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MPT 154067
  • Female, 20 Years
  • Activity Score240

Chanchal K

Helping Tutor for Primary Sec,Secondary Sec and ARTs in all subjects.
  • Qualification:
    Pursuing BA from IGNOU university,DELHI
  • Experience:
    I am in this profession since 5 years.I teach Sociology,Political science and Economics upto class 10(english medium) only.I also provide complete guidance in economics and prepration for many competitve examinations with special ... More [+]
  • Teaches:
    History, Geography, EVS, Economics, Sociology, Political Science, Home Science, Spoken English, Corporate Communication, All Subjects
  • Board:
    All Boards
  • Areas:
  • Pincode:
Profile Details
Profile Details

Qualification :

Pursuing BA from IGNOU university,DELHI

Total Experience :

5 Years

I am in this profession since 5 years.I teach Sociology,Political science and Economics upto class 10(english medium) only.I also provide complete guidance in economics and prepration for many competitve examinations with special care.I am a convent educated .I am a senior teacher in an institute also.Complete responsibility of student and his/her result.Frequent test will be taken and shall be informed to the guardians showing their improvement.

Tutoring Option:

I Can Manage Both

Tutoring Approach:

I basically teach Economics and Sociology group to students belonging from english medium schools upto class 10.I also teach Economics for competitive level also.very small group and one to one teaching is done as required by the students with very special care.

Tuition Schedule:

  • Sunday : --
  • Monday : --
  • Tuesday : --
  • Wednesday : --
  • Thursday : --
  • Friday : --
  • Saturday : --
Class 9 - 10 History, Geography, Economics, EVS, All Boards, All Medium --
Class 11 - 12 Economics, Political Science, Sociology, Home Science, All Boards, All Medium --
English Speaking Spoken English, Corporate Communication --
Class 6 - 8 History, Geography, Economics, EVS --
  • Answer:

    The skils are important for a fashion designer those.....                                                                                               Critical Thinking , Active listening, Judgment and decision  making, Co ordination, Social  perceptiveness, Active learing, Speaking, Time managment, Complex problem solving, Reading comprehension, Negotiation, Persuasion, Monitoring, Instructing, Operation analysis, Managment of financial resorces.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

  • Answer:

    The fashion and beauty industry gets a lot of stick for exacerbating insecurities and body image issues – of young people in particular. Obvious offenders are the countless fashion labels who use impossibly fit or thin men and women to model their latest clothes. The advent of ‘photoshopping’ has made this problem even worse, with magazine covers brandishing waistlines and thigh gaps which have been manipulated in apparent defiance of the laws of biology and physics. Now, there seems to be a tendency of the industry to try and dictate trends in our genetics: body shapes, hair and skin colour, orthodontics and bone structures go in and out of fashion just like clothes do. Surely this is a step too far: how can we allow the transient whims of a commercial industry to define the way we see the parts of ourselves we cannot change?

  • Question: What is Applet class?

    Posted in: Bio-informatics | Date: 08/09/2015


    An applet is a small program that is intended not to be run on its own, but rather to be embedded inside another application.

    The Applet class must be the superclass of any applet that is to be embedded in a Web page or viewed by the Java Applet Viewer. The Applet class provides a standard interface between applets and their environment.

    The Applet class doesn't provide any genuine applicability on its own. Its purpose is to provide a super class from which custom applet classes are extended. 

  • Question: What are Objectives Of Internal Audit?

    Posted in: Auditing | Date: 08/09/2015


    1. Internal audit is an independent appraisal function established by the management of an organisation for the review of the internal control system as a service to the organisation. It objectively examines, evaluates and reports on the adequacy of internal control as a contribution to the proper, economic and effective use of resources.

    2. The essentials for effective internal auditing ar

    The internal auditor should have the independence in terms of organisational status and personal objectivity which permits the proper performance of his duties.

  • Question: What do you mean by vouching?

    Posted in: Auditing | Date: 08/09/2015


    After preparing Audit note book, audit planning, auditing working papers, audit preparations etc., the next step is to proceed with the examination of accounting entries passed in the books of account during the period under review.  In this step the auditor has to check the entries with its supporting documents to determine the accuracy and authenticity of the entries passed by verifying the vouchers, bills and other supporting documents.  This process of checking the evidence of the entries called vouching.  It may related to cash as well as trading transactions. Auditor is required to certify the financial statements prepared by the accountant as the statement shows the true and fair view of the results of operations and the state of affairs of the business.  Unless he tries to establish the accuracy and authenticity of all the transactions recorded in the books of account, auditor will be falling from discharging his duty.  The exercise of establishing and verifying the accuracy and authenticity of the accounting entries passed in the book of account with reliable evidences are technically called 'vouching'.  It means vouching is the testing the truth of all the entries made in the book of accounts.  

  • Question: What is statutory audit?

    Posted in: Auditing | Date: 08/09/2015


    Statutory auditor refres to an extneal auditor whose appointment is  mandated by law.A stalutory adudit is a legally required review of the accuracy of a company or goverment financial rewards.

  • Answer:

    *Enumeration                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1, enumeration: numbered list.                                                                                                                                       2,enumeration: the acts of counting reciting number in assending order,"the counting countinued for several hours enumeration hours.                                                                                                                                       *Iterator                                                                                                                                                                     The essence of the Iterator Factory method Pattern is to "Provide a way to access the elements of an aggregate object sequentially without exposing its underlying representation."                                              

  • Question: What is ArrayList class?

    Posted in: Java and J2EE | Date: 08/09/2015


    The ArrayList class extends AbstractList and implements the List interface. ArrayList supports dynamic arrays that can grow as needed.

    Standard Java arrays are of a fixed length. After arrays are created, they cannot grow or shrink, which means that you must know in advance how many elements an array will hold.

    Array lists are created with an initial size. When this size is exceeded, the collection is automatically enlarged. 

