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Practice Notes On English Literature

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The Notes that will help students to preapare their English Literature for their Board Exam.

  • 1
    Realisation of a Dream Comprehending This text is a translation of a speech delivered in Marathi by the first Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Sri Yashwantrao Chavan, on the occasion of the inaugural ceremony of the State of Maharashtra in 1960. Earlier it was a part of the Bombay State, which was again formed from the Bombay Presidency in 1950. The Bombay State was bifurcated in 1960 to form Maharashtra and Gujarat. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus epoch (ee-pok) — the beginning ofa period of history behalf — as a representafive of gratitude — thankfulness; appreciation; gratefulness jeopardy (jep-er-di) — danger of loss or harm; risk; threat; peril shield — barrier; defence; guard; bulwark; screen; shelter; protection watchword — a word or phrase expressing a central aim or belief Inscribe write or carve symbols or words on a surface backdrop the setting or background of a scene or event prosper — grow Analysing Preparation A. 1. The title of the text seems to imply at something that has been long dreamt of and finally achieved after a lot of sacrifice and struggle. 2. There is a sea of difference between 'having dreams' and 'realising dreams'. Merely having dreams symbolises laziness and inertia as well as insincerity towards work but realising them implies having a mission in life and the desire to complete that mission. The realisation process of a dream involves hard work and sacrifice but its final achievement is full of glory. 3. Yes, societies and nations can also have a dream. It IS based on such dreams that in a country like India we have a Constitution and documents like Directive Principles of State Policy. B. 1. The state of Maharashtra will work for the betterment of the common people of Maharashtra. 2. The Himalayas stand for India. 'Hard labour' is the watchword of our tlme. 3. 4. Our saints have taught us the principle of equality and taught us to fight against injustice.
  • 2
    Aids to Comprehension 1. 1. The speech was delivered on the historic occasion of the formal inauguration of the state of Maharashtra and the installation of its first Chief Minister, from the erstwhile Bombay State. 2. The people of high order who were present during the speech included Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister and Sri Prakasha,the Governor of the newly formed state of Maharashtra. 3. All Maharashtrlans believe that both India and Maharashtra can progress only if there is oneness of interest. 4. The speaker promises that if the Himalayas stand in danger of risk or threat, then the Shayadri of Maharashtra will use its black rock structure like a shield to protect the Himalayas. 5. The leaders have given the message of patriotism and self-government. 6. The speaker, Shri Yashwantrao Chavan, thanks the Honourable Governor (Sri Prakasha) and Panditji (Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru) on this occasion. 11. 1. Yes, we do agree to the fact that Maharashtra depends on India because it is a part of India and the very birth and existence of the state was as a result of the provisions of the Constitution of India. Any threat to the integrity of India is also a threat to the integrity of Maharashtra and any remarkable achievement by any part of India is also an achievement for Maharashtra. 2. Dnyaneshwar taught the prayer of removing darkness from the lives of the sinful and allowing only fruth to prevail in the world. The significance of this prayer is that it upholds the virtue of truth which can only be embraced by the brave and the pure. Truth, therefore, influences us to fight against injusfice and uphold the principle of equality. These are Integral to the development of the character of a state and the progress of its people. Dnyanseshwar was the introducer of the Varkarl Movement and strongly advocated devotion guided by knowledge. 3. Our saints have taught us about the importance of equality while fighting against injustice. 4. Sri. Yashwantrao Chavan's vision of a prosperous Maharashtra was a state where inequality would be banished and truth would prevail, where people would stand for justice and put in hard labour. Following the teachings of the Bhakti saints, the divine message of Mahatma Gandhi and guided by the blessings of Pandit Nehru, the state would also prosper by upholding its unity and integrity with India, the mother that gave birth to the state. Vocabulary 1. age — advancing years; lifetime; mature
  • 3
    eon (British English 'aeon') — extremely long period of fime; a major division of fime in geology epoch — according to geology, it is a sub-division of period era — a subdivision of geological aeon (eon period — a major portion of geological time that forms a part of an era super eon — a major pre-historical time period between 4.4 to 4.5 billion years ago 2. i. graphic — relating to visual art graphical — related to a graph or chart ii. optic — relating to the eye optical — relating to light and vision ili. electric — is a type of energy electrical — relates to the transfer and transmission of electric energy 3. happy happily coward — cowardly strange — strangely merry merrily narrow — narrowly scanty — scantily Grammar 1. Infinitlves are basic forms of verbs, which normally occur in English with the word 'to' as in 'to see' and 'to ask'. They are often complements used to define abstract nouns. i. The driver was arrested for failing to report the accident. li. My father made me gQ for a walk. Ili. Ramesh was made to pay back the money. iv. Sarika did not let me see what she was doing. v. Jay might be joking. 2. i. If you come to the library, we can complete the project. ii. If Geeta had sent an application, she would have got the job. iii. If my friends came late, I could wait for them. iv. If the girls didn't tease Sarita so much, she would spend more time in the office. v. If I got an invitation, I would have gone there. vi. If it gets hot tonight, I'll switch on the fan. Extension 1. Higher Education in Maharashtra
  • 4
    The progress of a state and its people IS synonymous with the quality of education Imparted to it. In this respect, it can be said that the state of Maharashtra has developed by leaps and bounds with respect to disseminating quality education, in spite of the fact that the state was born under the shadow of linguistic disparity and struggle, from the erstwhile Bombay State. The most encouraging picture about the educational scenario of Maharashtra is its success in bridging the gap between the 'education of the classes' and the 'education of the masses'. Pre- Independence, the classes had the luxury of an English-medium education and therefore an easy access to western science but the masses were largely deprived of such a luxury because of the cost of such an education and the lack of good educational institutes. However, in the post- Independence era, this discrimination was effectively ended by making English compulsory as a medium of instruction from high school onwards. This has helped students of the state to boldly pursue higher academics, both in India and abroad, without lacking in confidence on the linguistic aspect. Simultaneously, respective governments have consciously encouraged the establishment of higher educational institutes throughout the state, catering to the needs of all and sundry. So, there is no shortage of quality engineering, medical, law, management and general degree institutions pertaining to the sciences, commerce, humanifies and the liberal arts within the state. In fact, the city of Pune is known as the Oxford of the East because of the plethora of courses offered by the number of higher education institutes in the city, which makes it a preferred destinafion for a great number of foreign students. The state government has also emphasised a great deal on the establishment of private and self-financed educational Institutes to keep pace With the rapid pace of the educational needs of the people of the state. This has reduced the government's burden on budgetary allocations for educafion but also made education more relevant to the changing socio-economics. As a reflection of the success of this initiative, one can easily analyse the employment opportunities available to the students of this state which is very high because of the simple fact that the focus of higher education in Maharashtra has been on skill development. Also, the government has introduced a scheme of scholarships and subsidies in education to encourage more and more girl students and from the minority communities to take advantage of the opportunities made available to them for accessing higher education. However, more needs to be done in this regard as greater awareness must be created through mass campaigns. Numerous social reformers have also done pioneering work in patronising the expansion of higher education to larger sections of society by establishing schools, colleges and universifies. Among the noteworthy are Dadabhai Naoroji, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, D. Y. Patil, Yashwantrao Chavan and business houses like the Wadia and the Mujumdar families as well as social welfare societies like Narsi Monjee Society. However, still more needs to be done in this field. The state has to ensure that the light of education reaches its remotest nooks and corners. For this, the government should ensure the greater proliferation of online and distance education. A complete road map is necessary for this. However, since educafion is in the Concurrent List, the state has to coordinate with the centre to make that plan successful irrespective of differing political ideologies.

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