MPT - 244125

Gaurav. H Male, 39 Years

Associated for 2 Years 11 Months
Engineering Subjects Tutor

Activity Score - 833

  • I teach at My Home
  • Online
Area: Maninagar
Location: Ahmedabad, India
Qualification :
  • M.Tech ( - 2007)
  • Total Experience:
    9 Years
  • Hourly Fees:
    INR 1000
Tutoring Experience :

I have 6 years experience. Proficient in developing new lessons and activities to expand learning opportunities and in giving conceptual knowledge. Provide individualized instruction to keep all students at expected skill level. Identify and organise field trips to enhance curriculum. Meet with parents to discuss progress and address behavior or mastery issues. Develop discipline plans and work closely with at-risk students.

Tutoring Option :
Home Tuition Only
Tutoring Approach :

Tricks always not work but basic always. I have complete faith on it. Practice is the only key to success. Environment is just a factor. A regular test and proper learning improve your knowledge. Knowledge is power and power is knowledge. First read understand revise and self exam yourself. Honest with work and punctuality. If you are dedicated then no matter of IQ level and together we can prove it.

Teaches:
Class 9 - 10 EVS All Boards INR 450 / Hour
Class 11 - 12 EVS All Boards INR 650 / Hour
College Level B.Tech Tuition M.Tech Tuition Polytechnic INR 1000 / Hour
Engineering Subjects Civil INR 1000 / Hour
Class 6 - 8 EVS All Boards INR 450 / Hour
Basic Computer / Office Basic Computer INR 450 / Hour

11 Presentations prepared by me

  • Common Building Components

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  • Civil Engineering And Its Scope

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  • Cement

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  • Cement

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  • Banking

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  • Inflation

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  • MACRO-ECONOMICS

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  • Listening Skills

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  • Group Discussion

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  • Effective Presentation Skills

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  • Communication Skills

    8 times downloaded

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  • Answer:

    You can visit websites such as NPTEL (National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning ) http://nptel.ac.in/course.php?disciplineId=105 About Civil.com http://nptel.ac.in/course.php?disciplineId=105 Civil Simplified http://nptel.ac.in/course.php?disciplineId=105

  • Answer:

    various methods used for sub surface investigations are Boring and Sampling Methods Geophysical Methods Seismic Methods Electrical Resistivity Magnetic Microgravity Ground Penetrating Radar

  • Question: Explain the working of an seismograph system.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 29/05/2017

    Answer:

    Seismographs are instruments designed to detect and measure vibrations within the earth, and the records they produce are known as seismograms." Although certain types of seismographs are used for underground surveying, the devices are best known for studying earthquakes. A seismograph consists of a pendulum mounted on a support base. The pendulum in turn is connected to a recorder, such as an ink pen. When the ground vibrates, the pendulum remains still while the recorder moves, thus creating a record of the earth's movement. A typical seismograph contains 3 pendulums: one to record vertical movement and two to record horizontal movement. Thus a seismograph is a device used for measuring the movement of the earth, and consists of a ground- motion detection sensor, called a seismometer, coupled with a recording system.

  • Question: What is negative skin friction?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 13/06/2017

    Answer:

    Negative skin friction is generally a downward shear drag acting on a pile or pile group due to downward sinking of surrounding soil relative to the piles. This shear drag movements are expected to occur when a segment of the pile penetrates a compressible soil.

  • Question: What is 'Middle third rule'?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 13/06/2017

    Answer:

    In civil engineering, the Middle Third Rule states that no tension is developed in a wall or foundation if the resultant force lies within the middle third of the structure.

  • Answer:

    During the earthquake, elastic waves are generated at the focus these waves are called the seismic waves. And they travel in all directions with their characteristic velocities the main types are abbreviated as P-waves, the S-waves • P-Waves These are also called as primary waves, push or pull waves , longitudinal or compressive waves. They are the fastest seismic waves. • S-Waves these are also called secondary waves the shear waves, or traverse waves . These waves are traverse in character. Like light waves i.e. particle vibrate at right angle to the direction of propagation.

  • Question: Write a short note on Buttress dam and Hydrologic cycle.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 13/06/2017

    Answer:

    A buttress dam is defined as a dam consisting of a relatively thin water supporting facing or deck supported by buttress generally in the form of equally spaced triangular walls or counter forts that transmit the water load and deck weight to the foundations. The natural flow of water through various components of environment resulting in the global circulation is called water cycle. • Steps in Hydrological Cycle: • Evaporation: Surface water is heated by sun and evaporates to become water vapour, water vapour floats in the air. • Condensation: As water vapour rises into the air it gradually cools and condenses and become minute droplet of water. • Clouds: Tiny droplets of water together forms clouds. • Precipitation: The fall of water on earth surface in any form of water it may be in the form of dew, drizzle, rain is known as precipitation. • Runoff: Precipitated rain water accumulates and flows on the surface and sub- surface towards rivers, streams, and underground stores and ultimately reaches to sea. • Percolation & infiltration: The process of stored water flowing under earth, merge to the ground water source is called percolation and infiltration • Transpiration: The water which directly evaporates from leaves of plants is called Transpiration. • Completion of Cycle: All the water bodies continues its journey towards the natural slope and meet the sea where the cycle starts again.

  • Question: Enumerate the name of various types of spillways ?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 13/06/2017

    Answer:

    The spillways may be classified in the following types. Free Overfall Ogee or overflow spillway Trough Spillway Shaft Spillway Side Channel Spillway Tunnel Spillway Siphon Spillway.

  • Question: Define Tsunami velocity.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 14/06/2017

    Answer:

    A tsunami is a series of waves caused by earthquakes or undersea volcanic eruptions. The velocity of a tsunami can be calculated by obtaining the square root of the depth of the water in metres multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity (approximated to 10 m/s2).

  • Answer:

    The main cause of earthen dam can be classified as under Hydraulic failures Seepage failures Structural failures Hydraulic failure Above 40 % of earthen dam failures are due to this reason only. Hydraulic failures are due to the following reasons: By over topping The overtopping of dam may cause due to insufficient capacity of spillway and insufficient free board or its spillway gates are not properly operated. Seepage Failure More than 33 % of earthen dam failure are due to seepage. Seepage always occur in earth dams. It does not harm its stability if it is within the design limits. But excessive seepage will lead to failure of the dam. Structural failures (Shear failures) About 25 to 30 % of the dam failure are due to this reason U/S and D/S slopes slide The slopes being steeper than required, leads to slips due to stress strength. The slopes should, therefore, be flat as required from structural point of view.

