MPT - 349966

Harpreet K Female, 53 Years

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Class 9 - 10 Tutor

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Have been lending coaching in CBSE 9-10 Grade Board History, Civics and Geography for more than 15 years. Proofread and edition of the studies, if necessary refine the academic study as per the requisite format, Consolidation of the entire content.
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8 Notes written by me


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    Questionnaire formation, learning beyond textbooks,


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    Important themes explained with minute details in easy language.

  • CBSE Class-X History

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    The Subsidiary Alliance is discussed in this note.


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      This note is about Subsidiary alliance, the doctrine of lapse, the immediate cause of great mutiny of 1857.


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    Questions and Solutions reference studies.


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    Important questions with detailed explanation.


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    This sample note is about Question and Answer Solutions Booklet.


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    1. Napoleonic Civil Code of 1804, abolished (a) All the privileges based on birth (b) Established equality before law (c) Secured the right to property (d) All the above Correct answer – (d) Explanation – Napoleonic Civil Code of 1804 abolished ...

  • Question: Who was ram mohun roy

    Posted in: History | Date: 17/07/2018


    Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in Radhanagar, Hooghly District, Bengal Presidency, to Ramakanta (father) and Tarini Devi (mother). Being fond of education, he learned Bengali, Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic, and later was sent to Kashi( Benaras) to learn the inticacies of Sanskrit and Hindu Scriptures -- the Vedas and Upanishads. He was an eminent socio- religious reformer, educationist and, being the Father of The Indian Renaissance, brought about a transformational reform regarding to the education of women and introduction of English educational system so to bring the Indians at par with the British educational system.

    The contributions of Raja Ram Mohan Roy are --

    (a)  He eradicated the social evils - child marriage, polygamy, 'Sati System' to liberate women from these derogatory evils, and also championed the cause of equal inheritance, rights for women and heralded the woman education as well.

    (b) He advocatedthe introduction of an English Education System, teaching scientific subjects -- Mathematics, Chemistry and Botany, and paved the way for the establishment of Hindu College (1817), the Anglo- Vedic School (1822) and the Vedanta College (1826).

  • Answer:

    The British Government  underwent many changes after the great mutiny of 1857 --


    (a) The Act of Parliament 1858, empowered the British administration to transfer the power to govern India from the East India Company to the Crown. Till then, the Indian administration was governed by the Directors of the Company and the Board of Control, and now the Secretary of State aided by a Concil would exercise the power to govern India.

    (b) The Act also provided that the Governor - General( Viceroy) would be assisted by an Executive Council whose members would act as heads of depatments and as his official advisers as well.

    (c) The Indian Council Act 1861, empowered the Governor - General's Concil to formulate and enact laws, entitled as the Imperial Legislative Council having no real powers but to act as mere advisory body in matters of exceutive and budget.The Governor- General was authorised to appoint six and twelve members - either Indian or English.

  • Question: Features of murayan administration

    Posted in: History | Date: 18/07/2018


    The main features of Maurayan administration are -- 


    (a) The King was the sovereign ruler of the Mauryan administration, and the major functions - executive, legislative, judicial, financial and administrative were vested in him, and was aided and advised by the Council of Ministers ( Mantri Parishad)..

    (b) The Council of Ministers was  aided by the  highly skilled bureaucratic officers Superintendant (  Adhyaksha), governing  heads of different departments - currency, revenue and accounts, agricultural, mining, metallurgy, gems and precious stones.

    (c)  The revenue department was headed by the Treasurer ( Sannidatta),  functioning as the royal treasury and was responsible for the reimbursement of state revenue both in cash and in kind.

         The Collector - General of revenue ( Samharta) was responsible for the collection of revenue from the central and      state administration, and also supervised the functioning of the Accountant General. Sources of revenue were - cities, land, forests, mines, roads, excise and taxation, licensing, manufactured products, merchandised of gems and precious stones.


  • Question: write a short note on 'policy of lapse '.

    Posted in: History | Date: 22/07/2018



    Lord Dalhousie( Governor - General 1848 - 56) framed the policy by virtue of which the Indian states ruled by the  kings without a legal male heir would be annexed and ceded into the British sovereignity, and the adopted son of the Indian ruler could not be proclaimed as the legal heir to the kingdom, and the adopted son would only be allowed to inherit his foster father's personal property and estates. 

    The Indian states annexed under the Doctrine of Lapse are -- 

    Satara (1848), Jaipur( 1849), Sambhalpur (1849), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur( 1854).

