcly propotional to the chemical equivalent

• ## Question: How mirage occurs?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

Due to total internal reflection in lower atmosphere

• ## Question: What is the main function of a transponder in communication satellites?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

it recieves the signal from one trnsmitter , amplifies it and re transmits it with greater power.This is the function of mobile repeater towers as well as communication saellites

• ## Question: What is the characteristic of satellite used for communication purposes?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

geo stationary satellites

• ## Question: What is meant by ‘persistence of vision’?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

the vision formed on the retina lasts for about 1/30 of a second and if another vision comes before thaat the brain reads it as continuous . this ability of brin and eye is called persistence of vision

• ## Question: By which process energy is produced in a nuclear reactor?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

nuclear fission

• ## Question: What are the characteristics of sound which depends on Amplitude?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

intensity

• ## Question: What is the use of ultrasound in industry and in hospitals?

Posted in: Physics | Date: 07/03/2016

it is used in medical investigation of internal organs

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