  • Question: Why do we need object oriented programming?

    Posted in: Bio-informatics | Date: 09/09/2015


     When we are going to work with classes and objects we always think why there is need of classes and object although without classes and objects our code works well. But after some work on classes and objects we think, yeah its better to work with classes and objects .And then we can understand that Object oriented Programming is better than procedural Programming.

    Object oriented programming requires a different way of thinking about how can we construct our application.

    Lets take a short example:

    When we are going to build a house .We distribute the works needed to make a house we can divide the works in different part and deliver to different persons like plumber for water supply, electrician for electricity etc. The electrician doesn’t need to know that the work of plumber and vice versa.

    In the same way in Object Oriented Programming we can divide our applications in different modules called classes .And one class is separate from other classes .

  • Question: Explain how to do an internal audit effectively?

    Posted in: Auditing | Date: 09/09/2015


    As the role of the internal auditor shifts, through regulatory changes or a more volatile economy, so, too, do the skills required to do the job well.

    The skills shift is demonstrated by what companies expect of the internal audit function. Technical skills are a prerequisite, but those skills alone are not enough as the job’s scope broadens.

    “The evolution of the skills of internal audit professionals is aligning with, or is corresponding to, the evolution of the profession itself,” said Richard Chambers, chief executive and president of the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA).

  • Answer:

    1. Interview senior management and board of directors/audit committee chairmen to build rapport, to ensure those at the top have a clear picture of the internal audit function, and to clarify expectations of all. Use this opportunity to quickly learn and address what management and the board view as the greatest risks to the organization, while keeping in mind issues, problems, and opportunities that have already been identified. Develop a system for cataloging such information, including date and name of person interviewed for quick reference in the future. There are many considerations that should be evaluated in determining the optimal structure and source for internal auditing resources. Those responsible for making such determinations should evaluate the additional guidance and considerations outlined in The IIA's Position Paper, "The Role of Internal Auditing in Resourcing the Internal Audit Activity."                                                                                 2.Obtain and review your organization's written policies and procedures, especially the policy pertaining to management's responsibility to control the organization.                                                                                                                       3.Discuss with external auditors open and closed internal control issues, which they may have identified during their reviews.         

  • Question: Why ArrayList is faster than Vector?

    Posted in: Java and J2EE | Date: 09/09/2015


    Arrya list and Vector both use Array as a data structure internally. However there are few differences in the way they store and process the data. In this post we will discuss the difference and similarities between ArrayList and Vector.                  1.Synchronization: ArrayList is non-synchronized which means multiple threads can work on ArrayList at the same time. For e.g. if one thread is performing an add operation on ArrayList, there can be an another thread performing remove operation on ArrayList at the same time in a multithreaded environment.                                                                            2:Resize: Both ArrayList and Vector can grow and shrink dynamically to maintain the optimal use of storage, however the way they resized is different.                                                                                                                                     3.Performance:ArrayList gives better performance as it is non-synchronized. Vector operations gives poor performance as they are thread-safe, the thread which works on Vector gets a lock on it which makes other thread wait till the lock is released.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Both Vector and ArrayList use growable array data structure.                                                                                        

  • Question: What do you understand by PriorityQueue?

    Posted in: Java and J2EE | Date: 09/09/2015


    An unbounded priority queue based on a priority heap. The elements of the priority queue are ordered according to their natural ordering, or by a Comparator provided at queue construction time, depending on which constructor is used. A priority queue does not permit null elements. A priority queue relying on natural ordering also does not permit insertion of non-comparable objects.

    The head of this queue is the least element with respect to the specified ordering. If multiple elements are tied for least value, the head is one of those elements -- ties are broken arbitrarily. The queue retrieval operations poll, remove, peek, and element access the element at the head of the queue.

  • Question: How to change a default page of a SILVERLIGHT application?

    Posted in: Flash | Date: 09/09/2015


    To change the default page of a Silverlight application, you need to set the Root Visual property inside the Application_Startup event of the App.xaml file.

    private void Application_Startup(object sender, StartupEventArgs e) { this.RootVisual = new MainPage(); }

  • Question: What is the .NET Framework ?

    Posted in: Microsoft Certification | Date: 09/09/2015


    A programming infrastructure created by Microsoft for building, deploying, and running applications and services that use .NET Technologies, such as desktop applications and Web services.

    The .NET Framework contains these three major parts:-

    • the Common Language Runtime
    • the Framework Class Library
    • ASP.NET

  • Question: What is MSIL?

    Posted in: .Net | Date: 09/09/2015


    When compiling to managed code, the compiler translates your source code into Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), which is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to native code. MSIL includes instructions for loading, storing, initializing, and calling methods on objects, as well as instructions for arithmetic and logical operations, control flow, direct memory access, exception handling, and other operations. Before code can be run, MSIL must be converted to CPU-specific code, usually by a Just-in-time (JIT) compiler. Because the common language runtime supplies one or more JIT compilers for each computer architecture it supports, the same set of MSIL can be JIT-compiled and run on any supported architecture.

    When a compiler produces MSIL, it also produces metadata. Metadata describes the types in your code, including the definition of each type, the signatures of each type's members, the members that your code references, and other data that the runtime uses at execution time. The MSIL and metadata are contained in a portable executable (PE) file that is based on and extends the published Microsoft PE and common object file format (COFF) used historically for executable content. This file format, which accommodates MSIL or native code as well as metadata, enables the operating system to recognize common language runtime images. The presence of metadata in the file along with the MSIL enables your code to describe itself, which means that there is no need for type libraries or Interface Definition Language (IDL). The runtime locates and extracts the metadata from the file as needed during execution.

  • Question: What is an assembly?

    Posted in: .Net | Date: 09/09/2015


    In more simple terms: A chunk of (precompiled) code that can be executed by the .NET runtime environment. A .NET program consists of one or more assemblies.

    don't relate it with the .jar file because a Jar file is just a zip file that contains compiled bytecode files.

