MPT - 117661

Geetika Female, 21 Years

Associated for 4 Years 5 Months
Class 11 - 12 Tutor

Activity Score - 156

Area: Pahar Ganj
Location: Delhi, India
  • Total Experience:
    2 Years
  • Hourly Fees:
    INR 200
Tutoring Experience :

I am graduated and now pursuing MBA. I have been teaching Accountancy, Commerce Subjects and Economics to the students of XI - XII of Commerce stream since last two years. My teaching style is unique it is beneficial for boards as well as competitive examination.

Tutoring Option :
Home Tuition Only
Tutoring Approach :

I approach tutoring in such a way that I show the students the basics, and then give them a variety of practice exercises and urge them figure out the answers themselves. If in doubt, I would keep prompting them to find the right answers thereby helping them to grasp the right concepts.

Class 11 - 12 Accountancy Economics Commerce Subjects IT & Computer Subjects CBSE Board INR 200 / Hour
  • Answer:

    In economics, a product that is used to satisfy needs and desires are called goods. There are two types of goods i.e. Normal good and Inferior good.

    Normal goods have a direct relation of income and the quantity demanded, it means if the income increases then the demand for the good also increase and vice versa but the price remains constant. For example- if the income of the consumer increases then he would consume more so demand increases and when his income decreases he would consume less which means demand decreases.

    Inferior goods have an indirect relation of income and the quatity demanded, it means if the income increases then the demand for the good declines/decreases and vice versa but the price remains constant. An example would be of consumer buying non-branded clothes(which he or she can afford) when he or she has a low income. However, when the consumer receives an increase in terms of income, the consumer will switch into buying more expensive and branded clothes that he or she can afford.


  • Answer:

    (i) Bank Rate:

    The bank rate, also known as the discount rate, is the rate payable by commercial banks on the loans from or rediscounts of the Central Bank. A change in bank rate affects other market rates of interest. An increase in bank rate leads to an increase in other rates of interest and conversely, a decrease in bank rate results in a fall in other rates of interest.

    A deliberate manipulation of the bank rate by the Central Bank to influence the flow of credit created by the commercial banks is known as bank rate policy. It does so by affecting the demand for credit the cost of the credit and the availability of the credit.

    An increase in bank rate results in an increase in the cost of credit; this is expected to lead to a contraction in demand for credit. In as much as bank credit is an important component of aggregate money supply in the economy, a contraction in demand for credit consequent on an increase in the cost of credit restricts the total availability of money in the economy, and hence may prove an anti-inflationary measure of control.

    Likewise, a fall in the bank rate causes other rates of interest to come down. The cost of credit falls, i. e., and credit becomes cheaper. Cheap credit may induce a higher demand both for investment and consumption purposes. More money, through increased flow of credit, comes into circulation.

    A fall in bank rate may, thus, prove an anti-deflationary instrument of control. The effectiveness of bank rate as an instrument of control is, however, restricted primarily by the fact that both in inflationary and recessionary conditions, the cost of credit may not be a very significant factor influencing the investment decisions of the firms.

    (ii) Open Market Operations:

    Open market operations refer to the sale and purchase of securities by the Central bank to the commercial banks. A sale of securities by the Central Bank, i.e., the purchase of securities by the commercial banks, results in a fall in the total cash reserves of the latter.

    A fall in the total cash reserves is leads to a cut in the credit creation power of the commercial banks. With reduced cash reserves at their command the commercial banks can only create lower volume of credit. Thus, a sale of securities by the Central Bank serves as an anti-inflationary measure of control.

    Likewise, a purchase of securities by the Central Bank results in more cash flowing to the commercials banks. With increased cash in their hands, the commercial banks can create more credit, and make more finance available. Thus, purchase of securities may work as an anti-deflationary measure of control.

    The Reserve Bank of India has frequently resorted to the sale of government securities to which the commercial banks have been generously contributing. Thus, open market operations in India have served, on the one hand as an instrument to make available more budgetary resources and on the other as an instrument to siphon off the excess liquidity in the system.