  • Question: What are the programmes and demands of early nationalist

    Posted in: History | Date: 22/07/2018



    The Moderates( the early nationalists) were a group pf political leaders -- Dadabhai Naoroji, Allan Octavia Hume, Gopal Krishan Gokhale, Surendra Banerjee --- believed in demanding  reforms through constitutional and peaceful means -- Ganhiji's Non- violence, Non- cooperation, civil  disobedience and Satyagraha movements, for they firmly believed in the British sense of justice, fair play, honesty and integrity. They considered their association with the British Crown an advantage,  as  the British Government  undertook the mission to eradicate the social evils -- the caste system, the" Sati" and ''the widow remarriage", encouraged western education, western thought, literature and histiory.

    Objectives of the Moderates --

    (a) To create a national awakening amomg the Indians towards the bonds of common political, economic and cultural interests, 

    (b) to foster the spirit of democracy, national patriotism, liberty, secularism and equality amomgst Indian people,

    (c) to establish a colonial form of self - government,

    Political programmes (Constitutional Reforms)

    (a) Abolition of the Indian Council Act

    (b) Expansion of the Legislative Council and Legislative Assemblies, both Cental and Provincial,

    (c) Demand for  Swaraj  (self- government )with in the British Empire as in Canada and Australia,

    (d) Adequate representation of the Indians in the Executive Council of the Viceroy and the provincial governors.

  • Question: Foundation and role of muslim league

    Posted in: History | Date: 23/07/2018



    The partition of Bengal in 1905 by the British Government greatly embittered the relations betwen the Hindus and the Muslims, as the Muslims believed that the partition has grealy supported the Hindus and the Muslims were not granted their due share. The educated Muslims were convinced that a central political assembly should be established so to safehuard and protect the rights of Indian Muslims and presented their demands and grievances before the British Government. 

    On October 1, 1906, a 35 -member delegation of educated Muslims, bureaucrats and eminent politicians under the leadership of Aga Khan assembled at Simla  to present a memorandum demanding the proprtionate representation of Muslims in government services, appointment of Muslims as  the High Court Judge and in the Council of Viceroy, to Lord Minto. The political exclusivenes in the name of religion led to the establishment of All India Muslim League (AIML).

    On December 30, 1906, the Muslim leaders assembled in Dacca to lay the foundation of the political assembly the ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE with the sole aim to safeguard the potical and fundamental rights of Indian Muslims. The first session of the League was head at Karachi on December 29 - 30 1907 with Adamjee Peerbhoy as its President.

    Aims of The League

    (a) to safeguard and protect the rights of Muslims and to present their demands and grievances to the British Government,

    (b) to create a feeling of respect and  loyalty  amongst the Muslims towards  the British Government, (c) to promote the feeling of brotherhod towards other communities.


    The foundation of The Muslim League paved the way for the growth of Muslim national conciousness,  and the demand for separate electorate for the Muslims in the Minto - Morlley Reforms Act  1909, and later The Lucknow Pact  1916, culminated in the partition of India and the foundation of Pakistan as the nation of Muslims in 1947.


  • Question: Name one transported soil found in india

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 24/07/2018



    When the soil is carried from the  place of its origin to  another place by the agents of gradation -- the rivers, is called the transported soil, eg; Alluvial soil.

    Alluvial is the main transported soil as it is transported from the three rivers of India - the Ganga, the Brahamputra and the Indus, and  being the most fertile soil,   is mostly found in the extensive tracts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and the coastal areas of Peninaular India and are also found in the parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan.

  • Question: What is meant by water divide ?give eg

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 24/07/2018



    Any elevated area - an upland or a plateau, which causes separattion between two adjacent water basins and  marked by the precipitation on either side of the line travelling in different or opposing directions, is known as the Water Divide.

    eg -- Ambala is the water divide lying betwen the Indus and the Ganga rivers.

  • Answer:


    Bhangar soil is the old alluvial  and terraced soil  lying  above the flood levels of the rivers in the Northern region, and contains many calcareous deposits known as kankars within it. Since the soil stands above flood levels, it remains as it is and thus, is not much fertile for soil cultivation.


    The Khadar soil is the new aluvial and lowland soil lying below the flood levels of the rivers in the Northern region,  and henceforth, new deposits of alluvial soil renewes its texture with the onset of floods every year lending more fertility suitable for extensive agricultural activities.

  • Question: what activities does the primary sector include?

    Posted in: Social Studies | Date: 26/07/2018


    Primary sector ( Raw materials sector) refers to the sector of the economy that involves the extraction and collection, and transforms the natural resources -- land, water, oceans, flora and fauna, vegetation, marine and animal life, into basic products -  agriculture( both subsistence and commercial), mining, forestry, farmimg,  animal husbandry, fisheries, grazing, hunting, quarrying.