    An assembly is a PE (Portable Executable format) File (i.e. a DLL or EXE), but conceptually they serve similar purposes

  • Question: What is a garbage collector?

    Posted in: .Net | Date: 09/09/2015


    Take it straight, it's a simple prgramme that removes unwanted data held temporarily in memory during process.

  • Question: What is Ilasm.exe used for?

    Posted in: .Net | Date: 09/09/2015


    Ilasm.exe is a tool that generates PE (Portable Executable) files containing the MSIL Code as a parameter and creates a text file that contains managed code.

    Also, you can run the resulting executable to determine whether the MSIL Code perfomed as you was expected.

  • Question: What are the different types of assembly?

    Posted in: .Net | Date: 09/09/2015


    There are two types of Assemblies 

    1) Private Assembly:- An assembly is used only for a particular application. It is stored in the application directory other wise in the application's sub directory There is no version constraint in private assembly.

    2) Public Assemblies or Shared Assemblies:- It has version constraint, This public assembly is stored inside the global assembly cache or GAC.

    'GAC contains a collection of shared assembly".

  • Question: Can you tell me about UNIX Operating system ?

    Posted in: Unix/Linux | Date: 09/09/2015



    UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s, and has been under constant development ever since. By operating system, we mean the suite of programs which make the computer work. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops.


    Types of UNIX

    There are many different versions of UNIX, although they share common similarities. The most popular varieties of UNIX are:-

    Sun Solaris&

    GNU/Linux and

    MacOS X.


    Programming construction:-

    The UNIX operating system is made up of three parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs.

    1) The kernel


    The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the operating system: it allocates time and memory to programs and handles the filestore and communications in response to system calls.

    As an illustration of the way that the shell and the kernel work together, suppose a user types rm myfile (which has the effect of removing the filemyfile). The shell searches the filestore for the file containing the program rm, and then requests the kernel, through system calls, to execute the program rm on myfile. When the process rm myfile has finished running, the shell then returns the UNIX prompt % to the user, indicating that it is waiting for further commands.


    2) The shell

    The shell acts as an interface between the user and the kernel. When a user logs in, the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another program called the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter (CLI). It interprets the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. The commands are themselves programs: when they terminate, the shell gives the user another prompt (% on our systems).

    The adept user can customise his/her own shell, and users can use different shells on the same machine. Staff and students in the school have the tcsh shell by default.

    The tcsh shell has certain features to help the user inputting commands.

    Filename Completion - By typing part of the name of a command, filename or directory and pressing the [Tab] key, the tcsh shell will complete the rest of the name automatically. If the shell finds more than one name beginning with those letters you have typed, it will beep, prompting you to type a few more letters before pressing the tab key again.

    History - The shell keeps a list of the commands you have typed in. If you need to repeat a command, use the cursor keys to scroll up and down the list or type history for a list of previous commands.

    Files and processes

    Everything in UNIX is either a file or a process.

    A process is an executing program identified by a unique PID (process identifier).

    A file is a collection of data. They are created by users using text editors, running compilers etc.


    Examples of files:

    • a document (report, essay etc.)
    • the text of a program written in some high-level programming language
    • instructions comprehensible directly to the machine and incomprehensible to a casual user, for example, a collection of binary digits (an executable or binary file);
    • a directory, containing information about its contents, which may be a mixture of other directories (subdirectories) and ordinary files.


    I hope you got your answer.

  • Question: Can we have private constructor in java?

    Posted in: Java and J2EE | Date: 09/09/2015



    This is so that you can control how the class is instantiated. If you make the constructor private, and then create a visible constructor method that returns instances of the class, you can do things like limit the number of creations (typically, guarantee there is exactly one instance) or recycle instances or other construction-related tasks.

    Doing new x() never returns null, but using the factory pattern, you can return null, or even return different subtypes.

    You might use it also for a class which has no instance members or properties, just static ones - as in a utility function class.

  • Question: Why do we need generics in java?

    Posted in: Java and J2EE | Date: 09/09/2015


    Generic types are extensively used in Java collections. I will use a very short example to illustrate why Generic is useful.

    1. Overview of Generics

    The goal of implementing Generics is finding bugs in compile-time, other than in run-time. Finding bugs in compile-time can save time for debugging java program, because compile-time bugs are much easier to find and fix. Generic types only exist in compile-time. This fact is the most important thing to remember for learning Java Generics.


    2. What if there is no Generics?

    In the following program, the "Room" class defines a member object. We can pass any object to it, such as String, Integer, etc.

    class Room {   private Object object;   public void add(Object object) { this.object = object; }   public Object get() { return object; } }   public class Main { public static void main(String[] args) { Room room = new Room(); room.add(60); //room.add("60"); //this will cause a run-time error Integer i = (Integer)room.get(); System.out.println(i); } }

    The program runs totally fine when we add an integer and cast it. But if a user accidentally add a string "60" to it, compiler does not know it is a problem. When the program is run, it will get a ClassCastException.

    Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ClassCastException: java.lang.String cannot be cast to java.lang.Integer at collection.Main.main(Main.java:21)

    You may wonder why not just declare the field type to be Integer instead of Object. If so, then the room is not so much useful because it can only store one type of thing.


    3. When generics is used

    If generic type is used, the program becomes the following.

    class Room<T> {   private T t;   public void add(T t) { this.t = t; }   public T get() { return t; } }   public class Main { public static void main(String[] args) { Room<Integer> room = new Room<Integer>(); room.add(60);   Integer i = room.get(); System.out.println(i); } }

    Now if someone adds room.add("60"), a compile-time error will be shown like the following:


    We can easily see how this works. In addition, there is no need to cast the result any more from room.get() since compile knows get() will return an Integer.