  • Question: What is a budget line ? Why is it downward sloping ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 22/09/2015


    Consumer Budget states the real income or purchasing power of the consumer from which he can purchase certain quantitative bundles of two goods at given price. It means, a consumer can purchase only those combinations (bundles) of goods, which cost less than or equal to his income.

    Budget line is a graphical representation of all possible combinations of two goods which can be purchased with given income and prices, such that the cost of each of these combinations is equal to the money income of the consumer.

    Suppose, a consumer has an income of Rs. 20. He wants to spend it on two commodities: X and Y and both are priced at Rs. 10 each. Now, the consumer has three options to spend his entire income: (i) Buy 2 units of X; (ii) Buy 2 units of Y; or (iii) Buy 1 unit of X and 1 unit of Y. It means, possible bundles can be: (2, 0); (0, 2) or (1, 1). When all these three bundles are represented graphically, we get a downward sloping straight line, known as ‘Budget Line’. It is also known as price line.

    Budget line is downward sloping because when more and more units of one good can be bought, it leads to decrease some units of other good with the given income.

  • Answer:

    Prices of Factors of Production (inputs):

    When the amount payable to factors of production and cost of inputs increases, the cost of production also increases. This decreases the profitability. As a result, seller reduces/decreases the supply of the commodity.

    For example- To make ice-cream, firms need various inputs like cream, sugar, machine, labour, etc. When price of one or more of these inputs rises, producing ice-creams will become less profitable and firms supply fewer ice-creams.

  • Answer:

    Take Precautions While Buying a New Product

    Today is the world of consumer. Consumer is supreme, when there are lots of buy options availability in the market. Manufacturing and marketing companies knows the facts well and due to which, well reputed companies offer the best quality products and services to their clients to maintain a good relationship with them. But some of the small companies can make quality compromise to sustain in the cut throat competition to get the prompt market share in compare of the brands. They can hide the few important parameters from the client point of view to make the product cheap. But ultimately it comes with client to suffer. Thus before purchasing any new un-brand products or services, client must go through the details of the products along with comparing the ingredient parameters with the branded one and if everything in un-branded product is as similar or even better than branded one, client should make it confirm with the vendor and/or manufacturer to get satisfied about the quality of the products. This entire process takes time, but gives you long term relief of purchasing the quality product at cheaper rate. Branded goods/products are good at quality, but charging high with accumulation of brand cost. This is the reason when same type of product with different unknown brand is available in the market at cheaper rate, consumers would definitely love to test the quality, as many times client can get the benefit of new product launching at cheaper rate with better quality. Brand Company always gives the best quality products as it consumes more market value for quality checks and marketing cost. Unbranded new products can be a low cost due to readily available process of manufacturing or less marketing penetration efforts. Thus consumer should check the new products and quality to get benefit of low cost. Before buying product, interaction with seller must be appreciable for a good consumer to keep himself safe side. Company conversation can give him enough satisfaction that the product, he is going to purchase is of good quality. Our country has reliable and strong consumer forum, in case of felling cheated by any company. One can log the complain with consumer court and can get the support as per the consumer protection act to fight against the company, which has money and muscle power both.

  • Question: Define fair value accounting?

    Posted in: Accounts | Date: 23/09/2015


    In accounting and economics, fair value is a rational and unbiased estimate of the potential market price of a good, service, or asset. It takes into account such objective factors as: acquisition/production/distribution costs, replacement costs, or costs of close substitutes.

  • Question: Define trade bills?

    Posted in: Accounts | Date: 23/09/2015


    Bill of exchange issued and/or endorsed (accepted) by non-bank entities and which, therefore, can be discounted only at rates higher than the rate for bank bills.

  • Question: Define overhead in terms of accounting?

    Posted in: Accounts | Date: 23/09/2015


    Hello Aditi,

    Overhead is that costs which required to run a business, but which cannot be directly attributed to any specific business activity, product, or service.