  • Question: What are the types of shear walls ?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 14/06/2017

    Answer:

    CLASSIFICATION OF SHEAR WALLS Simple rectangular types and flanged walls(bar bell type) Coupled shear walls Rigid frame shear walls Framed walls with in filled frames Column supported shear walls Core type shear walls

  • Answer:

    Factors Affecting runoff Runoff from an area mainly influenced by following two factors A. Climatic factors. B. Physiographical Factors. Climatic factors 1.Types of Precipitation 2. Rainfall Intensity 3. Duration of Rainfall 4. Rainfall Distribution 5. Direction of Prevailing Wind Physiographic Factors: It includes both watershed and channel characteristics, which area as follows Size of Watershed Shape of Watershed Slope of Watershed Orientation of Watershed Land Use Soil moisture Soil type Topographic characteristics

  • Question: What are the different types of earthen dam ?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 14/06/2017

    Answer:

    Depending upon the mode of construction, earthen dams are classified as Homogeneous Type Zone Type Depending on the method of construction, earthen dams are also classified as Rolled fill Type Hydraulic fill Type

  • Question: What are groynes and why are they provided?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 14/06/2017

    Answer:

    A groyne is a rigid hydraulic structure built from an ocean shore or from a bank of rivers, that interrupts water flow and limits the movement of sediment. It is usually made out of wood, concrete or stone , groynes create beaches or prevent them being washed away by longshore drift. In a river, groynes prevents erosion and ice-jamming, which in turn aids navigation.

  • Answer:

    Under Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of sub-surface water from an area. Where a lined canal crosses areas subject to seasonal high ground water or where the soil is sufficiently water tight to prevent the free draining of the seepage or leakage from the canal, suitable under drainage should be provided to protect the lining.

  • Answer:

    It is the amount of water required by a crop for its vegetated growth to evapotranspiration and building of plant tissues plus evaporation from soils and intercepted precipitation. It is expressed in terms of depth of water. Consumptive use varies with temperature, humidity, wind speed, topography, sunlight hours, method of irrigation, moisture availability. Mathematically, Consumptive Use = Evapotranspiration = Evaporation + transpiration It is expressed in terms of depth of water. Consumptive use of water varies with: Evaporation which depends on humidity Mean Monthly temperature Growing season of crops and cropping pattern Monthly precipitation in area Wind velocity in locality Soil and topography Irrigation practices and method of irrigation Sunlight hours

  • Question: What is a guide bank?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Guide bunds or banks Alluvial rivers in flood plains spread over a very large area during floods and it would be very costly to provide bridges or any other structure across the entire natural spread. It is necessary to narrow down and restrict its course to flow axially through the diversion structure. Guide bunds are provided for this purpose of guiding the river flow past the diversion structure without causing damage to it and its approaches. They are constructed on either or both on the upstream and downstream of the structure and on one or both the flanks as required.

  • Question: Why soil is rendered unproductive and infertile?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Why Does Soil Infertility Occur? The chemical and physical composition of your soil determines its fertility. Soil infertility is the result of a physical or chemical problem in the soil that prevents the growth of plants. Soil with a poor physical structure can limit plant's access to oxygen and water, while chemical problems are the result of an imbalance in the naturally occurring elements in your soil.

  • Question: What do you understand by Bandhara Irrigation?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Bandhara irrigation is a minor irrigation system suitable for irrigating isolated areas, up to 500 hectares. The bandhara is similar to weir which is constructed across a small stream to raise the water level on the upstream side to divert the water through the canal. The height of bandhara depends on the water level to be raised on the upstream side. It is constructed with brick masonry or stone masonry with R.C.C crest. The crest width varies from 1 m to 2 m. The scouring sluices are provided at the bottom of the bandhara near the head reach of the canal.

  • Answer:

    Their merits and demerits as river training work are as under: Advantages: (i) Only means of preventing inundation on tidal plains, (ii) Low initial cost, subsequent raising may be possible, (iii) Easy construction, making use of locally available material and unskilled labour, (iv) Maintenance simple and economical, (v) Can be executed in parts, provided that the ends are properly protected. Disadvantages: (i) Cause raising of high flood levels, (ii) Possible to boring by crabs and worms resulting in failure by piping, (iii) Need close supervision during floods, (iv) In the event of a breach, there is a sudden and considerable inflow of water which may cause damage and deposition of sediments rendering the area unproductive, (v) Susceptible to direct attack of river flow which can erode or undermine them, (vi) Low lying areas may become infected with malaria, if proper drainage facilities are not provided, (vii) In rivers carrying a considerable sediment charge, embankments exclude silt deposition on the flood plain, extension of the delta towards the sea is thus hastened, resulting in the increase of flood stages and the rate of aggradations of river bed.

  • Answer:

    Sprinkler irrigation system includes the application of water in the form of a spray, somewhat resembling rainfall. It is suitable for almost all crops on moist soils and on lands of wide range of topographic conditions. Sprinkler irrigation method has both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages and disadvantages are described briefly below. Advantages of Sprinkler Irrigation System The advantages of sprinkler irrigation system are as follows. Water measurement is easier than surface irrigation system. Less interference with cultivation and less land loss. Higher application efficiency. High and frequent application can be effectively accomplished. Easy mechanization and automation. Disadvantages of Sprinkler Irrigation System The disadvantages of sprinkler irrigation are listed below. High initial cost. High operating cost. Wind drift. A stable water supply is needed. Saline water may cause problem. Water must be free from sand, debris and large amount of salt.

  • Question: What is the flooding method of irrigation?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Flood irrigation is an ancient method of irrigating crops. Water is delivered to the field by ditch, pipe, or or some other means and simply flows over the ground through the crop. Although flood irrigation is an effective method of irrigation it is certainly not efficient compared with other options.

  • Question: Enumerate the advantages of tri-axial shear strength tests.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Advantages of Triaxial Test i. The stress distribution on the failure plane is uniform. ii. The specimen is free to fail on the weakest plane iii. There is complete control over the drainage. iv. Pore pressure changes and the volumetric changes can be measured directly. v. The state of stress at all intermediate stages upto failure is known. The Mohr circle can be drawn at any stage of shear. vi. This test is suitable for accurate research work and the apparatus adaptable to special requirements such as extension test and tests for different stress paths.