  • Answer:

    Take it easy and simple, now see

    The while statement verifies the condition before entering into the loop to see whether the next loop iteration should occur or not.


    The do-while statement executes the first iteration without checking the condition, it verifies the condition after finishing each iteration. T

    he do-while statement will always execute the body of a loop at least once. 

  • Answer:

    An adapter class provides the default implementation of all methods in an event listener interface. Adapter classes are very useful when you want to process only few of the events that are handled by a particular event listener interface. You can define a new class by extending one of the adapter classes and implement only those events relevant to you.

    Okay, take it easy and now understand....

    An adapter class provides the default implementation of all methods in an event listener interface.

    Adapter classes are very useful when you want to process only few of the events that are handled by a particular event listener interface.

    You can define a new class by extending one of the adapter classes and implement only those events relevant to you.

    hope you get that.

  • Answer:

    Yes, of course it's easy if you concentrate and then read this.......

    Difference between HashMap and HashTable / HashMap vs HashTable   1. Synchronization or Thread Safe :  This is the most important difference between two .

    HashMap is non synchronized and not thread safe.

    On the other hand, HashTable is thread safe and synchronized..  2. Null keys and null values :  Hashmap allows one null key and any number of null values, while Hashtable do not allow null keys and null values in the HashTable object. 3. Iterating the values:  Hashmap object values are iterated by using iterator .HashTable is the only class other than vector which uses enumerator to iterate the values of HashTable object.

    4. Performance :  Hashmap is much faster and uses less memory than Hashtable as former is unsynchronized . Unsynchronized objects are often much better in performance in compare to synchronized  object like Hashtable in single threaded environment. 5. Superclass and Legacy :  Hashtable is a subclass of Dictionary class which is now obsolete in Jdk 1.7 ,so ,it is not used anymore. It is better off externally synchronizing a HashMap or using a ConcurrentMap implementation (e.g ConcurrentHashMap).HashMap is the subclass of the AbstractMap class. Although Hashtable and HashMap has different superclasses but they both are implementations of the "Map"  abstract data type.  

    I hope you get it.

  • Answer:

    It's easy and needs some focus to understand

    When you are handling multiple catch blocks, make sure that you are specifying exception sub classes first, then followed by exception super classes. Otherwise we will get compile time error.

  • Answer:

    Look take it easy,

    The break statement results in the termination of the loop, it will come out of the loop and stops further iterations.

    The continue statement stops the current execution of the iteration and proceeds to the next iteration.

    The return statement takes you out of the method. It stops executing the method and returns from the method execution.


    I hope you get it.

  • Question: What happens if we do not provide a constructor?

    Posted in: Java and J2EE | Date: 09/09/2015


    It's simple

    Java does not actually require an explicit constructor in the class description.

    If you do not include a constructor, the Java compiler will create a default constructor in the byte code with an empty argument.

  • Answer:

    Nice Question, good. Now here is the answer for you:-


    The default behavior of an object’s clone() method automatically yields a shallow copy. So to achieve a deep copy the classes must be edited or adjusted.

    Shallow copy: Generally clone method of an object, creates a new instance of the same class and copies all the fields to the new instance and returns it. This is called shallow copy. Object class provides a clone method and provides support for the shallow copy. It returns ‘Object’ as type and you need to explicitly cast back to your original object. Since the Object class has the clone method, you cannot use it in all your classes. The class which you want to be cloned should implement clone method and overwrite it. It should provide its own meaning for copy or to the least it should invoke the super.clone(). Also you have to implement Cloneable marker interface or else you will get CloneNotSupportedException. When you invoke the super.clone() then you are dependent on the Object class’s implementation and what you get is a shallow copy.

    Deep copy: When you need a deep copy then you need to implement it yourself. When the copied object contains some other object its references are copied recursively in deep copy. When you implement deep copy be careful as you might fall for cyclic dependencies. If you don’t want to implement deep copy yourselves then you can go for serialization. It does implements deep copy implicitly and gracefully handling cyclic dependencies.

  • Answer:

    Third Generation

    1.They used integrated circuit (I.C) and large scale integration (LSI).

    2. They were smaller in size and called as mini computer

    3. They could perform calculation in nano seconds.

    4. Main memory was increased in the form of PROM and DRAM.

    Fourth Generation

    1.They used very large scale integration (VLSI) and microprocessor.

    2. They were small in size and called as micro computer.

    3. They could perform millions of calculations per second.

    4. Main memory was increased in the form of EPROM and SRAM.



  • Answer:

    PowerPoint gives you four views in which you create and organize your presentation. As you create a presentation, you can switch among the four views as you work.  The four PowerPoint views are:  Slide View-  To be in Slide view you click on the following button located in the bottom-left hand corner of any slide: The Slide view shows a single slide. In Slide view, you work on one slide at at time. Here, you can type your slide title and body, add other text to the slide, draw shapes, add clip art, choose a color scheme, make a graph, etc. In Slide view, you have access to all the tools on the Tool Palette as well as buttons on the Toolbar. 

  • Question: What does URL stand for?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is the address of a web page. Each page has its own unique web address (URL). This is how your computer locates the web page that you are trying to find. An example of a URL is: http://untieduniverse.com/blog/all  In this example URL, untieduniverse.com is called the domain name. The " blog/all" refers to the specific page.

  • Question: What happens while booting your computer?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    The boot order in your computer’s BIOS controls which device it loads the operating system from. Modify your boot order to force your computer to boot from a USB drive, CD or DVD drive, or another hard drive.

    You may need to change this setting when booting from another device, whether you’re running an operating system from a live USB drive or installing a new operating system from a disc.

    Note: This process will look different on each computer. The instructions here will guide you through the process, but the screenshots won’t look exactly the same.

  • Question: When will you get a '#Name error in MS Excel'?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    Possible causes and solutions

    1. Referring to a defined name that does not exist. On the Insert menu, point to Name, and then click Define.

    If the name is not listed, add the name by using the Define command. If the name is misspelled, add the correct name by using the Paste command.