    Overhead is also known as burden or indirect costs. Thus, overhead costs do not directly lead to the generation of profits. Overhead is still necessary, since it provides critical support for the generation of profit-making activities.

    Overhead and direct costs, when combined, equal all of the expenses incurred by a company.

  • Question: Define Offset accounting?

    Posted in: Accounts | Date: 23/09/2015



    In accounting, an offset is essentially a withdrawal from one account to diminish an expense toward other account. A prime example of an offset in government accounting occurs in times of financial uncertainty and budget deficits, where cuts from programs deemed unnecessary serve to offset necessary expenses with the end goal of balancing the books. The same general principle applies to both personal and business accounting; however, in personal and business accounting, running a long-term deficit simply isn't an option and will result in bankruptcy. Offsets may also refer to tax offsets, such as claiming various deductibles.

  • Question: Differentiate between provision and reserve?

    Posted in: Accounts | Date: 23/09/2015


    Hello Harshit

    The following are the main differences between reserve and provision: 1. Mode Of Creation Reserve is created against the charge of the profit and loss appropriation account. Provision is created against the charge of the profit and loss account. 2. Objective Main objective of reserve is to strengthen the financial position and to meet future unknown losses and liabilities. Objective of provision is to meet known losses and liabilities the amount of which is not certain. 3. Accounting Treatment Reserve is shown on debit side of profit and loss appropriation account and liabilities side of balance sheet. Provision is shown on debit side of profit and loss account and assets side of balance sheet as deduction from the concerned asset. 4. Relation With Profit Reserve is created when there is enough profit in the business. Provision is created even if there is loss in the business. 5. Distribution Reserve can be distributed to shareholders as dividend. Provision can not be distributed as dividend to shareholders. 6. Future Requirement Reserve is created without considering the future requirement of the business. Provision is created by estimating the future requirement of the business. 7. Impact Impact of reserve will be on financial position. Impact of provision will be on profit or loss of the business.

  • Question: How to eliminate duplicate values in SELECT?

    Posted in: DBMS & RDBMS | Date: 23/09/2015


    In order to remove the duplicate values, you use the DISTINCT operator in the SELECT statement. The syntax of using the DISTINCT operator is as follows:


    FROM table_name

    WHERE where_conditions

  • Question: What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE ?

    Posted in: Oracle Training | Date: 23/09/2015


    The DELETE command is used to remove rows from a table.

    TRUNCATE removes all rows from a table. The operation cannot be rolled back and no triggers will be fired. As such, TRUCATE is faster and doesn't use as much undo space as a DELETE.

  • Answer:

    Inferior goods have an indirect relation. It means when income rises, demand decreases, price remains constatnt. For example-

    1. If a person's income is low, he cannot afford a branded shoes so he will wear those shoes only which he can afford (non-branded) but when his income increases, he will switch to a branded shoes like Nike or Adidas. It means that the demand for buying non-branded shoes decreases.

    2. Another example can be of use of public transportation, when income is low people use more of public transportation which is not the case when their income increases.

    Normal goods can be defined as those goods for which demand increases when the income of the consumer increases, price of the goods remaining constant. Examples of normal goods are demand of LCD and plasma television, demand for more expensive cars, branded clothes, expensive houses, diamonds etc… increases when the income of the consumers increases.

  • Answer:

    Hello Deepak

    Normal goods refer to those goods whose demand increases with an increase in income, price remains constant and the demand curve will shift to the right.

    For example, if the demand for TV increases with a rise in income, then TV will be called a normal good. Income effect is positive in case of normal goods.

