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Advanced Modals

Published in: English
  • Nihar H

    • Ahmedabad
    • 11 Years of Experience
    • Qualification: B.Com
    • Teaches: Zoology, Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry
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I created this interactive PPT to help teachers explain the rules for advanced modals, including exceptions and examples for each form. I hope it can help you.

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    POSSIBILITY MAY / COULD / MIGHT + infinitive - possibility in the present or future He may be on holiday (strong) He might be waiting for us at the station (less possible) MAY / MIGHT / COULD + have + past participle -to talk about possibility of past events He might have decided to go home early. He could have been a great athlete (unfulfilled past events)
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    CERTAINTY (DEDUCTION) MUST + infinitive — to say that we are sure about something in the present or past (have + past participle) He must be the teacher He must have forgotten about the meeting. CAN'T + infinitive (in negative sentences) / CAN'T + have + past participle You can't be her mum; you look so young! They can't have forgotten the meeting. I only reminded them this morning.
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    OBLIGATION - PROHIBITION - NECESSITY MUST / MUSTN'T + infinitive — to talk about present or future obligations MUSTN'T / CAN'T + infinitive - prohibitions I must finish my assignment today You must remember to go to the bank later on. You can't / mustn't use your mobile phone in class. HAVE TO (HAVE GOT TO) + infinitive - to talk about present or future obligations imposed by someone other than the speaker (NEED TO) I have (got) to see my tutor at the end of the term. All the visitors need to pay attention to the rules. HAD TO + infinitive — to talk about reported obligations They told us we had to apply for the course by 31 March
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    LACK OF OBLIGATION DON'T HAVE TO / DON'T NEED TO + infinitive or NEEDN'T + infinitive — to talk about lack of obligation in the present or future You don't have to attend all the lessons. You don't need to pay me back until next month / you needn't pay me back... DIDN'T HAVE TO / DIDN'T NEED TO + infinitive to say that something wasn't necessary You didn't need to bring a sleeping bag with you
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    ABILITY CAN / COULD + infinitive — to express typical situations or behavior It can be easy to find a summer job these days. CAN / BE ABLE TO + infinitive - to express present or future ability Many children can type before they can write COULD - COULDN'T / WAS - WERE ABLE TO + infinitive - to talk about general past ability I couldn't swim until I was seven COULD - COULDN'T + have + past participle - to talk about unfulfilled ability / opportunity in the past I could have learnt to ski, but I preferred skating
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    Advice (weak obligation) / Duties SHOULD / OUGHT TO + infinitive - to give advice or talk about duties You should speak in English at all times in class. In this university, you ought to show respect for your educators. SHOULD / OUGHT TO + have + past participle - to criticize our own actions or other people's actions. I should have told him myself You shouldn't have spoken in this manner.


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