    2. Using label in a formula but labels are not allowed in your settings. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Calculation tab. Under Workbook options, select the Accept labels in formulas check box.

    3. Misspelling a name of a function in a cell. To avoid misspelling use the function option in the Insert menu. Or the function icon in the toolbar.

    4. Entering text in a formula without enclosing the text in double quotation marks. Make sure quotation marks are added and they are balanced from left and right.

    5. Omitting a colon (:) in a range reference. E.g. COUNT(A1A10) should be COUNT(A1:A10)

    6. Referencing another worksheet, but the worksheet name is not enclosed in single quotation marks. If you have a formula referring to another worksheet and the name of that worksheet has a space, then the name should be enclosed within quotation marks. E.g. this formula is correct: =’Monthly budget’!$A$1, but this one will give a “#NAME” error: =Monthly budget!$A$1

  • Question: What is dendrochronology?

    Posted in: Biology | Date: 13/09/2015


    Dendrochronology is the science of dating events and variations in environment in former periods by comparative study of growth rings in trees and aged wood. In scientific terminology, tree growth rings are used as proxy indicators for past environmental variations. The term dendrochronology is derived from the Greek terms dendron for tree, chronos, meaning time, andlogos meaning the science of.

    Dendrochronology is governed by a set of principles or scientific rules. These principles have their roots as far back as 1785 (the Principle of Uniformitarianism) and have continued to evolve as recently as 1987 with the Principle of Aggregate Tree Growth. Some are specific to dendrochronology, such as the Principle of Aggregate Tree Growth, while others, like the Principle of Replication, are basic to many disciplines. All tree-ring research must adhere to these principles, or else the research that results could be flawed.

  • Question: What are idioblasts?

    Posted in: Biology | Date: 13/09/2015


    1.    (botany) An isolated specialized cell found in the midst of an otherwise homogeneous group of cells in plant tissue.


  • Question: What are the different types of filters?

    Posted in: Electronics | Date: 13/09/2015


    Filters can be classified in many ways based on the  componets using, implementation etc  Implementation means either analog techniques or digital In analog the main classification is active and passive  filters filters made of simple R,L,C elements are refered as  passive filters. when we are using some active components  like opamps, transistor along with passive components it  becomes active filters. the main advantage is that we can  vary the gain and other parameters easly in active filters. Now depending on the application and neccisity we are going  for the diffreant forms such as low pass, high pass etc. now we can see that all these filters are made of some  hardware components, so noise is an important factor which  will affects its accuracy. so noise free design can be accomplished with the help of  digital filters which is based on algorithms. 2 basic forms  of digital filters are FIR and IIR filters. FIR filters can  be designed in many methods , one of such method is  windowing methods. some of IIR filters are butterworth  filter, chebyshev filter(type 1 and 2), cauver filters. basic approach in design of IIR filter is first design  the filter in analog domain and then transform it into  digital domain now the latest trend of filters which are widely using in  navigation, control applications is kalman filters  discoverd by R.E kalman.it is an adaptive type filter. it  not only removes the noise but also helps in esimating the  differant states of a system which are not measuable( for  more info kindly go through state space modelling) 

  • Question: What is the usage of Arrow Shapes tool?

    Posted in: Corel Draw | Date: 13/09/2015


    To begin, choose the Custom Shape tool from the toolbar. Can't find it? Click on the Rectangle tool instead, located at the bottom of the toolbar's group of vector tools (Pen tool, Type tool, Selection tool). Now the Options bar shows all the vector shape tool variations. The Custom Shape tool is the blobby-looking one at the right. Select it there, or choose it from the Rectangle tool's fly-out menu down in the toolbar.

    Make sure the tool is in Vector Shape mode, one of the three modes available when you're working with vector tools in Photoshop. That way, dragging the tool across the image creates a vector shape layer (instead of a path or a selection) which is what we want. Vector Shape mode is the first icon at the far left of the Options bar and looks like a square with points on the corners. Click it if it's not selected already.

    Now with the right mode and the right tool selected, you can open the custom shapes library. In the Options bar, look for the label "Shapes:" and click the shape thumbnail to the right to open the library. The arrows aren't part of the default shape set, so you'll probably have to use the library's fly-out menu to choose it. (Hint: the library you want is called "Arrows." Very obscure.) Add or append the shapes to the ones already in the library, it makes no difference.

    You'll see twenty different arrow shapes to choose from, so click on the one that calls you to and then press Return/Enter to close the library. Now just start dragging diagonally on the image and you'll see the arrow appear, changing its width/height ratio as you drag the mouse. Release the mouse button when it's roughly how you want it.

  • Question: What is D-FF?

    Posted in: Electronics | Date: 13/09/2015




    The working of D flip flop is similar to the D latch except that the output of D Flip Flop takes the state of the D input at the moment of a positive edge at the clock pin (or negative edge if the clock input is active low) and delays it by one clock cycle. That's why, it is commonly known as a delay flip flop. The D FlipFlop can be interpreted as a delay line or zero order hold. The advantage of the D flip-flop over the D-type "transparent latch" is that the signal on the D input pin is captured the moment the flip-flop is clocked, and subsequent changes on the D input will be ignored until the next clock event.

  • Question: What is a multiplexer?

    Posted in: Electronics | Date: 13/09/2015


    The Multiplexer acts as a multiple-input and single-output switch. Multiple signals share one device or transmission conductor such as a copper wire or fiber optic cable.In telecommunications, the analog or digital signals transmitted on several communication channels by a multiplex method. These signals are single-output higher-speed signals. A 4-to-1 multiplexer contains four input signals and 2-to-1 multiplexer has two input signals and one output signal.

  • Question: What is sampling theorem?