  • Question: Can you define price elasticity of demand ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 24/09/2015


    Hello Amjad

    Price elasticity of demand is a measure of the relationship between a change in the quantity demanded of a particular good and a change in its price. Price elasticity of demand is a term in economics often used when discussing price sensitivity. The formula for calculating price elasticity of demand is:

    Price Elasticity of Demand = % Change in Quantity Demanded / % Change in Price

    If a small change in price is accompanied by a large change in quantity demanded, the product is said to be elastic (or responsive to price changes). Conversely, a product is inelastic if a large change in price is accompanied by a small amount of change in quantity demanded.

  • Answer:

    Hello Nagendra

    The price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded to a change in price, with all other factors held constant.

    Factors Affecting the Price Elasticity of Demand

    • Availability of substitutes: the more possible substitutes, the greater the elasticity. Note that the number of substitutes depends on how broadly one defines the product.
    • Degree of necessity or luxury: luxury products tend to have greater elasticity. Some products that initially have a low degree of necessity are habit forming and can become "necessities" to some consumers.
    • Proportion of the purchaser's budget consumed by the item: products that consume a large portion of the purchaser's budget tend to have greater elasticity.
    • Time period considered: elasticity tends to be greater over the long run because consumers have more time to adjust their behaviour.
    • Permanent or temporary price change: a one-day sale will elicit a different response than a permanent price decrease.

  • Question: What are the determinants of market demand ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 24/09/2015


    Demand is the willingness and ability of an individual consumer to purchase a good or a service.  You see, this definition relates to an individual consumer alone.  Market demand relates to the whole market.  As a result, market demand is the aggregated demand of all the individual consumers.

    Determinants of market demand

    • The size of the market. ceteris paribus, a larger market means more demand, and a more outward market demand curve.
    • The various determinants of individual demand, averaged across all economic actors in the market.
    • The distribution of each of the determinants of individual demand across all economic factors in the market.

  • Answer:

    Hello Birendra

    Differences b/w Returns to a variable factor and Returns to scale :-

    1. Definition:- Returns to a factor relate to the short-period production function when one factor is varied keeping the other factor fixed in order to have more output, the marginal returns or marginal product of the variable factor diminishes.This relates to the Law of Variable Proportions. On the other hand, returns to scale relate to the long-period production function when a firm changes its scale to produc­tion by changing one or more of its factors. This refers to the Law of Returns to Scale.

    2. Time period:- Returns to a variable factor applies in short run whereas returns to scale applies in long run.

    3. Variable and fixed factor:- Only variable factors are changed and units of fixed factors remain the same in returns to variable factors whereas in returns to scale, all the factors are increases simultaneously. No distinction between fixed and variable factors.

    4. Stages:- There are three stages in returns to variable , Increasing Returns, Diminishing Returns and Negative Returns. Also there are three stages in returns to scale, Increasing Returns, Decreasing Returns and Constant Returns.

  • Question: Can you explain the laws of diminishing returns ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 24/09/2015


    Hello Sheel

    The law of diminishing returns, also referred to as the law of diminishing marginal returns, states that in a production process, as one input variable is increased, there will be a point at which the marginal per unit output will start to decrease, holding all other factors constant.

    Although the marginal productivity of the workforce decreases as output increases, diminishing returns do not mean negative returns until (in this example) the number of workers exceeds the available machines or workspace. In everyday experience, this law is expressed as "the gain is not worth the pain."

  • Question: Can you define the term perfect competition ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 24/09/2015


    Hello Devesh

    Perfect competition describes a market structure where competition is at its greatest possible level. To make it more clear, a market which exhibits the following characteristics in its structure is said to show perfect competition: 1. Large number of buyers and sellers 2. Homogenous product is produced by every firm 3. Free entry and exit of firms 4. Zero advertising cost 5. Consumers have perfect knowledge about the market and are well aware of any changes in the market. Consumers indulge in rational decision making. 6. All the factors of production, viz. labour, capital, etc, have perfect mobility in the market and are not hindered by any market factors or market forces. 7. No government intervention 8. No transportation costs 9. Each firm earns normal profits and no firms can earn super-normal profits. 10. Every firm is a price taker. It takes the price as decided by the forces of demand and supply. No firm can influence the price of the product. Description: Ideally, perfect competition is a hypothetical situation which cannot possibly exist in a market. However, perfect competition is used as a base to compare with other forms of market structure. No industry exhibits perfect competition in India.

