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Narrative Style Of R.K Narayan

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Narrative style of R.K.Narayan

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    Narrative Style of R.I
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    Contents: About R.I
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    About RoKoNarayan R. K. Narayan(10 October 1906 — 13 May 2001), full name Rasipuram Krishnaswami lyer Narayanaswami, was an Indian writer, who was born in Madras (now Chennai) Madras Presidency, British India. R.K.Narayan's distinctive contribution to the growth and development of English short story is well recognized both at the national and international level. These stories have enriched the Indian English literature. The background of imaginary old world town Malgudi lends a unique charm to his stories. The technique of tragicomedy, employing a narrator, humorous description invested with wit and satire, depiction of life's grim struggle and its triumphs enriched his stories with an underlying sense of stability and continuity. R.K.Narayan has got nine volumes of short story collections- i) Malgudi Days(1943), ii) Dodu and Other stories(1943), iii) Cyclone and Other stories(1944), iv) An Astrologer's Day and Other Stories(1947), v) Lawley Road and Other Stories(1956), vi) Gods, Demons and Others(1964), vii)A Horse and Two Goats(1970), viii) Reluctant Guru(1974) and ix) Under the Banyan Tree and Other Stories.
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    About Malgudi Days Malgudi Days is a collection of short stories by R. K. Narayan published in 1943 by Indian Thought Publications. The book was republished outside India in 1982. The book includes 19 stories, all set in the fictional town of Malgudi, located in South India. Each of the stories portrays a facet of life in Malgudi. Malgudi Days is among Narayan's collection of short stories. The stories written with Narayan's simple style and characteristic gentle irony portray the variety and colour of Indian life.
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    Q. In Fellow-feeling he shows that experiencing a train journey in a third-class unreserved compartment is one of the best ways of exploring the "Incredible India". In the beginning of the story it is difficult for the reader to infer it is a railway station setting unless one links the descriptions: "Madras-Bangalore Express " and "The engine added to the general noise with the low monotonous hum of its boiler; the first bell rang, the guard looked at his watch The author has described the train compartments which is not self-explanatory and does not add any value to the story and could have been eliminated. "The compartment built to "seat 8 passengers, 4 British Troops, or 6 Indian Troops, ' now carried only nine It can be termed as the 'comedies of manners' where the 'newcomer' mocks the Brahmin community targeting Rajam lyer and in turn Rajam lyer satirizes the former's bullying and rabid talks. The author builds up the conflict and tension and shows the readers what the characters are doing and why they are doing it. The use of satire is seen when The newcomer mocks the Brahmin community about stealthily eating meat and fish. Localized words are used in the newcomer's talks to match his uncouth behaviour. Rajam lyer reminds himself of a proverb when the newcomer provokes him with irrelevant mockery but knowing the proverb did not stop Rjam lyer from continuing the brawl. "If you threw a stone into a gutter it would only spurt filth in your face
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    Father's Help 'Father's Help", another story was written by R.K.Narayan in the beginning of the Twentieth century, based on the experiences of a child in Indian circumstances. It highlights how the perspectives of a young boy and those of the adults around him differ. Like any other child of his age, the protagonist Swami, doesn't like to go to school. He makes flimsy excuses to stay away from school but miserably fails in his attempts. His father's interventions give an unexpected turn to his plans. The episode about the teacher Samuel, a disciplinarian, poses serious questions about teacher- pupil relationship. The simplicity of narration with deliberate descriptions of Swami's inner feelings is depicted in a lucid manner. His inner thoughts are described in brief and explicit mode with the notion of fear and tension. The ironical twist takes place at the end unexpectedly when Swami finds that his assistant headmaster is the teacher Samuel himself. Thus, creating an unexpected atmosphere the narrative process moves towards the ultimate twist of fate.
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    Missing Mail t The story 'The Missing Mail' is a mirror of the society of that era. It belongs to the first half of the last century. It tells us vividly about the life and psyche of the people of small town for whom the human relationship is always of top priority. The postman is concerned for the marriage of Kamakshi as she is his own daughter. He takes the unpardonable liberty to hide the telegram of the death of Ramanujam's uncle so that the wedding ceremony of Kamakshi is solemnized peacefully. This gives a human touch to the story. The simplicity of the characters of the story touches the hearts of the readers. It presents a sharp contrast of those times from the modern times. The narrative style sounds like the narrator knows everything about the character. He must be familiar with the main character and the surrounding area that prepares proper setting. The narrative dialogues mentioned in the story holds an opinion that characters act according the narration. There are abrupt words but say a lot and give many interpretations at a time. It may also bring debate or discussion among the learners.