    Posted in: Electronics | Date: 13/09/2015


    The signals we use in the real world, such as our voices, are called "analog" signals.  To process these signals in computers, we need to convert the signals to "digital" form.  While an analog signal is continuous in both time and amplitude, a digital signal is discrete in both time and amplitude.  To convert a signal from continuous time to discrete time, a process called sampling is used.  The value of the signal is measured at certain intervals in time. Each measurement is referred to as a sample.  (The analog signal is also quantized in amplitude, but that process is ignored in this demonstration.  See the Analog to Digital Conversion page for more on that.)  When the continuous analog signal is sampled at a frequency F, the resulting discrete signal has more frequency components than did the analog signal.  To be precise, the frequency components of the analog signal are repeated at the sample rate.  That is, in the discrete frequency response they are seen at their original position, and are also seen centered around +/- F, and around +/- 2F, etc.  How many samples are necessary to ensure we are preserving the information contained in the signal?  If the signal contains high frequency components, we will need to sample at a higher rate to avoid losing information that is in the signal.  In general, to preserve the full information in the signal, it is necessary to sample at twice the maximum frequency of the signal.  This is known as the Nyquist rate.  The Sampling Theorem states that a signal can be exactly reproduced if it is sampled at a frequency F, where F is greater than twice the maximum frequency in the signal. 

  • Question: What is CMRR?

    Posted in: Electronics | Date: 13/09/2015


    cmrr means commmon mode rejection ratio.. it is ratio of  differential mode divided by ratio of common mode.   

  • Question: Explain half-duplex and full-duplex communication?

    Posted in: Electronics | Date: 13/09/2015


     Half –duplex

    "Duplex" simply means you're able to send and receive data (most often the human voice) from the same device whether that be with your phone, 2-way radio, or PC.

    Half-duplex devices let you send and receive, but only one-way at a time. If you've ever used a walkie-talkie, then you know what half-duplex conversations sound like. You have to push the TALK button to send your message. But as long as you are holding the TALK key, you can't hear what anyone else is saying. You must release the button to receive.


    Full duplex Actually, full duplex is nothing new. In fact, you already know exactly what it sounds like. Your corded or cordless phones are full-duplex devices letting you and your caller speak simultaneously without any dropouts in either one of your voices.

    It's when you use a hands-free speakerphone that you really appreciate full duplex. Conventional speakerphones must shut the speaker off when the mic is activated so as not to pick up your caller's voice and transmit it along with yours causing an echo effect. When you speak, you can't hear what your caller is saying. This problem is really compounded if both of you are using conventional speakerphones. A full-duplex device digitizes the signal coming out of its speaker (your caller's voice). It then edits this info out of the signal it's transmitting (your voice) using a built-in digital processor similar to those found in PCs. This eliminates echo effect and more importantly, does away with the on-off mic/speaker dilemma. Full-duplex devices do all of this virtually instantaneously so your calls sound natural and free-flowing. It's this technology that differentiates high-end conferencing systems from ordinary, half-duplex speakerphones.

  • Question: What is an isochoric process?

    Posted in: Chemical | Date: 13/09/2015


    An isochoric process is a thermodynamic process in which the volume remains constant. Since the volume is constant, the system does no work and W = 0.

    This is perhaps the easiest of the thermodynamic variables to control, since it can be obtained by placing the system in a sealed container which neither expands nor contracts.

    Applying the first law of thermodynamics to this situation.

  • Question: What is an ISP? Give two examples.

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    Short for Internet Service Provider, it refers to a company that provides Internet services, including personal and business access to the Internet. For a monthly fee, the service provider usually provides a software package, username, password and access phone number. Equipped with a modem, you can then log on to the Internet and browse the World Wide Web and USENET, and send and receive e-mail. For broadband access you typically receive the broadband modem hardware or pay a monthly fee for this equipment that is added to your ISP account billing.

  • Answer:

    A good administrator should have knowledge on what is a file system and how files are stored in file system. Having atleast some idea about these terms are helpful in restoring filesystem in emergency situations.

    What is Directory ?

    Directory is a collection of files stored as a group , say it is a group of files with single name.

    A directory can be classified into two types

    Root Directory : root is the parent of total directories , say main drive or main filesystem(/) is the root directory . Sub directory : these are the directories that comes under the root directory in hierarchy , In general a directory within a director can be called as sub directory.

  • Question: What is the use of the RESTORE command in BASIC ?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    The BASIC-command RESTORE (don't confused with the RESTORE  !!!) is used to clear the pointer of the next data value. The next read data value will be the first data value.


  • Question: What are the uses of the internet?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    Internet is today one of the most important part of our daily life. There are large numbers of things that can be done using the internet and so it is very important. You can say that with the progress in the internet we are progressing in every sphere of life as it not only makes our tasks easier but also saves a lot of time. Today internet is used for different purposes depending upon the requirement. Here in this very article we have mentioned then ten best uses of the internet. Here goes the list.

    4.Financial transactios
    5.Real time update                                            

  • Question: What is the difference between web page and home page?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


     Homepage is the first page(root) relating to a person/topic/organisation and usually links to many other webpages. Webpages is thus a general term for any page opened on the www. So if i say check my homepage for my photo ...it means my photo is on the first page of my website. If i say check the photos in one of my webpages it means the photo is in one of the pages which opens linked to my homepage.  A webpage is any page on the Internet.  Though a Homepage is one page that you select from your browser is the one wich when u click home or/and by a lot of browsers start with. 

  • Question: How can one connect to the internet?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    Before connecting to the Internet, you must determine how you're going to connect to the Internet. Are you going to be connecting to the Internet using a modem or a broadband Internetconnection? Or do you want to use your smartphone to provide Internet service to your computer? Below is additional information about each of these types of connections and how to get connected with them.