  • Question: Can you define variable cost of a firm ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 24/09/2015


    Variable costs are expenses that fluctuate proportionally with the quantity of output. Variable costs are directly tied to the activities of producing volume, which rises when these activities increase and falls when activities decrease. This effect can be related to materials, labor, and sales commissions. In other words, Variable costs are those which do not remain constant, specifically when production activities fluctuate.

    The formula to calculate variable cost is:

    Total Variable Cost = Total Quantity of Output * Variable Cost Per Unit of Output

  • Answer:

    Hello Monisha

    Private cost refers to the cost of production incurred and provided for by an individual firm engaged in the production of a commodity. It is found out to get private profits.This cost has nothing to do with the society. It includes both explicit as well as implicit cost. A firm is interested in minimising private cost.


    Social cost refers to the cost of producing a commodity to the society as a whole. It takes into consideration all those costs, which are borne by the society directly or indirectly. Social cost is not borne by the firm. It is rather passed on to persons not involved in the activity in the direct way. Social cost is a much broader concept.It is found out to get social profits rather than private profits. The production of a commodity by a firm generates advantages (benefits) as well as disadvantages (cost) to other members of society, called external benefits and external costs respectively.These benefits are available free of cost.

  • Answer:

    Hello Pradeep

    Fixed cost is a cost that does not change over the short-term, even if a business experiences changes in its sales volume or other activity levels. This type of cost tends to instead be associated with a period of time, such as a rent payment in exchange for a month of occupancy, or a salary payment in exchange for two weeks of services by an employee.

  • Question: Define balancing in accounting?

    Posted in: Accounts | Date: 24/09/2015


    The respective accounts for most businesses are closed off at the last day of each month and reopened for the first day of the following month. The steps by which this is done is referred to as balancing off the accounts. An account balance is the difference between the totals on the debit side, and the totals on the credit side of the account of the same account. The account balance always belongs to the greater side.

    If the debit side exceeds the credit side, the account is said to have a ‘debit balance’. If the credit side exceeds the debit side, the account is said to have a ‘credit balance.’

  • Question: Define depreciation and its types?

    Posted in: Accounts | Date: 24/09/2015


    Hello Navaljot

    The reduction in value of a tangible fixed asset due to normal usage, wear and tear, new technology or unfavorable market conditions is called DEPRICIATION. Assets, such as plants and machinery, buildings, vehicles, etc., which are expected to last more than one year, but not for infinity, are subject to this reduction. It is allocation of the cost of a fixed asset in each accounting period during its expected time of use.

    Types of Depreciation

    • Straight Line Method- An equal amount is allocated for each accounting period.
    • Diminishing Value Method- depreciation is charged on reducing balance on a fixed rate.
    • Annuity method
    • Machine hour rate method
    • Revaluation method
    • Sum-of-the-years’ digit method

  • Question: What is SQL?

    Posted in: PL/SQL | Date: 24/09/2015


    Hello Shreyash

    SQL stands for Structured Query Language and is the standard relational language that is supported by just about every database product. All database professionals should know how to write, troubleshoot, and optimize SQL. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems.

  • Answer:

    Hello Shyam


  • Answer:

    Hello Anmol


    ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME COLUMN old_name to new_name;


    ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO new_table_name;



  • Question: What is UNION, UNION ALL in SQL?

    Posted in: PL/SQL | Date: 24/09/2015


    Hello Durga

    The UNION operator is used to combine the result-set of two or more SELECT statements. Notice that each SELECT statement within the UNION must have the same number of columns. The columns must also have similar data types.

    The SQL UNION ALL operator is used to combine the result sets of 2 or more SELECT statements. It does not remove duplicate rows between the various SELECT statements (all rows are returned). Each SELECT statement within the UNION ALL must have the same number of fields in the result sets with similar data types.

