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Types Of Lamps

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  • Monisha M

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types of lamps

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    TYPES ОР LAMPS му MONlSHA ЕЕЕ В
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    TYPES OF LAMPS 2. 3, Arc lamps Filament lamps or incandescent lamps Gaseous discharge lamps
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    ARC LAMPS 2. 3, Carbon arc lamp Flame arc lamp Magnetic arc lamp
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    Arc lamp The electric lamp is made to flow through two electrodes in contact, The flow creates an arc, The arc maintains the current which is very efficient source of light,
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    I Carbon arc lamp e It is the earliest model and still used in cinema projectors. When two carbons are connected end to end the dc terminals (45V), the current flows through them, Due to high resistance an arc is formed between two rods and light is produced. The arc is maintained by transfer of carbon particles from one rod to another one that is particle carbon rod to negative one,
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    Flame arc lamp The electrode of such lamp has 5 to 15% Fluoride(flame material) and 85 to 95% carbon, The fluoride radiates light energy efficiently from a very high heated arc steam, Fluoride turns into vapour along with carbon and these fluoride vapours cause very high luminous intensities,
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    The arc can be drawn with the help of magnets, The luminous efficiency is 8 lumens per watt.
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    Magnetic arc lamp Positive electrode- copper Negative electrode- magnetic oxide of iron, Similar lil
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    FILAMENT LAMP OR INCANDESCENT LAMP PRINCIPLE: An electric current is passed through a fine metallic wire, heat is produced and the temperature of the wire increases. As the temperature increases due to heating it radiates heat as well as light The higher the temperature of the wire, the higher is the amount of light energy radiated,
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    ' Incandescent lamps produce light by means of filament heated to incandescence by the flow of electric current through it. Tungsten is heated until it gives of visible light,
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    GLASS BULB 1. 2. VACUUM OR GAS FILLED 3. WIRE/FILAMENT 4. 5. LEAD-IN WIRES 6. SUPPORT WIRES 7. NECK 4 10 8, 11. ELECTRIC FUSE 11 9. BASE
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    Inert gas -argon (85%) with nitrogen(15%). At the center of the lamp is a tungsten filament. Electricity heats this filament up to about 2,500 degrees Celsius. Light output is 8-15 lumens/watt Operating life 1000 hour. Efficiency increased by using Coiled filament Coiled coil filament
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    PROS AND CONS ADVANTAGES: 1. LESS EXPENSIVE 2. EASIER TO DIM WITH RHEOSTATS 3. WARMER COLOR THAN FLUORESCENT AND THUNGSTEN- HALOGEN LAMPS 4. LIGHT OUTPUT IS RELATIVELY HIGH 5. CAN BE DIMMED DISADVANTAGES: 1. ENERGY INEFFICIENT 2. SHORT LAMP LIFE TIME 3. WARM SOURCE
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    HALOGEN LAMP The halogen light bulb or lamp is a type of incandescent lamp which uses a halogen gas in order to increase both light output and rated life. They are l
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    The early history of the halogen lamp parallels that of the incandescent, The usage of chlorine to prevent blacl
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    In a typical incandescent lamp, tungsten slowly evaporates from the burning filament, This causes blacl
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    Halogen lamps are largely able to eliminate this problem because the halogen gas reacts chemically with the evaporated tungsten to prevent it from affixing to the glass, Some tungsten is returned to the filament, which also serves to increase the rated life of the Because the temperature required for this reaction is higher than a typical incandescent bulb, halogen lamps must generally be manufactured using quartz.
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    COLD LAMP Filament lamp has high content of infrared radiations which create heat problems, Applying cold mirror technique, it is possible to separate heat and light, The heat is so separated is passed through the near wall of lamp and the beam of light is given by the lamp contains 80% less heat,
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    DISCHARGE LAMPS Sodium vapour discharge lamp High pressure mercury vapour discharge Neon lamp Fluorescent tube
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    Discharge lamps Light is produced by passage of an electric current through a vapor or gas, rather than through a tungsten wire as in incandescent Two types of discharge lamps 2. Which gives the same colour as produced by the discharge through the gas or vapour. Eg: sodium vapour, mercury vapour and neon gas. Which use the phenomenon of fluorescence. Eg: fluorescent lamps.
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    SODIUM VAPOUR DISCHARGE LAMP Sodium vapour discharge lamp consists of small amount of metallic sodium, neon gas and two sets of electrodes, Neon gas- develop enough heat to vaporize the sodium, Suitable for AC Efficiency is 75 lumens/watt Average life 60000 hours