  • Question: Which soil is suitable for gtowth of coffe in karnatka

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 27/07/2018



    SOIL -

    Soli is the guiding factor for the plantation of coffee as the soil with sub- surface drainage ( sandy loam) with the presence of humus and nitrogenous matter  on steep mountain slopes, under the shade od taller tres - bananas,  makes the best soil for the growth. The coffee plant is grown under the shade because direct sunlight is harmful for the seeds to sprout.

    Well - drained volcanic red earth of Terra - roxa of Brazil with potash and organic matter are the best soils for coffee plantation.

    Temperature -

    Coffee requires an average temperature between 20 - 27 degrees C  although it grows in day temperature over 32 degrees C in the Arabian Peninsula. Growth is rapid  during  hot rainy season and during cool dry season, berries ripen and are ready for picking. Bright sunshine and warm weather are necessary for the harvesting. 


    Coffee needs abundant rainfall  100 - 200 cm annually. The mountain slopes  receiving orthographic rainfall best for the coffee cultivation. 


    Generally, coffee is grown on slopes having height between 600 - 1800 metres.  Water stagnation is very  harmful for coffee plants, hence, steep slopes enriched with nitrogen are best for cultivation.

    In Brazil, leguminous plants are used which not only provide shade and also enrich the soil with nitrogen.


  • Question: Difference between fallow land and baren land

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 28/07/2018



    Fallow land refers to the cropland that is plowed and tilled but left uncultivated or chemically treated for the control of weeds and other pests, during a growing season. Allowing the land to lie fallow serves to acumulate moisture in dry regions or to control weeds and plant diseases.As a method of restoring productivity,   rotation of crops is now preferred to fallowing, which is considered wasteful of humus and nitrogen.


    Barren land refers to the land where plant growth is sparse, stunted or with limited biodiversity due to infertile soil, high winds, coastal salt - spray and climatic conditions. Barren land is mostly comprised of thin soil, sand or rocks, eg -- deserts, dry salt flatlands, beaches, sand dunes, exposed rock, strip mines, quarries and gravel pits.

  • Answer:



    The association was founded by Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose with the sole aim to awaken the sense of national patriotism and political unity amongst the Indian people, and later merged with the Indian National Congress tosurge forward the movement of independence for India.


    The first Bombay Presidency Association was founded by Dadabhai Naoroji, Jamshed Jejibahi, Naoroji Fursungi in 1852 to address the public grievances through legal means to the British Government.

    In 1885, Pheoze Shah Mehta, Badrruddin Tyabji and Justice Telang founded the Bombay Presidency Association with the sole aim to boycott the Ilbert Bill and Lord Lytton's repressive policies, and to bring about the admistrative reforms and to awaken the sense of equality and liberty, national patriotism and right to political freedom amongst the leaders and the people. 

  • Question: What was the discontentment of the sepoys ib 1857

    Posted in: History | Date: 01/08/2018



    Introduction of Enfield cartridges -- 

    The British Government introduced the enfield cartridges greased with animal fat, and the the Indian soldiers were asked to make the make the use of those. The Hindu and Muslim soldiers refused to abide by the orders as it was against their religious fervour to cut open the bullets greased with animal fats, which led to the rebellion of the Indian sepoys under the leadership of Mangal Pandey, posted at Meerut, and gradually, the revolt spread from Punjab in the north to Narmada in the south, from Rajputana in the west to Bihar in the east. On reaching Delhi, the Indian soldiers declared the aging Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar as the Emperor of India, and his rule was accepted as the symbol of Hindu - Muslim unity. Thus, the Indian Mutiny of 1857 came to be known as THE SEPOY MUTINY OF 1857.


  • Question: In which hills does the tapi river rise?

    Posted in: Social Studies | Date: 04/08/2018



    The Tapi river basin is situated in the Central Deccan Plateau, originating from the Multai reserve forest in Betul district of Madhya the Satpura range at an elevation of 752 metre above the sea level, and flows towards the west and merges into the Arabian Sea through the Gulf of Cambay in the Surat district of Gujarat at an elevation of about 724 metres. The basin is bounded by the Satpura range in the north, by the Mahadeo hills on the east, by the Ajanta Range and the Satmala hills on the south and by the Arabian Sea on the west.  The hilly region of the basin is well forested while the plains are broad and fertile for cultivation. 

    The TAPI river basin is situated mostly in northern and eastern of Maaharashtra --  Amravati, Akola, Buldhana, Washim, Jalagaon, Dhule, Nandurbar, Malegaon, Nashik districts but also covers Betul, Burhanpur districts of Madhya Pradesh and Surat district of Gujarat as well.