    Connecting to the Internet with a modem Connect to the Internet with broadband Connect to the Internet using a smartphone

  • Question: What is hypertext?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text which the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText. The hypertext pages are interconnected by hyperlinks, typically activated by a mouse click, keypress sequence or by touching the screen. Apart from text, hypertext is sometimes used to describe tables, images and other presentational content forms with hyperlinks. Hypertext is the underlying concept defining the structure of the World Wide Web, with pages often written in the Hypertext Markup Language (a.k.a. HTML). It enables an easy-to-use and flexible connection and sharing of information over the Internet.

  • Question: Differentiate between Website and Web Portal.

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 13/09/2015


    Website vs Webportal

    • A Webportal is also a type of website but it differs in content and services from a typical website that provides only specialized information

    • A Webportal is a launch pad to a host of web based services such as email, shopping, gaming, news, weather and so on whereas a website is concerned with providing information about a company only.

  • Answer:

    Search engines are programs that search documents for specifiedkeywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found. A search engine is really a general class of programs, however, the term is often used to specifically describe systems like Google, Bing and Yahoo! Search that enable users to search for documents on the World Wide Web.



  • Question: Why is it possible to recharge a car battery?

    Posted in: Physics | Date: 17/09/2015


    Depends on the age of the battery,The typical car battery is NOT a "deep cycle" battery, meaning it is not engineered for draining and recharging, it is designed to provide a high current to get the engine started and then rely on the alternator for extended power needs.

  • Answer:

    Goal Conflict: The existence of two or more competing goals could be a cause of conflict in and individual. The conflict caused by competing goals could have both positive and negative features. It occurs when two or more motives block each other. This restricts an individual from taking a decision about the goal to be achieved either due to the positive or the negative features present in the goals.

    Three types of goal conflicts have been identified. These are: Approach-approach conflict, Approach avoidance conflict, Avoidance-avoidance approach.

  • Question: What is the significance of HTTP ?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 17/09/2015


    Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) is a system for transmitting and receiving information across the Internet. Http is commonly used to access html pages, but other resources can be utilized as well through http. In many cases, clients may be exchanging confidential information with a server, which needs to be secured in order to prevent unauthorized access. For this reason, https, or secure http, was developed by Netscape corporation to allow authorization and secured transactions

  • Question: Differentiate between web browser and web server.

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 17/09/2015


    Web Server:

    Web server is a computer system, which provides the web pages via HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). IP address and a domain name is essential for every web server. Whenever, you insert a URL or web address into your web browser, this sends request to the web address where domain name of your URL is already saved. Then this server collects the all information of your web page and sends to browser, which you see in form of web page on your browser. Making a web server is not a difficult job. You can convert your computer into a web server with the help of any server software and connecting the computer to the internet. Lot of web server software are available in the market in shape of NCSA, Apache, Microsoft and Netscape. Storing, processing and delivering web pages to clients is its main function. All the communication between client (web browser) and server takes place via HTTP.


    Web Browser:

    Web browser is a client, program, software or tool through which we sent HTTP request to web server. The main purpose of web browser is to locate the content on the World Wide Web and display in the shape of web page, image, audio or video form. You can call it a client server because it contacts the web server for desired information. If the requested data is available in the web server data then it will send back the requested information again via web browser. Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera and Google Chrome are examples of web browser and they are more advanced than earlier web browser because they are capable to understand the HTML, JavaScript, AJAX, etc. Now a days, web browser for mobiles are also available, which are called microbrowser.

  • Question: What is WWW?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 17/09/2015


    The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files. This means you can jump from one document to another simply by clicking on hot spots. Not all Internet servers are part of the World Wide Web.

  • Question: How do you recall a DOS command?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 17/09/2015


    While at the MS-DOS prompt or in the Windows command line you can quickly repeat any previously entered command and view a history of commands by using the arrow keys. For example, if you previously used the dir command to list the files in the current directory press the up arrow keyto repeat that command. Continuing to press the up arrow scrolls through a list of commands used earlier.

    For anyone who enters long commands, file names, or directory names this can save lots of time. If you happen to mistype a command, pressing the up arrow and then using the left arrow to correct the error can also save time.


  • Question: What are wildcards?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 17/09/2015


    Alternatively referred to as a wild character orwildcard character, a wildcard is a symbol used to replace or represent one or more characters. Wildcards are typically either an asterisk (*), which represents one or more characters or question mark(?), which represents a single character. In the examples below of how a wildcard may be used, realize that wildcards are relatively universal.

  • Question: What is meant by booting a computer ?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 17/09/2015


    Restarting a computer or its operating system software. It is of two types (1) Cold booting: when the computer is started after having been switched off. (2) Warm booting: when the operating system alone is restarted (without being switched off) after a system crash or 'freeze.' Both types of booting clear out (for the time being) the bugs, bombs, memory conflicts, and other idiosyncrasies of the operating system.

  • Question: How do you insert a new slide?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 17/09/2015


    There are a couple of ways to add a new slide. In each way, the slide that is currently selected is important as the new slide will be placed after the selected one. This means that if you want to insert a slide before the end of the presentation, you will need to select the slide that appears before the one you want to insert. To select the slide, just click on it. You can select the slide in whichever view you happen to be using, whether it's Slides View or Outline View.

    Once you have selected a slide, click Home > Slides > New Slide. You'll notice that the New Slide button is in two halves.


  • Question: What are the steps used for aligning the data in cells?

    Posted in: Computer | Date: 17/09/2015


    Follow these steps to change the horizontal or vertical alignment of cell data:

    Select the cells you want to align.

    On the Home tab, select a horizontal alignment:

    • Align Text Left: Horizontally aligns the data along the left edge of the cell.

    • Center: Centers the data horizontally in the middle of the cell. If you modify the column width, the data remains centered to the new column width.