  • Answer:

    Sheepsfoot Roller As the name indicates, this type of roller consists of a drum having many round or rectangular shaped “feet” on it. These rollers are also called tamping rollers. This type of roller mostly used for compaction of cohesive soils such as heavy clays and silty clays. Not effective with sandy soil.

  • Question: What is passive earth pressure?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    passive earth pressure The maximum value of lateral earth pressure exerted by soil on a structure, occurring when the soil is compressed sufficiently to cause its internal shearing resistance along a potential failure surface to be completely mobilized.

  • Question: Explain the constituents of crossings on Railways.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Crossing is a device in the form of V-piece introduced in the track to permit movement of wheel flange at the inter section of two running lines. crossing is introduced at the junction where two rails cross to permit the wheel flange of railway vehicle to pass from one track to another track.

  • Answer:

    The factors affecting the selection of a suitable site for a major airport installation are mentioned below: 1. regional plan 2. airport use 3. proximity to other airport 4. ground accessibility 5. topography 6. obstructions 7. visibility 8. wind 9. noise nuisance 10. grading , drainage and soil characteristics 11. future development 12. availability of utilities from town 13. economic consideration Regional plan: The site selected should fit well into the regional plan there by forming it an integral part of the national network of airport. Airport use: the selection of site depends upon the use of an airport. Whether for civilian or for military operations. However during the emergency civilian airports are taken over by the defense. There fore the airport site selected should be such that it provides natural protection to the area from air roads. This consideration is of prime importance for the airfields to be located in combat zones. If the site provides thick bushes. Proximity to other airport: the site should be selected at a considerable distance from the existing airports so that the aircraft landing in one airport does not interfere with the movement of aircraft at other airport. The required separation between the airports mainly depends upon the volume of air traffic. Ground accessibility: the site should be so selected that it is readily accessible to the users. The airline passenger is more concerned with his door to door time rather than the actual time in air travel. The time to reach the airport is therefore an important consideration especially for short haul operations. Topography: this includes natural features like ground contours trees streams etc. A raised ground a hill top is usually considered to be an ideal site for an airport. Obstructions: when aircraft is landing or taking off it loses or gains altitude very slowly as compared to the forward speed. For this reason long clearance areas are provided on either side of runway known as approach areas over which the aircraft can safely gain or loose altitude. Visibility: poor visibility lowers the traffic capacity of the airport. The site selected should therefore be free from visibility reducing conditions such as fog smoke and haze. Fog generally settles in the area where wind blows minimum in a valley. Wind: runway is so oriented that landing and take off is done by heading into the wind should be collected over a minimum period of about five years. Noise nuisance: the extent of noise nuisance depends upon the climb out path of aircraft type of engine propulsion and the gross weight of aircraft. The problem becomes more acute with jet engine aircrafts. Grading, drainage and soil characteristics: grading and drainage play an important role in the construction and maintenance of airport which in turn influences the site selection. The original ground profile of a site together with any grading operations determines the shape of an airport area and the general pattern of the drainage system. The possibility of floods at the valley sites should be investigated. Sites with high water tables which may require costly subsoil drainage should be avoided. Future development: considering that the air traffic volume will continue to increase in future more member of runways may have to be provided for an increased traffic

  • Question: What is adsorbed water?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Adsorbed water 'Adsorbed water' can be defined as ' Water in a soil or rock mass, held by physico-chemical forces, having physical properties substantially different from absorbed water or chemically combined water, at the same temperature and pressure

  • Question: What are gradients in station yards ?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Station yard gradient is the minimum gradient provided in station yard for easy draining of rain water. Gradients are avoided as far as possible in station yard due to following reasons In station yard, Bogies standing on gradients may start moving due to heavy wind and may cause accident. The locomotives will require extra force of pull the train on gradients at the time of starting the trains. In station yards, maximum limit of gradient is fixed as 1 in 400 and minimum gradient recommended is 1 in 1000 for easy drainage of rain water.

  • Question: What is the necessity of points and crossings on Railways?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    Points and crossings are provided to help transfer railway vehicles from one track to another. The tracks may be parallel to, diverging from, or converging with each other. Points and crossings are necessary because the wheels of railway vehicles are provided with inside flanges and, therefore, they require this special arrangement in order to navigate their way on the rails. The points or switches aid in diverting the vehicles and the crossings provide gaps in the rails so as to help the flanged wheels to roll over them.

  • Question: What are objects of signaling?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 15/06/2017

    Answer:

    The objectives of signalling are as follows. The purpose of signalling and interlocking is primarily to control and regulate the movement of trains safely and efficiently. Signalling includes the use and working of signals, points, block instruments, and other allied equipment in a predetermined manner for the safe and efficient running of trains. Signalling enables the movement of trains to be controlled in such a way that the existing tracks are utilized to the maximum. In fact in railway terminology signalling is a medium of communication between the station master or the controller sitting in a remote place in the office and the driver of the train.

  • Answer:

    Advantages of Prestressed Concrete: Prestressed concrete members are free from cracks and the resistance to the effect of impact, shock, and stresses are higher than rcc structures. Longevity of prestressed structure is greater than rcc structure because the reinforcement stays unaffected from outer agencies. High compressive strength of concrete and high tensile strength of steel are used for prestressing that makes it more economical. Smaller sections can be used for longer span by reducing the section of members. Prestressed members are lighter in weight and easily transportable. It requires a smaller amount of construction materials. The shear resistance of members can be increased by using curved tendons. Prestressing also reduces the diagonal tension in concrete.