    The Tributaries --

    (a) The 4 tributaries on the right  -- the Suki, the Gomai, the Arunavati and the Aner joins the basin, 

    (b) The 10 tributaries on the left  --  the Nesu, the Arunavati, the Buray, the Panjhra, the Bori, the Girna, the Vaghur, the Purna, the Mona and the Sipna drain into the main channel.

    The PURNA and the GIRNA tributaries together accounts for nearly about 45 per cent of the total catchment area of the Tapi basin.

    The PURNA starts in Betul district in Gawilgarh hills of the Satpura range at an elevation of 900 metres, and drains through three districts of Vidarbha -- Amravati, Akola and Buldhana. 

    The GIRNA originates at KEM peak  in the Western Ghats range and flows east across Nashik and Jalagaon districts to join the Tapi river basin.

  • Answer:


    The Ocean holds about 97 per cent of the Earth's surface, while 3 per cent is found in the glaciers and the ice, below the ground, is found in the rivers and the lakes. Rivers are important for the country's economy because the water from the rivers is a basic resource esential for the survival of human existence and for important human, agricultural and industrial activities.


    (a) The Indo- Gangetic - Brahamputra river system laden with alluvial soil deposits renders the agricultural land tracts most fertile and best for rich plantation - rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, jute, maize, oilseeds, fruits and vegetation, the flora and fauna.

    (b) The deltas of the rivers - the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery are known as the Deltaic Alluvial ( coastal alluvium).

    (c) As agriculture depends upon the vagaries of the monsoon season, the rivers - The Ganga, the Indus, the Beas, the Brahamputra, the Mahanadi, the Krishna are best utilized for irrigation facilities and makes the land fertile for the cultivation of crops.


    Ancient civilizations having emerged on the banks of the rivers laden with fertile soil  -- the Harappan Civilization on the banks of the Indus river, the Egyptian civilization on the Nile river banks and the Aztec ( Mexican) civilization on the Lake islets of Texcoco, handicrafts and cotton, jute industries, paved the way for great civilizations to emerge on the river beds.


    The rivers have immensely been utilised for the purpose of manufacturing river- water as a coolant and for the launch  of hydro- electric power generation projects --  Bhakra - Nangal - Beas Dam  reservoirs supply water for the irrigation of 12.5 million acres of agricultural  land in partner states - Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.

    (b) SOLAR POWER STORAGE technology projects in the states --  Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala paved the way for the installation of solar power generation panels on a large scale with the sole aim to bring about the reduction in the consumption of commercial and private electricity across the country.

    In January, 2016 Prime Minister Narendra Modi and French President Francois Hollande installed the foundation stone for INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ALLIANCE (ISA) in Gwal Pahari, Gurgaon so to promote and develop solar energy and solar products for countries lying wholly or partially between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. 


    The natural fresh (sweet) water contained in the river basin forms the most  essential element necessary for the survival of all life -- humans, marine and animal life.


    Inland waterways in the form  of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks serve as a mode of navigation and transport, eg -- the Ganges - Bhagirathi - Hooghly rivers, the Brahamputra, the Barak river, the rivers in Goa, the backwaters in Kerala, Inland waterways in Mumbai and the deltaic regions of the Godavari - Krishna rivers.


    The rivers as a tourist spots provide the tourists a wonderful insight into the historical, cultural and traditional aspect of India.The major rivers -- Bhakra Beas Dam, the Ganga, the Brahamputra, the Krishna - Godavari , the Narmada and the Kaveri river system has been developed as the major tourist destinations for recreation, hiking and adventure sports, and fishing activities. 

    The famous Dal Lake in Srinagar, Pahalgam waterfront in Kashmir, Nainital, Udaipur lake in Rajasthan, are the lakes developed as the major tourist destinations and people from acros the globe make a visit so to have a glimpse into the historical and cultural aspect of the rivers and lakes of India.


  • Question: What is a doab?

    Posted in: Social Studies,Geography | Date: 07/08/2018



    DOAB  is a term derived from two latin words - " DO" means " the two"  and " AB" means " the rivers, " and geographically, the term DOAB  refers to a water - rich tract of land lying between the two converging rivers - the Ganges and the Yamuna.

    The GANGA - YAMUNA DOAB ( Uttar Pradesh Doab) comprises of the flat alluvial tract between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers extending from the Shivalika Hills to the two rivers' confluence at Allahabad, having an area of about 23, 360 square miles ( 60, 500 square km),  500 miles( 805 km) in length and 60 miles ( 97 km) in width.

  • Question: Which layer of the atmosphere has the most air?