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    LEAK 230 v A.c,
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    Discharge will not start at low voltage Leal< transformer produce starting voltage of about 400V First neon gas will discharge then sodium vaporizes and discharge continues, Pf is too to correct ,capacitor is used,
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    HIGH PRESSURE MERCURY VAPOUR DISCHARGE LAMP MAIN AUX EL€ctR00€ c CHOKE 230 v
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    Iligh-prcssure Slercury Vapor Lamp 1936 - Today Borosilicate Glass Bulb Fused Quartz Arc Tube Solid Mercury Residue Main electrode Molybdenu Seals Electrode Evacuation bubble rame Sta ng electrode au diary electrode) Carbon Resistor
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    e Inner gas used is Argon and mercury Efficiency 40 lumen/watt e Inner tube have two main electrodes and an auxiliary electrode. When the switch is closed an initial discharge between the auxiliary and main Heat produced by the argon gas is helpful to vaporize the mercury then increase the pressure thus emits greenish blue light.
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    FLUORESCENT TUBES The tubes are filled with argon gas at low pressure and one or two drops of mercury. The inner surface of the tube has a thin coating of fluorescent material. Different colours can be obtained depending upon the type of coating material used. It is provided with two electrodes coated with electron emissive material. The mercury vapour emits UV radiation when electric charge is passed through it. The fluorescent coating converts UV radiation into visible light.
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    Electrode Mercury 02001 HowStuffWorks Starter Switch Ballast AC SUPPLY Phosphor Coating Argon Gas Pins
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    NEON TUBES j. Neon tubes MAIN SWITCH FUSE RADIO SUPPRESSION CHOKE D.P. LOCKING SWITCH R.F. CORRECTION CONDENSER TIME SWITCH OR PHOTO-ELECTRIC FIREMAN'S SWITCH CONTROL Figure 3.24 Neon tubes
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    Neon lamps are made up of a glass tube of upto 7-8 m length. It has electrodes at the two ends. These tubes are operated at a temperature of about 200 oc. Hence they are also known as cold cathode discharge lamps. They are widely used for decoration and advertisement purposes Neon tubes can be bent into any desired shape Tubes can be made to emit different colours like orange, yellow, green, blue, red, etc .by mixing suitable chemicals with neon gas.
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    Type Standard Incandescent bulbs Halogen Incandescent bulbs Fluorescent tube HP mercury vapor Application — Domestic use — Localized decorative lighting — Spot lighting — Intense lighting — Shops, offices, workshops — Outdoors —Workshops, halls, hangars- Factory floors Advantage — Direct connection without intermediate switchgear — Reasonable purchase price — Compact size Disadvantage — Low luminous efficiency and high electricity consumption — Significant heat dissipation — Short service life — Instantaneous lighting — Good color rendering -Average luminous — Direct connection — Instantaneous efficiency efficiency — Excellent color rendering — High luminous efficiency — Low light intensity of single unit — Average color rendering— Sensitive to extreme — Good luminous efficiency —Acceptable color rendering — Compact size — Long service life temperatures — Lighting and relighting time of a few minutes
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    High-pressure sodium Low-pressure sodium Metal halide LED -Outdoors — Large halls — Outdoors — Emergency lighting — Large areas — Halls with high ceilings — Signaling (3- —Very good luminous — Lighting and efficiency — Good visibility in foggy weather — Economical to use — Good luminous efficiency — Good color rendering — Long service life — Insensitive to the color traffic lights, number of switching exit" signs and operations emergency lighting) — Low energy consumption — Low temperature relighting time of a few minutes — Long lighting time (5 min.) — Mediocre color rendering — Lighting and relighting time of a few minutes — Limited number of colors — Low brightness of single unit
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    GUESS Metallic Cap Choke ME!! Auxiliary Electrode tartin Resister Inner Glass Tube Capacitor Main Electrode Vacuum Outer Glass Bulb A.C. Mains
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    THE ANSWER IS: HIGH PRESSURE MERCURY VAPOUR DISCHARGE LAMP
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    GUESS ME!!!
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    HALOGEN LAMP
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    MERCURY ATOMS VISIBLE LIGHT PHOSPHOR COATING ARGON GAS AND MERCURY VAPOR BASE GLASS TUBE o o 0 000 00000 000 VISIBLE LIGHT MERCURY CATHODE ELECTRON FLOW ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
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    FLUORESCENT TUBE
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    Diagram Cathod Anode Inner Tube Outer Tube Choke 230V c Transformer Vijay Balu Raskar (BE Electrical}
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    " نلا لط فعا سها ناعلز ماا إاواهاالع نا، ه i؛؛؛i٤H؛٤ مر. رتبيمةرهب. :/؟١٠
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