  • Question: What is the utility of ballastless track?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    The breaking of the ballast under the pressure exerted by the load causes geometrical unevenness and clogging of the ballast bed by fine particles. Therefore, regular maintenance is needed to restore track alignment. A ballastless track is expensive but is likely to require little or no maintenance during its lifetime. The success of a ballastless track is primarily based on the following advantages it offers. Stability, precision, and comfort A ballastless track assures a permanently stable track and can withstand the heavy load of high-speed train traffic. Its performance is characterized by top quality, functionality and safety. The precise adjustment of the track up to the last millimetre while it is being assembled at the construction site is the prerequisite for ride comfort as well as reduction of pressure loads experienced by the rolling stock. Long life-span with practically no maintenance With a service life of at least 60 years and with little or no requirement for service or maintenance, a ballastless track offers great viability and unmatched cost effectiveness in high-speed operations. Flexibility and end-to-end effectiveness in application With its comparatively low structural height and the possibility of the achievement of the optimal track alignment, ballastless track technology offers highly attractive and beneficial solutions as an end-to-end system technology for main-track and turnout sections. This technology can be applied on a uniform basis on embankments, bridges, and tunnels.

  • Question: What are the gauges used in India?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    "Indian railways uses four gauges, the 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge which is wider than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge; the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge; and two narrow gauges, 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) and 610 mm (2 ft) ."

  • Answer:

    Airport site selection . The selection of a suitable site for an airport depends upon the class of airport under consideration. However if such factors as required for the selection of the largest facility are considered the development of the airport by stages will be made easier and economical. The factors listed below are for the selection of a suitable site for a major airport installation: 1. regional plan 2. airport use 3. proximity to other airport 4. ground accessibility 5. topography 6. obstructions 7. visibility 8. wind 9. noise nuisance 10. grading , drainage and soil characteristics 11. future development 12. availability of utilities from town 13. economic consideration

  • Question: What do you understand by the term gauge?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    In rail transport, gauge is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails.

  • Question: What do you understand by gradient?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    Gradient can be defined as " any departure of track from the level is known as grade or gradient". Purpose of providing gradient: •To provide uniform rate of rise or fall, •To reduce cost of earth work, •To reach different stations at different level.

  • Question: What are various modes of failure of a riveted joint?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    modes of failure in riveted joints can be summarized as : 1)Tearing of the plates between the hole if they are very near to each other 2)Tearing of plate between the edge of the plate and rivet hole if the hole is too near the edge. 3)Shearing the rivet if the diameter is smaller than necessary

  • Answer:

    Slenderness ratio is the ratio of the length of a column and the least radius of gyration of its cross section. It is used extensively for finding out the design load as well as in classifying various columns in short/intermediate/long. The slenderness ratio of a column gives an indication of buckling failure in the column. More the slenderness ratio, more is the tendency of column to fail by buckling effect in that direction.

  • Question: What are purlins?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    Purlins are horizontal beams that are used for structural support in buildings. Most commonly, purlins are major components of roof structures. Roof purlins are supported either by rafters or building walls and the roof deck is laid over the purlins.

  • Question: Define pitch of rivets.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    pitch of rivet can be defined as " The center-to-center distance of adjacent rivets".

  • Question: What is optimistic time estimate?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    Optimistic time estimate (O): the minimum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds better than normally expected.

  • Question: What is a milestone chart?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    A milestone chart is used to represent groups of activities or significant events or commitments in the project. A milestone chart shows a group of milestones in an organized way with one milestone per line vertically with a description on the left and the milestone located horizontally along a time scale showing when it occurs.

  • Question: Define free float.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    Free Float is the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor activity.

  • Question: Explain slack. What does a negative slack indicate?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/06/2017

    Answer:

    In project management, float or slack is the amount of time that a task in a project network can be delayed without causing a delay to: subsequent tasks ("free float") project completion date ("total float"). Negative float, also known as negative slack, is the amount of time beyond a project's scheduled completion that a task within the project requires.

  • Question: What is rivet value?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/06/2017

    Answer:

    Rivet value is defined as the minimum value of shearing strength or (capacity) and bearing strength of a rivet.

  • Answer:

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are nontoxic, non-flammable chemicals containing atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. They are used in the manufacture of aerosol sprays, as solvents, and as refrigerants. Due to their chemical properties, CFCs are used as coolants and propellants. More commonly known as Freon for refrigeration, the other main use for CFCs has been as a propellant for aerosol cans. Some of the common uses are in hairspray, spray paint, and cooking spray. Releases of CFCs have serious environmental consequences. As they have long life time they enter the atmosphere i.e. (stratosphere) where they can destroy the ozone layer, thus reducing the protection offered by ozone to the earth from the sun's harmful UV rays. CFCs also contribute to Global Warming (through "the Greenhouse Effect").

  • Question: What do you understand by Total Float?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/06/2017

    Answer:

    Total float is the maximum time by which an activity can be delayed without delaying the completion time of the project. Total Float= Latest Finish Time- Earliest Finish Time of an activity.

  • Answer:

    Major Causes of Noise Pollution: Traffic Noise: Automobile revolution in urban areas is proved to be a big source of noise pollution. Increase in traffic has given rise to traffic jams, where the repeated hooting of horns by drivers creates noise pollution. Air crafts create serious problems in big cities. Heavy truck, buses, trains, motorcycles, jeeps, other vehicles are responsible for traffic noise. Industrial and Construction Machinery Noise:- Factory equipments, generators, drills, road rollers, and similar machinery also make lot of noise. Public address System:- Public system contribute in its own ways towards noise pollution by using loud speakers for religious functions, birth, marriage, election for commercial advertising. Household: - The household activities will contribute for indoor noise pollution domestic gadgets like pressure cookers, A.C, Vacuum cleaners, mixers; washing machines are major source of noise at house hold level. Entertainment equipments like radio, music system, T.V. Will contribute toward noise pollution. Defense Exercises: - Tanks, launching of rockets, explosion, military exercises, aero planes, shooting ranges are adding toward noise pollution. Measuring Noise Pollution: Noise levels are measured by using Sound Level Meters (SLMs) that record average dB levels over time. Measurements of 24-hours or longer are made along most of the major roadways to sample traffic noise levels, which is usually the most ideal source.

  • Answer:

    Acid rain means presence of acids in rainwater. The basic component of acid rain is nitric acid, and sulphuric acid. Acid Rain is because of human activities. Sulphuric acid is formed when (SO2) is discharged from combustion process converts to sulphurtrioxide (SO3) which reacts with the water vapor present in the atmosphere to form sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The oxides of sulphur and nitrogen are produced by combination of fossil fuels, smelters, power plant, automobile exhausts, and domestic fire. Effects of Acid Rain • The acid rain damages the leaves of plants and trees and retards the growth of forest. • Wash out the nutrients from the soil. • Significant reduction of fish population and decease in aquatic micro organisms. • Damage to Buildings and structural materials. • Corrosion of houses, monuments, statues and bridges. • The human nervous system, respiratory system and digestive system may get affected • Acid rain reduces the rate of photosynthesis and hence growth of plants.