  • Question: What types of index data structures can you have?

    Posted in: PL/SQL | Date: 24/09/2015


    Hello Ankur

    There are three types of index data structures: unique, non-unique and bitmap.

  • Answer:

    Hello Subir

    If you're talking about a single market, equilibrium output is where the supply curve and demand curve intersect.

    And If you're talking about the economy as a whole, equilibrium output is given by the point where the aggregate supply and aggregate demand curves intersect.

  • Answer:

    Investment in simple words refers to purchasing some asset whether it’s an equity investment or a piece of land or some commodity like gold and silver with the intention of making profit.

    (i) Autonomous investments are those investments which are done for serving the society and not for the intention of making profits. Induced Investments are those investments which are made with the intention of generating profit out of such investment.

    (ii)Autonomous investments are done by the government when they invest in projects like construction of roads, bridges, dams etc. and Induced investments are made by private companies when they see any mismatch between demand and supply of a good they invest in order to fill that gap and earn profit from such venture.

    (iii)Autonomous investments are not affected by rise in raw material price or rise in wages of workers as they are made only for the welfare of people and therefore this type of things does not affect these investments whereas induced investments are affected by many factors like increase in cost of raw materials or rise in interest rate in the economy which increases the cost of borrowing and therefore reducing the margin of profit in such investments.

  • Question: What are the three components of aggregate demand ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 28/09/2015


    Hello Pawan

    Aggregate demand refers to the total demand for final goods and services in the economy. Three components are :

    1. Household (or Private) Consumption Demand (C):

    It is defined as ‘Value of goods and services that households are able and willing to buy.’ Alternatively, it refers to ex-ante (planned) consumption expenditure to be incurred by all households on purchase of goods and services. For instance, households’ demand for food, clothing, housing, books, furniture, cycles, radios, TV sets, educational and medical services will be called household consumption demand.

    2. Private Investment Demand (I):

    This refers to planned (ex-ante) expenditure on creation of new capital assets like machines, buildings and raw materials by private entrepreneurs.

    3. Government Demand for Goods and Services (G):

    It refers to government planned (ex-ante) expenditure on purchase of consumer and capital goods to fulfill common needs of the society.

  • Question: Can you define average propensity to consume ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 28/09/2015


    Hello Nagendra

    The average propensity to consume (APC) refers to the percentage of income that is spent on goods and services rather than on savings. One can determine the percentage of income spent by dividing the average household consumption (what is spent) by the average household income (what is earned). The inverse of the average propensity to consume is the average propensity to save (APS).

  • Answer:

    Hello Anil

    The central bank functions as a banker, agent and financial adviser to the government,

    (a) As a banker to government, the central bank performs the same functions for the government as a commercial bank performs for its customers. It maintains the accounts of the central as well as state government; it receives deposits from government; it makes short-term advances to the government; it collects cheques and drafts deposited in the government account; it provides foreign exchange resources to the government for repaying external debt or purchasing foreign goods or making other payments,

    (b) As an Agent to the government, the central bank collects taxes and other payments on behalf of the government. It raises loans from the public and thus manages public debt. It also represents the government in the international financial institutions and conferences.

    (c) As a financial adviser to the lent, the central bank gives advise to the government on economic, monetary, financial and fiscal ^natters such as deficit financing, devaluation, trade policy, foreign exchange policy, etc.

  • Question: Can you define the term loan or demand loan ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 28/09/2015


    Hello Ravi

    A term loan is a monetary loan that is repaid in regular payments over a set period of time. Term loans usually last between one and ten years, but may last as long as 30 years in some cases. A term loan usually involves an unfixed interest rate that will add additional balance to be repaid.

    A demand loan is a rare form of loan that can be called for complete repayment without any prior warning to the borrower. In other words when the lender demands the money, the borrower must pay it.