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    rative techniques Limited in scope and range, a short story requires deep understanding of characters. It demands the abilities of compression and comprehension. His short stories are not just an extension of novels but a different activity created by same artistic zeal, integrity, structural craftsmanship and power of imagination. He narrates story at the deeper level where general truths are incorporated in artistic terms. His short stories glorifies oral story telling tradition and employs a wide range of genres and styles in his narrative structure to enforce moral and spiritual truths of the world. Usually his short stories are centered around one single plot and setting, a small number of characters and time period is also limited. Most of his short stories are written in third person narrative where the vision of unobtrusive narrator is broadly limited to one character or incident only. The narrative structure of his stories can be divided into three sections- setup, conflict and resolution. His stories dwell around the ordinariness and insignificance of rural villages. He develops Indian thoughts through the medium of English language. His skilful use of language depicts the customs and manners of a particular region. His success lies in individualizing his characters. "His strength of characterization lies rather in his thorough and close observation of life's little incidents, a healthy sense of humour and more than in his ability to bring a character to life with a few deft strokes of C. Venugopal,85). He gently pushes the readers right into the midst of life that he is presenting. There are some critics who find fault with Narayan for the ending of his stories in an unconvincing way. Just like O' Henry, he ends some of his stories with a 'sudden reversal of situation.
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    ntinued For some, some of these stories are inexcusably lengthy and discursive. They feel that Narayan has lost his grip over the successful narrative technique he employed in his earlier stories. Even in these stories, we find a rare and different kind of technique which bewitches the readers and keeps them spell-bound. Narayan's skilful use of language suits to his themes and techniques. As lyengar puts it "he wields so difficult and 'alien' a language like English with masterful ease, and conveys the subtlest shades of feeling and thought" (lyengar, 384). His thinking process is synchronized with the language he uses. He uses pure and limpid English, devoid of any suggestive epithets and intricate metaphors, easy and natural in its run and tone. 'His ultimate success is the clever blend of Indian words interspersed with the regular narrative without creating any jarring effect."( Kapadia, 158). The laughter he evokes is genuine and simple. Like the traditional story-teller he instructs in a mild way, but does not indulge in social criticism. Ramesh Shrivastava argues that Narayan's simplicity of style originates from his incapability to write a multi-dimensional prose (203). He is not capable of depicting intensity of emotions or imaginative or evocative descriptions. He is governed by the question of point of view. The first person narrative is a method which has helped him to produce his master pieces. His easy, straight-forward language and vocabulary express true Indian sensibilities. There is no obscure phrasing or constant use of compound words. Syntax comes closer to educated Indian's normal conversations. The underlying secret irony of his language is smooth and gentle which generates affluent humor and life. Brilliant combination of satire with humor is expressed by him to depict laughable foibles of human nature.
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    Conclusion William Wash sums up Narayan's use of language: "Narayan uses a pure limpid English, easy and natural in it's run and tone but always an evolved and conscious medium, without the exciting, physical energy sometimes adventitiously injected that marks the writing of the west Indians. Narayan's English in its structure and address, is a moderate traditional instrument but on obstructed from the context in which it was generated. The history, the social condition, the weather, the social memory-and transferred to a wholly different setting the brutal heat and hovering vultures, flocks of brilliant glittering parrots, jackals rippling over the rubbish and the deadly gray of an appalling poverty... Narayan's language is beautifully adapted to communicate a different, an Indian sensibility"(32).
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    Works Cited Narayan, R.K, Malgudi Days, Chennai,2012 Putatunda, S, R.K. Narayan: Critical Essays,Delhi,2014 Prasad, Critical Response to R.K Narayan, New Delhi,2003 Khatri, R.K.Narayan: Reflections And Re-Evaluation, New Delhi,2000 lyenger, Indian Writing in English, New Delhi,2012 Naik, A History of Indian English Literature, Delhi,2006
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