  • Question: Define ecosystem. List the components of ecosystem.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/06/2017

    Answer:

    An Ecosystem is defined as “Natural functional Ecological Unit Comprising of living organisms and their non living environment which interact among themselves to form self sustaining system” Each Ecosystem has two main components Abiotic Biotic Abiotic Component: The non living factor or the physical environment prevailing in an ecosystem forms abiotic components. Abiotic component are mainly of two types, (a) Climatic factors it includes, rain, temperature, light, wind, humidity, etc. (b) Edaphic factors (i.e. factors related to soil): It includes soil, pH, topography, minerals. Biotic Components: The living organisms include, plants, animals, and micro-organisms in an ecosystem forms biotic components. • Biotic Components are further classified into 3 main groups • Producers • Consumers • Decomposers or Reducers

  • Answer:

    The process of metamorphism occur in rocks due to effect of "high temperature", "pressure" and "chemically active fluids". These three are known as metamorphic agents. Generally, all these three act together and cause metamorphism. But sometimes, any one or two of them dominate and play an active role. Types of Metamorphism Thermal Metamorphism All kinds of metamorphism in which heat plays a predominant role are given the common name “ thermal metamorphism”. Dynamic Metamorphism (Direct Pressure Predominant) The type of metamorphism that occur mainly due to direct pressure or stress, is called Cataclastic metamorphism, or dynamic metamorphism Geothermal Metamorphism (Uniform Pressure Predominant) The type of metamorphism in which uniform pressure and heat are predominant is called static or load or geothermal metamorphism. Metasomatic Metamorphism (Chemically active Fluids predominant) The type of metamorphism in which significant compositional changes occur in the parent rock due to the predominant role played by chemically active fluids is called metasomatic metamorphism. Platonic Metamorphism (Uniform pressure and heat predominant) The type of metamorphism in which uniform pressure and heat dominate is called plutonic metamorphism.

  • Question: What do you mean by hardness of rock?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/06/2017

    Answer:

    The hardness of a rock mineral is a way of describing how easy or difficult it is to scratch the mineral. It is used, in combination with the other physical properties, to help identify rock specimen. A hardness value is obtained by comparing the mineral to a standard scale devised by Moh, which is comprised of 10 minerals ranging in hardness from talc (softest) to diamond (hardest).

  • Question: What do you mean by dip and strike in a rock strata?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/06/2017

    Answer:

    Strike refers to the direction in which a geological structure is present. The strike direction may be defined as the direction of the trace of the intersection between the bedding plane. Dip literally means slope or inclination. In structural geology dip is expressed both as direction and amount. The dip direction is the direction along which the inclination of the bedding plane occurs.

  • Question: What do you mean by Cirques?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/06/2017

    Answer:

    Cirques: A cirque may be defined as a semicircular or half-bowl shaped depression within an otherwise uniform glaciated valley slope. Such a depression is invariable bounded on sides by Steep Wall. Cirques range in diameter from a few meters to a few kilometers and occur commonly at the heads of valley glaciers.

  • Question: What are the methods of sediment transport by wind?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/06/2017

    Answer:

    Methods of Transport: The wind transport is carried out mainly by two distinctly different processes: • Suspension: The light density clay and silt particles may be lifted by the wind from the ground and are carried high up to the upper layer of the wind where they move along with the wind. This is called transport in suspension. • Siltation: the heavier and coarse sediments such as sand grains, pebbles and gravels are lifted up periodically during high velocity wind only for short distance. They may be dropped and picked up again and again during the transport process Siltation is therefore, a process of sediment transport in a series of jumps.

  • Question: What is curing of concrete?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/06/2017

    Answer:

    Curing is the process in which the concrete is protected from loss of moisture and kept within a reasonable temperature range. The result of this process is increased strength and decreased permeability. Curing is also a key player in mitigating cracks in the concrete, which severely impacts durability. Curing can also be described as keeping the concrete moist and warm enough so that hydration of cement can continue. Most elaborately it can be described as the process of maintaining a satisfactory moisture content and favourable temperature in concrete, so that hydration of cement may continue until the desired properties are developed to a sufficient degree.

  • Answer:

    Creep in rail is defined as the longitudinal movement of the rails in the track in the direction of motion of locomotives. Causes of Creep a) Creep may be developed due to forces that come into operation when the train is starts or stops by application of brakes. b) Creep is also developed due to wave motions. c) Creep develops because of unequal expansion and contraction due to change in temperature. Effects of creep • The most serious effect of creep is the buckling of track in lateral directions. • Sleepers do not remain at fixed position and then gauges of the track are disturbed. • It becomes difficult to fix the rails with creep

  • Answer:

    The concept of sustainable development broadly means that the development initiatives be initiated in such a way that the future generations can enjoy the benefits of nature without any compromise. The Global factors that can promote sustainable development are as follows Population stabilization and health care Integrated land use Revegitation marginal land and greening the uncultivated area. Water pollution control in rivers Use of non-polluting renewable energies. Conservation of biological diversity Environmental education awareness. Developing and introducing new technologies, and changing the industrial system.

  • Question: What are the causes of dampness in buildings?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 07/07/2017

    Answer:

    The major sources of dampness can be summarized as: 1. Due to capillary action, the water present in ground soil may rise above the ground level through the walls. If ground water table is nearer to the building foundation then also it can also become a source of dampness. 2. Condensation of atmospheric moisture can also be a source of dampness. Because this form of water gets deposited on different components and gradually find their way to penetrate into the building causing dampness. 3. Rain water falling on external walls, parapets also causes dampness. 4. Rain water can also penetrate through the roofs if the roof is of bad quality. 5. Presence of gutter near the building will store the rain water and subsequently this water will create dampness in the external walls. 6. Wet areas of buildings (such as kitchens, bath rooms) having poor quality of plumbing fitting can also be a source of dampness.