  • Question: What is fixed deposit accounts ?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 28/09/2015


    Hello Sanket

    A fixed deposit account is an investment account and a type of savings account in which money is deposited for a stated period of time and a fixed interest rate is paid at the end of that period. It is a safer investment option when compared to other investment types such as shares or the money market.

  • Answer:

    Hello Ajit

    It was John von Neumann, who developed the basic architecture of computer.

  • Answer:

    Hello Kunal

    There are 8 bits in ASCII codes.

  • Answer:

    Hello Sandeep

    Single user operating system is designed to manage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. The Palm OS for Palm handheld computers is a good example of a modern single-user, single-task operating system. When you are using MS-DOS it is a single user single task operating system.

  • Answer:

    Hello Ishita

    The most important pointing devices are :- Mouse, Trackball, Pointing Stick, Joystick, Touch Pad, Touch Screen, Light Pen and  Digitizer/Graphic Tablet

  • Answer:

    Hello Devendra

    The US-built ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first electronic programmable computer.

  • Answer:

    Shareware is demonstration software that is distributed for free but for a specific evaluation period only, say, 15-30 days (Trialware). After the evaluation period the program gets expired and a user can no longer access the program. Only if you are interested in using the program further, the shareware provider may require you purchase a license for the software.

    So, basically it is distributed on trial basis and with an understanding that sometime later a user may be interested in paying for it. Also, some shareware are offered as ‘Liteware’. In these programs i.e. ‘Liteware’ certain capabilities are disabled. One can access complete functions only after buying or upgrading to the complete version of the program. Thus, shareware software are used for marketing purposes.

  • Question: Can you tell me the meaning of 'zero primary deficit'?

    Posted in: Economics | Date: 29/09/2015


    Hello Sanjay

    Primary deficit refers to difference between fiscal deficit of the current year and interest payments on the previous borrowings. Primary Deficit = Fiscal Deficit – Interest Payments.

    Implications of Primary Deficit:

    It indicates, how much of the government borrowings are going to meet expenses other than the interest payments. The difference between fiscal deficit and primary deficit shows the amount of interest payments on the borrowings made in past. So, a low or zero primary deficit indicates that interest commitments (on earlier loans) have forced the government to borrow.

  • Question: What is data dictionary ?

    Posted in: Bank Clerical | Date: 30/09/2015


    A data dictionary defines the structure of the database itself (not that of the data held in the database) and is used in control and maintenance of large databases. Among other items of information, it records

    (1) what data is stored,

    (2) name, description, and characteristics of each data element,

    (3) types of relationships between data elements,

    (4) access rights and frequency of access.

    Also called system dictionary when used in the context of a system design.

  • Question: What is a backup ?

    Posted in: Bank Clerical | Date: 30/09/2015


    Hello Priya

    Backup is the activity of copying files or databases so that they will be preserved in case of equipment failure or other catastrophe. Backup is usually a routine part of the operation of large businesses with mainframes as well as the administrators of smaller business computers.

    For personal computer users, backup is also necessary but often neglected. The retrieval of files you backed up is called restoring them.

  • Answer:

    Hello Kumud

    A compiler is a computer program that transforms source code written in a programming language into another computer language (the target language), with the latter often having a binary form known as object code.

  • Question: What are computer viruses ?

    Posted in: Bank Clerical | Date: 30/09/2015


    Hello Rahul

    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computer to another and to interfere with computer operation (such as to corrupt or destroy data).

  • Answer:

    Hello Nitesh

    A Tree topology is a good choice for large computer networks as the tree topology "divides" the whole network into parts that are more easily manageable.

  • Answer:

    Trial version (Demo) is the software that can be downloaded for test before purchase.  

  • Answer:

    Microsoft Word's file extension for pre-2007 documents is .doc; the current default extension is .docx

  • Answer:

    Hello Rishi

    The communication device is a computer Modem, which is capable of sending and receiving a signal to allow computers to talk to other computers over the telephone.

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