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Grammar - Punctuation Marks And Its Usage

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This PowerPoint presentation is on punctuation marks and its various usages in formation of grammatically correct and effective sentences.

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    Punctuation
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    Punctuation Types Full Stop / Period (o) Comma (l) ' Apostrophe ( ') Colon (: ) Semi-colon (;)
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    Full Stop / Period (o) Full stops are used to mark the end of a sentence that is a complete statement: My name's Beth and I was 18 in July. After leaving school, she went to work in an insurance company. to mark the end of a group of words that don't form a conventional sentence, so as to emphasize a statement: I keep reliving that moment. Over and over again. in some abbreviations, for example etc., Dec., or p.m.: There's a wide range of sandwiches, pies, cakes, etc. at very reasonable prices. in website and email addresses: www.oup.com If an abbreviation with a full stop comes at the end of a sentence you don't need to add another full stop:
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    Comma(,) A comma marks a slight break between different parts of a sentence. Used properly, commas make the meaning of sentences clear by grouping and separating words, phrases, and clauses. Here are the main cases when you need to use a comma: lists direct speech + To separate clauses + To mark off certain parts of a sentence 'With 'however'
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    Using commas in lists You need to put a comma between the different items in a list, as in the following sentences: Saturday morning started with a hearty breakfast of scrambled eggs, bacon, sausage, and French toast My favorite sandwiches are chicken, bacon and ham and cheese. Using commas in direct speech When a writer quotes a speaker's words exactly as they were spoken, this is known as direct speech. Steve replied, 'No problem.' You also need to use a comma at the end of a piece of direct speech, if the speech comes before the information about who is speaking. In this case, the comma goes inside the quotation mark: 'I don't agree,' I replied 'Here we are,' they said.
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    Using commas to separate clauses Commas are used to separate clauses in a complex sentence (i.e. a sentence which is made up of a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses). Having had lunch, we went back to work. I first saw her in Paris, where I lived in the early nineties. Passengers, who have young children, may board the aircraft first. Mary, who has two young children, has a part time job in the library.
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    Using commas to mark off parts of a sentence Commas are used to separate a part of a sentence that is an optional 'aside' and not part of the main statement. Gunpowder is not, of course, a chemical compound. His latest film, Calypso Dreams, opens next month. Using a comma with 'however' You should use a comma after 'however' when however means 'by contrast' or 'on the other hand': However, a good deal of discretion is left in the hands of area managers. Don't use a comma after however when it means 'in whatever way': However you look at it, existing investors are likely to lose out.
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    Apostrophe(') The best way to get apostrophes right is to understand when and why they are used. There are two main cases — 1. Using apostrophes to show Possession. 2. Using apostrophes to show Omission.
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    Using Apostrophes(') to show Possession You use an apostrophe to show that a thing or person belongs or relates to someone or something: Instead of saying the party of Ben, you can say Ben's party. Singular noun and most personal names: add an apostrophe plus s The dog's tail wagged rapidly. Yesterday's weather was dreadful, Personal names that end in —s: add an apostrophe plus s He joined Charles's army in 1642. Dickens's novels provide a wonderful insight into Victorian England.
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    OPIural noun that ends in —s: add an apostrophe after the s The mansion was converted into a girls' school. My duties included cleaning out the horses' stables. OPIural noun that do not end in —s: add an apostrophe plus s He employs 14 people at his men's clothing store.
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    Using Apostrophes(') to show Omission An apostrophe can be used to show that letters or numbers have been omitted. I'm - short for I am he'll - short for he will she'd — short for she had or she would pick 'n' mix - short for pick and mix it's hot - short for it is hot didn't - short for did not
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    Colon(:) There are three main uses of the colon: • Between two main clauses in cases where the second clause explains or follows from the first. That is the secret of my extraordinary life: always do the unexpected. It wasn't easy: to begin with, I had to find the right house. • To introduce a list The price includes the following: travel to London, flight to Venice, hotel accommodation, and excursions. The job calls for skills in the following areas: proofing, editing, and database administration. • Before a quotation, and sometimes before direct speech: The headline read: 'Taxi Driver Battles Gangsters' They shouted: 'Our families are starving! We need land
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    Semicolon(;) The main task of the semicolon is to mark a break that is stronger than a comma but not as final as a full stop. It's used between two main clauses that balance each other and are too closely linked to be made into separate sentences. The road runs through a beautiful wooded valley; the railway line follows it. An art director searched North Africa; I went to the Canary Islands. You can also use a semicolon as a stronger division in a sentence that already contains commas: The study showed the following: 76% of surveyed firms monitor employee Web-surfing activities, with 65% blocking access to unauthorized Internet locations; over one-third of the firms monitor employee computer keystrokes; half reported storing and reviewing employee emails; 57% monitor employee telephone behavior, including the inappropriate use of voicemail.

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