  • Answer:

              Crossings can be classified as follows:

    On the basis of shape of crossing " square crossing, Acute angle or V-crossing or Frog, Obtuse angle or Diamond crossing. On the basis of assembly of crossing Ramped crossing Spring or movable crossing

    Square Crossing

    Square Crossing is formed when two straight tracks of same or different gauge, cross each other at right angles.

    Acute Angle Crossing

    Acute angle crossing is formed when left hand rail of one track crosses right hand rail of another track at an acute angle. This crossing is widely used. This is also called V-crossing or frog.

     Obtuse Angle Crossing

    Obtuse crossing is formed when left hand rail of one track crosses right hand rail of another track at an obtuse angle or vice versa. This type of crossing consists mainly of two acute and two obtuse angle angle crossings. This is also called Diamond crossing.

  • Question: What are the disadvantages of welded joints ?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    Disadvantages of Welding Joints.

    Welded joints are brittle and therefore their  strength is less than the members joined. Due to uneven heating & cooling of the members during the welding, the members may distort resulting in additional stresses. Skilled labor and electricity are required for welding

  • Question: i want to ask ques related for rrb sse civil exam

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    You can refer following books for RRB exams

     

    Upkar Railway Recruitment Board Examination    Khanna & Verma

    ArithmeticR.s Aggarwal

    Quicker reasoning test   Upkar publication 

    English Grammar  Wren & martin

    Railway Recruitment Board Exam Upkar Publication 

    Special class Railway Apprentice    Upkar Publication 

    Verbal & non verbal Book  R.s Aggarwal 

    Railway Recruitment Board Examination Technical cadre Books  Upkar Publication

     Psychological Tests & Interviews  Sanjay Kumar 

    Quantitative Aptitude For Competitive Examinations  R. S. Aggarwal 

    Fast Track Objective Arithmetic Rajesh Verma – Arihant Publications 

    Magical Book On Quicker Maths  M Tyra- Bsc Publications 

    A New Approach to Reasoning : Verbal, Non – Verbal & Analytical  Rajesh Verma – Arihant Publications

    Analytical Reasoning  M. K. Pandey- Bsc Publications 

    14000 + Objective Questions – General Studies  Manohar Pandey- Arihant Publications

    Objective General Knowledge  Lucent Publication

  • Answer:

    Apart from NPTEL , Virtual Labs, you can refer NITTTR NCTEL they provide good course material for various engineering courses.

    http://www.nitttrchd.ac.in/sitenew1/nctel/index.php

     

  • Answer:

    To pass Civil engineering exams you require to study regularly from your class notes and keep along a copy of your syllabus and set of books recommended by the Subject Teacher , apart from it you should solve past semester question papers to get confidence in your preperation.

     

    following are the general books recommended for civil engineering competitive  exams :-

    Strength of Material  Dr. R.K. Bansal 

    Structural Analysis – S.Ramamrutham Theory of structuresS.Ramamrutham

    R.C.C. Design- Reinforced  B.C.Punamia Design of Steel StructureS.K. Duggal

    Environment Engineering

    Water Supply Engineering

    Environmental Engineering  

    Sewage  Disposal and Air Pollution Engineering  S. K. Garg

    Soil Mechanics – Basics and Applied Soil mechanics B.C.Punamia Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Dr. P.N.Modi Railway Engineering -  saxena and arora

    Concrete Technology M.S. Shetty

                                  M.L. Gambhir

    Highway Engineering S.K.Khanna

    Surveying (vol. 1,2,3) B.C.Punia, Ashok Jain & Arun Jain

    Engineering Hydrology  K Subramanya

    Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures  S.K Garg

     

  • Answer:

    You can Appear for competitive exams like GATE, IES/IAS from you IIIrd Year but the qualification will be awarded on clearance of your final Year, so to save one year you can appear in the IIIrd year of your engineering degree.

  • Answer:

    In single effect evaporator,  the steam is fed to the evaporator which condenses on the tube surface and the heat is transferred to the solution. The saturated vapor comes out from the evaporator and this vapor either may be vented out or condensed. The concentrated solution is taken out from the evaporator.

    Now we can see if we want the further concentrate, the solution has to be sent into another similar evaporator which will have the fresh steam to provide the necessary heat.

    It may be noted that in this process the fresh steam is required for the second evaporator and at the same time the vapor is not utilized. Therefore it can be said the single effect evaporator does not utilized the steam efficiently.

    The economy of the single effect evaporator is thus less than one. Moreover, the other reason for low economy is that in many of the cases the feed temperature remains below the boiling temperature of the solution. Therefore, a part of the heat is utilized to raise the feed temperature to its boiling point.

    The benefit of the use of multiple effect evaporators is that in this arrangement multiple reuse of heat supplied to the first effect is possible and results in improved steam economy.

     

  • Answer:

     

    The boring methods are used for exploration at greater depths where direct methods fail. These provide both disturbed as well as undisturbed samples depending upon the method of boring. In selecting the boring method for a particular job, consideration should be made for the following:

    • The materials to be encountered and the relative efficiency of the various boring methods in such materials
    • The available facility and accuracy with which changes in the soil and ground water conditions can be determined
    • Possible disturbance of the material to be sampled

    The various methods of Boring Exploration  can be summarized as follows :

    Displacement boring

    Wash boring

    Auger boring

    Rotary drilling

    Percussion drilling

    Continuous sampling

  • Answer:

    Types of Settlement in Shallow foundation can be summarized as follows :

    Initial Settlement

    caused by the settlement of newely built homes

    Continious Settlement

    it occus when a building is subjected to continious stresses or load being applied continiously

    Uniform Settlement

    This occurs when the whole structure setttles uniformly.

    Differential Settlement

    This occurs when different parts of a building settles differently.

    Therefore the total settlement is given by

     

    The total settlement (S) Total foundation settlement can be divided into three different  components, namely Immediate or elastic settlement, consolidation settlement and secondary or creep settlement

    The total settlement is given as;      𝑆 = 𝑆𝑖 + 𝑆𝑐 + 𝑆𝑠 + 𝑆 𝜃  

     

  • Question: Define 'Area ratio' for a soil sampler.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    The area ratio for soil sampler is defined as ratio of the volume of soil displaced by the sampler tube in proportion to the volume of the sample.

  • Question: What is 'floating foundation' ?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    floating foundation. : a building support on soft soil that consists of a stiff reinforced concrete slab which distributes the concentrated loads by columns to the soil so that the pressure intensity on the soil is nowhere more than the acceptable amount.