    • Align Text Right: Horizontally aligns the data along the right edge of the cell.                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

  • Answer:

    Moving Data 

    Moving data and files, whether it's a block of text in your word processor or a folder on your hard drive, transfers something wholesale from one point to another. The original content is gone from its initial location once the move command has been completed. Moving files, folders and data is often referred to as "cutting and pasting" and can be achieved with the "Ctrl+X" (or "Command+X" on a Mac) cut and "Ctrl+V" ("Command+V") paste keyboard shortcuts.

    Copying Data 

    Copying a file, folder or piece of content means duplicating it. It appears in its new location and remains in its old one too. The associated keyboard shortcuts are "Ctrl+C" (or "Command+C" on a Mac) to copy whatever is selected and "Ctrl+V" ("Command+V") to paste it into a new location. When the copy process has finished, you are left with two identical versions of the same file, folder, block of text or image

  • Question: Can you the explain the causes of global warming ?

    Posted in: Biology | Date: 17/09/2015


    Global Warming Causes

    Global warming is primarily a problem of too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere—which acts as a blanket, trapping heat and warming the planet. As we burn fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas for energy or cut down and burn forests to create pastures and plantations, carbon accumulates and overloads our atmosphere. Certain waste management and agricultural practices aggravate the problem by releasing other potent global warming gases, such as methane and nitrous oxide. See the pie chart for a breakdown of heat-trapping global warming emissions by economic sector.

  • Question: What is isotonic solution ?

    Posted in: Chemistry | Date: 17/09/2015


    magine you're in the hospital and the nurse hooks you up to an IV. What is in that IV? Is it just water? No way. If you were pumped full of pure water, your blood cells would burst. How horrible would that be? That IV is full of saline, a liquid with the same concentration of solutes as your blood cells. Why is this important? Because you want your blood cells to sit in an isotonic solution.

    An isotonic solution is when two solutions, separated by a semipermeable membrane, have equal concentrations of solutes and water. Imagine you're at a party and there are an equal number of guests in the living room and in the kitchen. It doesn't make much of a difference where you stand because you are equally as comfortable in either room. You have just as much space, you can move just as easily, and you have equal access to food. You don't spend a lot of energy trying to get out of one room or into another. This party is like an isotonic solution; everything is equal from room to room.

    Now, compare this with a party where the living room is packed full of guests, while there are only a few in the kitchen. I don't know about you, but I would be trying to get to the kitchen as fast as possible. The concentration in each room is different, so people are moving around trying to equal things out. Nature likes equality and that is apparent when it comes to solutions.

  • Question: What are meant by colligative properties ?

    Posted in: Chemistry | Date: 17/09/2015


    Colligative properties are properties of a solution that depend mainly on the relative numbers of particles of solvent and solute molecules and not on the detailed properties of the molecules themselves. You could almost refer to these as statistical properties because they can be understood solely on the basis of counting the relative numbers of particles in a solution. We will derive equations for the colligative properties of ideal solutions. The equations we derive will be valid for ideal solutions and for real solutions in the limit of small concentrations. Nonideal solutions require that corrections be made to these ideal equations because in nonideal solutions the details of intermolecular interactions become important.

  • Question: Can you define Henry's Law ?

    Posted in: Chemistry | Date: 17/09/2015


     a fact in physical chemistry: the weight of a gas dissolved by a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas


  • Question: Can you define molarity ?

    Posted in: Chemistry | Date: 17/09/2015


    A conctraction unit, defind to be the number of moles of solute divided by the number of liter of solution

  • Question: What is solubility ?

    Posted in: Chemistry | Date: 17/09/2015


    The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. Solubility is a quantitative term. Solubilities very enormousl. The terms solubleand insoluble are relative. A substance is said to be soluble if more than 0.1 g of that substance dissolves in 100 mL solvent. If less than 0.1 g dissolves in 100 mL solvent, the substance is said to be insoluble or, more exactly, sparingly soluble. The terms miscible and immiscible may be encountered when considering the solubility of one liquid in another. Miscible means soluble without limits; for example, alcohol is miscible with water Immiscible and insoluble mean the same; oil is immiscible with water, as in oil and vinegar salad dressing.

  • Question: What do you mean by homogeneous mixture ?

    Posted in: Chemistry | Date: 17/09/2015


    There are all types of mixtures and we encounter them frequently in our daily lives. Mixtures can be found in the liquids we drink, the food we eat, and the air we breathe. Homogeneous mixtures have the same composition throughout and the individual parts of the mixture are not easily identifiable. Homogeneous mixtures are also referred to as solutions. While we normally think of solutions as liquids such as soft drinks and lemonade, they can actually be in the form of solids, liquids, and gases. Homogeneous mixtures can also be a combination of these forms, such as a liquid-gas mixture.

  • Question: What are the three important components of biodiversity ?

    Posted in: Biology | Date: 17/09/2015


    Biodiversity is the variety of living forms present in various ecosystems. It includes variability among life forms from all sources including land, air, and water. Three important components of biodiversity are:

    (a) Genetic diversity

    (b) Species diversity

    (c) Ecosystem diversity.

  • Question: How can you reduce noise in an image?

    Posted in: Photography | Date: 17/09/2015


     In this Photo Retouch tutorial, we'll look at how to reduce the appearance of noise in an image, including luminance noise, color noise and even jpeg artifacts, all using the Reduce Noise filter, first introduced in Photoshop CS2 (which means you'll need at least CS2 to follow along). Notice that the name of the filter is Reduce Noise, not Remove Noise. As powerful as Photoshop is, there's still no way to take a noisy image and clean it up completely, at least not without removing most of the detail in the image along with it.

  • Answer:

    Tare Weight – is the weight of the empty container.

    Payload – is the maximum cargo weight that a container can carry and excludes the tare weight of the container.. Containers have CSC plates that reflect the payload that the container is allowed to carry..

  • Chanchal ma'am is one of the best knowledgeable persons I have ever met. She is a very good and caring teacher and I learned a lot from her.
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