Importance of CONGRESS OF Vienna
As the Napoleonic wars and French revolution dismatled the European powers, the major European generals planned to convene the Treaty of Chaumont of March 1814 ( ito initiate nternational conferences )so to forge a balance of power in Europe and restoration of the annexed kingdoms to the respective states.
The Austrian Chancellor, Metternich, called upon its major allies -- Lord Castlereagh ( Great Britain), Tsar Alexander I ( Russia), Chancellor Karl August ( Prussia ) and later, Charles Maurice Talleyrand ( France - foreign minister) together convened the Congress at Vienna and decided to reestablish and safeguard the major territories through harmonious conditions. As such, the major decisions undertaken were --
1. Russian gained Warsaw ( Poland), and retained Finland.
2. Prussia acquired western Warsaw ( newly formed Pozen), Swedish Pomerania, northern Rhineland and Saxony.
3. Austria acquired Tyrol and Salzburg, Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venice, Ragusa in Dalmatia.
4. A Conferation of 39 German states weas established ( previous 300 states of Holy Roman Empire renamed as Conferated Germany) .
5. Netherlands and the Southern Netherlands reestablished as a united monarchy -- The United Kingdom of Neterlands with The House of Orange - Nassau.
6. The annexed territories -- Bavaria, Wuttermberg, Baden, Hesse - Darmstadt and Nassau were reestablished: Bavaria acquired the parts of Wurzburg, Frankfurt and the Rhenish Palatinate.
7. The Bourbon dynasty and the kingdom of Naples were restored to their respective statesmen.
8. The kingdom of Piedmont - Sardinia, alongwith Nice and Savoy, restored to their mainland possessions and retained the control of The Republic of Geneva.
9. Britain retained the Cape Colony in Southern Africa, Tobago, Ceylon, and other colonies in Africa and Asia.
10. The neutrality of 22 cantons of Switzerland was guaranteed and a federal pact was recommended so to safeguard the pace and harmony among the cantons - Bienne and the Prince - Bishopric of Basel were included in the Canton of Bern.
11. The Papal states under the rule of Pope were restored to their former extent, and exception being - Avignon and Comtat Venaissin retained as French territories