    Typically, raft foundations are formed by reinforced concrete slabs that cover a wide area, often the entire footprint of a building. They spread the load imposed by a number of columns or walls over a large area, and can be considered to 'float' on the ground as a raft floats on water

  • Question: Enumerate the objectives of cyclic load test on piles.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    The main objective of this test is to investigate the ability of piles to withstand cyclic lateral displacements induced by temperature variations.

    As the superstructure moves back and forth, the foundation piles of an integral abutment bridge are subjected to repeated cyclic loading. Maximum pile stresses take place near the pile cap. Experiments are conducted on a static equivalent of the pile/pile cap system to create maximum stresses near the pile cap.

  • Answer:

    Contact pressures

    by definition, are the reactive pressures offered by the soil on the foundation , at the interface between the foundation and the soil, against the loads transmitted to the soil through the foundation.

     

  • Answer:

    Safe net bearing capacity: It is the net soil pressure which can be safety applied to the soil considering only shear failure.

    Allowable Bearing Pressure: It is the maximum soil pressure without any shear failure or settlement failure.

  • Question: What are the limitations of the dynamic pile load formulas?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    These formulae are based on the assumption of the impact of two free elastic bodies. Pile is not a free body.

    Dynamic formula may be used with confidence in free-draining materials such as coarse sand, but are not

    likely to yield useful results in the case of cohesive soil deposits. Further, in saturated sand deposits,

    vibrations during driving are likely to cause liquefaction.

  • Answer:

    differences between ultimate bearing capacity, safe bearing capacity, safe bearing pressure and allowable bearing pressure can be summarized as below

    Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soils:

    The intensity of loading, at the base of foundation, at which soil support fails in shear is called ultimate bearing capacity of soils.

    Safe Bearing Capacity of Soils:

    The maximum intensity of loading that the soil will safely carry without risk of shear failure is called safe bearing capacity of soil. This is obtained by dividing the ultimate bearing capacity by a certain factor of safety, and it is the value which is used in the design of foundation

    Allowable Bearing Pressure:

    It is the maximum allowable net loading intensity which can be applied to the soil taking into account the ultimate bearing capacity, the amount and kind of settlement expected and the ability of the given structure to withstand the settlement. It is, therefore, dependent upon both the sub-soil and the type of building proposed to be erected thereon.

  • Answer:

     When designing foundations, two principal criteria must be satisfied:

    Bearing capacity There must be an adequate factor of safety against collapse (plastic yielding in the soil and catastrophic settlement or rotation of the structure).

    Settlement Settlements at working loads must not cause damage, nor adversely affect the serviceability of the structure.

    There are other considerations that may be relevant to specific soils, foundation types and surface conditions.

  • Question: What do you mean by isobar and pressure bulb?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    An isobar or pressure bulb is a stress contour or a line which connects all points below the ground surface at which the vertical pressure is the same. In fact, an isobar is a spatial curved surface and resembles a bulb in shape; this is because the vertical pressure at all points in a horizontal plane at equal radial distances from the load is the same. Thus, the stress isobar is also called the ‘bulb of pressure’ or simply the ‘pressure bulb’.

  • Question: Define Seismology.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    seismology

    is defined as  a science that deals with earthquakes and with artificially produced vibrations of the earth.

  • Question: What are coupled shear walls?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    Shear wall is efficient structural elements designed to resist lateral. force in buildings. However shear walls with openings are commonly designed. Such shear walls are defined as  "coupled shear wall".

  • Question: Defme Iso-Seismals.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

     

    isoseismal lines are defined as line joining equal seismic intensities

    In seismology, an isoseismal map is used to show lines of equal felt seismic intensity, Such maps help to identify earthquake epicenters, particularly where no instrumental records exist, such as for historical earthquakes.

  • Question: What is Fourier Spectrum?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    Fourier spectrum can be defined as a plot of the magnitude and phase of the Fourier transform of a function.

  • Question: What is Impulse load?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    Impulse load is defined as a load  that changes the momentum of an object; the integral of a force with respect to time.

    the loads that marine structures encounter during wave impacts. Wave impacts on ships and offshore structures can generate very large local and global loads.

  • Question: What is under-damped system?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    the damping ratio is a dimensionless measure describing how oscillations in a system decay after a disturbance. Many systems exhibit oscillatory behavior when they are disturbed from their position of static equilibrium.

    The damping ratio is a system parameter, denoted by ζ (zeta), that can vary from undamped (ζ=0), underdamped (ζ<1) through critically damped (ζ=1) to overdamped (ζ>1).

    An underdamped system yields an exponentially decreasing sinusoidal output in response to a step input.

     

     

  • Question: Write a short note on Intensity of earthquake.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    The intensity is described as the severity of an earthquake in terms of its effects on the earth's surface and on humans and their structures. Several scales exist, but the ones most commonly used  are the Modified Mercalli scale and the Rossi-Forel scale.

  • Question: Define Peak Acceleration.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) is equal to the maximum ground acceleration that occurred during earthquake shaking at a location.

    PGA is equal to the amplitude of the largest absolute acceleration recorded on an accelerogram at a site during a particular earthquake.

  • Question: What is Tsunami earthquake?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    A tsunami earthquake can be defined as an undersea earthquake for which the surface wave magnitude Ms differs markedly from the moment magnitude Mw, because the former is calculated from surface waves with a period of about 20 seconds, whereas the latter is a measure of the total energy release at all frequencies.

  • Question: What is effective weight in context of earthquake design?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    The effective seismic weight, W,  is the total weight of the building and that part of the other gravity loads that might reasonably be expected to be acting on the building at the time it is subjected to the design earthquake of intensity 7-10

  • Question: What are the methods for modal combination ?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    sum of squares (SRSS) method and complete quadratic combination (CQC) method of combining. maximum modal responses are widely used to determine the maximum seismic responses. for structures.

  • Question: What is Transmissibility Ratio?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    Transmissibility, in the context of Structural Dynamics, can be defined as the ratio of the maximum force on the floor as a result of the vibration of a machine to the maximum machine force.

  • Answer:

    Magnitude and Intensity of Earthquake,

    Intensity: The severity of earthquake shaking is assessed using a descriptive scale – the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.