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 08/08/2018




    The Troposphere, being the lowest layer of the atmosphere, extends from Earth's surface to an average height of about 12km ( 7.5ml: 39,000 ft) above sea level. The layer contains 80 per cent of the mass of Earth's atmosphere, and 99 per cent of the water vapour, and this is the layer where Earth's water vapour, carbon dioxide, air pollution, clouds, weather and all the forms of life -- humans, marine and animal life, exist.

  • Question: Which planet has the thinnest atmosphere?

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 08/08/2018



    PLANET MARS has a very thin atmosphere composed of 96 per cent carbon dioxide, 1.93 percent argon and 1.89 percent nitrogen along with traces of oxygen and water. Mars' average temperature is - 46 degrees C ( 51 degrees F), with a low of - 143 degrees C ( - 225.4  degrees F) during the winter at the poles, and a high of 35 degrees C ( 95 degrees F) during summer and midday at the equator. Because of its thin atmosphere, and its greater  distance from the Sun, the surface temperature of Mars is much colder than what we experience here on Earth. 

  • Question: What are topographic maps

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 08/08/2018



    The Topographic Maps refers to a map characterised by a detailed and accurate representation of natural and human - made relief features on the Earth's surface through the usage of Contour Lines, and are used for numerous applications -- urban planning, resource management and surveying, and for camping, adventurous tours, hiking, fishing and excursion tours.

    CONTOUR LINE  is a  isoline ( imaginary lines) that connects points on a map having the same elevation, and is often drawn at a vertical distance ( contour interval ) on a map.


    (a) POINTS  --  Points are used to depict features --  bridges and buildings.

    (b) LINES --   Lines are used to graphically illustrate linear features --  roads, railways and rivers.

    (c) POLYGONS  --  Polygons are a variable shape filled with different symbols or textures, used to delienate different features -- vegetation, the flora and fauna.

  • Question: Who was the 1st Prime minister of Britain?

    Posted in: History | Date: 05/05/2019


    Sir Robert Walpole (3 April 1721 - 11 February 1742) was the first Prime Minister of Britain (The United Kingdom).

  • Question: Which is the longest canal in India?

    Posted in: History | Date: 28/05/2019


    Indira Gandhi Canal is 650 km long and consists of Rajasthan feeder canal and starts from the Harike Barrage, a few kilometers below the confluence of the Satluj and the Beas rivers in Punjab and terminates in irrigation facilities in the Thar Desert, north west of Rajasthan. 

    The main objective behind building the canal was to convert the wasteland of Thar Desert to an agriculturally productive greenlands.

  • Question: What is the location of mangrove forest in India?

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 04/06/2019


    The Great Sunderbans Mangrove forest, West Bengal is the largest mangrove forest in the world and has been declared as a UNESCO World Site --  A National Park and A Biosphere Reserve of India.

  • Question: What are tectonic plates?

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 30/07/2019



    The tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust and uppermost mantle, together referred to as The Lithosphere.  The plates are 100km (62 ml) thick and consist of two principal materials -- Oceanic crust ( silicon and magnesium) and Continental crust ( silicon and aluminium). The oceanic crust mainly consists of mafic basaltic rocks, and the Continental crust mainly consists of lower - density felsic granitic rocks.

    The major plates comprise  the bulk of the continents and the Pacific ocean covering an area greater than 20 million km squares. They are --

    1. Pacific Plate  -- 103, 300, 000km sq.

    2. North American Plate -- 75, 900, 000 km sq.

    3. African Plate -- 61, 300, 000 km sq.

    4.  North American Plate -- 43, 600, 000 km sq.

  • Answer:

    Mr. Jahangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata ( 29 July 1904 - 29 November 1993), an Indian aviator,  entrepreneur and the founder of Tata Group of Industries, launched the first Tata Iron and Steel Industries on 26 August 1907, at Jamshedpur, Jharkhand,   equipped with 27.5 million tonnes of crude steel  being produced globally. 

  • Answer:

    Nazi Germany,  Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan were  the members of Rome - Berlin and Tokyo Axis coalition  formed in 1939.

  • Question: Coconut is well suitable for black soil? Is or not?

    Posted in: Geography | Date: 08/10/2019


    Red sandy loam, laterite and alluvial soils are suitable for coconut plants.  Soil with a mimimum depth of 1.2m and fairly good water holding capacity is preferred for coconut cultivation. Coconut also thrives well in the lands reclaimed by heaping alternate layers of sand and clay. Proper supply of moisture either through well distributed rainfall or irrigation and sufficient drainage are necessary for coconut cultivation. Coconut can be grown in soil with pH of 5.2 - 8.6.

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