Development of Indian Nationalism from 1885 to 1905.
• Contribution of early nationalists.
The phase from 1885 to 1905 AD in Indian history is known as the liberal phase because the movement of the movement in this phase was mainly in the hands of the liberal leaders.
These leaders believed in liberal policies and non-violent protests. This feature distinguishes them from the neo-nationalists who emerged in the first decade of the 20th century.
These liberals were in favor of non-violent constitutional demonstrations within the purview of law. Although this policy was relatively slow for liberals, it started the process of gradual political development. The liberals were of the opinion that the British want to educate Indians and they are not oblivious to the real problems of Indians. Therefore, if all the countrymen unanimously request the government through applications, petitions and meetings etc., the government will gradually accept their demands. To achieve these objectives, liberals followed two types of policies. First, to awaken the patriotism and consciousness among Indians, educate them on political issues and establish unity among them.
Secondly, starting the process of reforms in India by putting the British opinion and the British government in the Indian side, the liberals believed that India's contact with Britain was in the interest of the Indians and it was not yet time to challenge the British rule directly. Therefore, it would be better to try to convert colonial rule into Indian rule.
Contribution of liberals in Indian national movement
Criticized the economic policies of British imperialism and created a strong Indian public opinion which believed that this colonial rule was the cause of India's poverty and economic backwardness. Reducing land revenue, abolishing salt tax, improving the condition of plantation workers and There was also a demand to cut military spending. The efforts of the liberalists gave rise to a small central assembly in India by the Act of 1861. The early nationalists devised a long action plan for democratic self-government. Their efforts to demand constitutional reforms came to fruition when the British Government formed the Indian Council in 1892, thus highlighting the real intentions of the imperialist government and achieving significant achievement in the field of self-government. He worked to create political and economic consciousness among the people of the country. These actions of the nationalists spread the anti-imperialist sentiments of Indians.