    Magnitude: Earthquake size is a quantitative measure of the size of the earthquake at its source. The Richter Magnitude Scale measures the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake.

    When an earthquake occurs, its magnitude can be given a single numerical value on the Richter Magnitude Scale. However the intensity is variable over the area affected by the earthquake, with high intensities near the epicentre and lower values further away.

  • Answer:

    The center of mass is the mean position of the mass in an object. The center of gravity, which is the point where gravity appears to act. For many objects, these two points are in exactly the same place. But they're only the same when the gravitational field is uniform across an object.

  • Question: What is Logarithmic Decrement?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    The logarithmic decrement is defined as the natural log of the ratio of the amplitudes of any two successive peaks: where x(t) is the amplitude at time t and x(t+nT) is the amplitude of the peak n periods away, where n is any integer number of successive, positive peaks.

  • Question: What is an Epicentre?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    epicenter

    The epicenter is the point on the earth's surface vertically above the hypocenter (or focus), point in the crust where a seismic rupture begins.

  • Question: What is the 'Pheratic line'?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    Phreatic line.

    The top flow line of a saturated soil mass below which seepage takes place, is called the Phreatic line. Hydrostatic pressure acts below the phreatic line whereas atmospheric pressure exists above the phreatic line.

  • Question: What is W-indeX. Explain it.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    The W – index.

    This is the average infiltration rate during the time when the rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration rate. Thus, W may be mathematically calculated by dividing the total infiltration. (expressed as a depth of water) divided by the time during which the rainfall occurs.

  • Question: What are the major forces acting on a gravity dam ?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 16/12/2017

    Answer:

    Depending upon the situation, the dam is subjected to the following forces:

    1. Water pressure

    2. Earthquake forces

    3. Silt pressure

    4. Wave pressure

    5. Ice pressure

  • Answer:

    A low gravity dam is which whose height is less than given equation,if the height of dam is more than this it is called High gravity dam.

  • Question: What is Hyetograph? Define it.

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/12/2017

    Answer:

    A hyetograph is a graphical  representation of the relationship between the rainfall intensity and time. It is the plot of the rainfall intensity drawn on the ordinate axis against time on the abscissa axis. The hyetograph is a bar diagram. The area under the hyetograph gives the total rainfall occurred in that period. This chart is very useful in representing  the characteristics of storm, and is particularly important in developing the design storm to predict extreme floods.

  • Answer:

    small irrigation project may consist of a low diversion weir or an inexpensive pumping plant along with small ditches(channels)and some minor control structures .A large irrigation project includes a large storage reservoir , a huge dam ,hundreds of kilometers of canals, branches and distributaries ,control structures ,and other works.

    Assuming all other factors (such a enlightened and experienced farmers, availability of goods seeds, etc.) reasonably favorable, the following can be listed as conditions essential for the success of any irrigation project.

    Suitability of land (with respect to its soil, topography and drainage features) for continued agricultural production, Favorable climatic conditions for proper growth and yield of the crops,Adequate and economic supply of suitable quality of water, and Good site conditions for the safe construction and uninterrupted operations of the engineering works.

  • Answer:

    The coefficient of transmissibility indicates the rate at which an aquifer will transmit water under a unit hydraulic gradient.

    The coefficient of storage characterizes the ability of the aquifer to release water from storage as the head declines.

  • Answer:

    A multipurpose dam should aim at optimum and most efficient watershed development.

    the planning, design & size of operations of various structural units should be such so as to satisfy the demand of all functions of the project.

    The feasibility of the project should be considered from economical & structural pointof view.

    while determining the possible and required capacity of reservoir the planer has to rely on uncertain hydrological data,thus the best approach should be to elliminate uncertain factors.

    each project should be a good investment.

    self  liquidating  multipurpose project are most favoured.

  • Question: What is the importance of drainage in irrigated lands?

    Posted in: Civil | Date: 17/12/2017

    Answer:

    The function of the field drainage system is to control the water table, whereas the function of the main drainage system is to collect, transport, and dispose of the water through an outfall or outlet. Such a system is therefore called a checked, or controlled, drainage system.

  • Answer:

    Balancing canal depth comes when the canal is in partially embankment and partially in cutting. It is the depth of the canal (H) which gives equal amount of filling (i.e earth required for formation of Banks) and cutting (i.e earth from digging). For a given cross-section of a canal, it has only one balancing depth.

    For this depth the canal sectional will be economical. B= Bed width.

    b1,b2= width of embankment of left and right side respectively.

    d= excavation depth.

    h= embankment height. H=height of embankment from the bed of the canal.

        X- sectional area in cutting =Bd+sd2

         X- sectional area in embankment = (b1+b2)h+2s1 h2

     

    For balancing depth,

    Area in cutting = Area in embankment.

    or,  Bd+sd2  = (b1+b2)h+2s1 h2

    or, Bd+sd^2=(b1+b2)(H-d)+2s1(H-d)^2.

    From this equation 'd' can be calculated.

  • Answer:

    Artificial subsurface-irrigation : When an open jointed drainage system is  laid artificially, below the soil, to supply water to crops by capillarity is known as artificial subsurface-irrigation. It is very costly process. It may be recommended only in some special case with favorable soil condition and cash crops of very high return.

    Natural sub-surface irrigation : when underground irrigation is achieved simply by natural process without having any kind of extra efforts or additional efforts, it is known as natural sub-surface irrigation. It is less costly. Leakage water from channels etc. goes underground and during passage through subsoil, it may irrigated crops, sown lowers lands by capillarity.

  • Answer:

    River training works,can be classified as

    (1) Embankments,

    (2) Guide Banks or Bell Bunds,

    (3) Spurs or Groynes,

    (4) Impermeable Groynes,

    (5) Permeable Groynes,

    (6) Bed Pitching and Bank Revetment, and

    (7) Dredging of River.

    1. Embankments:

    The floods may be prevented from submerging the terrain by constructing earth embankments. They are generally constructed up to a height of 12 m. They are designed and constructed in the same way as an earth dam. The embankments are generally constructed parallel to the river channel.

  • Question: Is Microsoft Word the same as Open Office?

    Posted in: Basic Computer | Date: 16/01/2018

    Answer:

    No open office is open source software which can be used freely whereas MS office is a product of Microsoft, open office is generally used in mobile application

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