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English Literature Notes For Class 12

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By take through Notes, the students will get knowledge how to write a Journal and prepare them accordingly.

  • 1
    To be a Somebody, Remain a Nobody Comprehending The gist of K. S. Ram's essay implies the necessity of remaining down-to-earth and humble in spite of success. In fact, it is the humble which always rise to the top and remain there without the fear of a downslide. This is because they are not proud and egoistic—the two main debilitating factors of the human mind. However, in the early stages of one's life, people are driven by that urge for success and recognition, which at times, traps them into the miry bog. The author cites the examples of Emily Dickinson, the famous American poet of the nineteenth century; Rahim, the famous Hindi poet of medieval India; J. S. Mill, the famous English philosopher and economist; and Mahatma Gandhi as people who maintained humility all their lives, resulting in their legacies still remaining even after years of their death. There are many others, who were equally talented and who did enjoy a fair amount of success in their own lifetime but ultimately got lost in oblivion because their egos got the better of them. Therefore, the emphasis on remaining a 'nobody' as it always helps to shun the limelight and lead a peaceful existence. This allows people to focus on their work properly and thus sustain their reputations. Lastly, the author also implicitly says that proper parental guidance is also necessary in nurturing talent because In most cases, it is their over-protectiveness and extra show of support that leads to killing the talent of their children. One should not be blind about the faults of their children nor should one get into the minds of their wards the feeling of being extraordinary and therefore being 'more equal than others', as it happens with so many writers, sports personalities, actors, artists, musicians and others who consequently, end up as failures. The great British economist, C. Northcote Parkinson, also examined a similar pattern in the downfall of great empires, which started the moment they began to display their grandeur and might in front of the world. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus prominent — primary; major urges (u-js) — desires; cravings; longings; yearnings laurels (law-rels) fame and recognition; accolades. This word comes from the ancient Greek custom of decorating winners with crowns made of laurel leaves pitfall — hidden danger or difficulty; hazard; peril; trap subtly (sut-ly) — cleverly; shrewdly; tactfully Emily Dickinson — a famous American poet (the term 'poetess' is now obsolete) obscurity (awbskutiti) insignificance; dimness; Inconspicuousness apparent (aa-parent) — visible; evident; obvious dreary (dree-ree) — dull; bleak; depressing bog fen; marsh; mire; morass; quagmire adulation (ad you-layshun) — love and recognition bog you down — push you down stagnate — idle; languish; stale; degenerate; deteriorate downslide — downfall; deterioration sustain — continue; extend; keep going; maintain; prolong absolute terms — completely temporal — earthly; fleshly; worldly; transient; transitory pious (pai-us) — devout; a firm believer in god
  • 2
    Rahim Khanzada Mirza Khan Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana (1556 to 1626) was the son of Bairam Khan and an important minister in the court of Akbar. He was one of the 'navratnas' of the Emperor's Durbar and is known for his Hindi 'dohas' or couplets extol (x-tol) — praise enthusiastically abashed — ashamed; embarrassed assiduously (uh-sid yoo-uhssly) carefully; thoroughly purge (p-uj) cleanse; empty; eject; expel; remove doting (doe-ting) adoring; idolizing; worshipping stunt — prevent the growth of lauded (law-ded) — praised highly; extolled John Stuart Mill — a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant lisp a speech defect where 's' and 'z' cannot be pronounced properly; baby-talk heady (hay-dy) — feel excited grossly — completely; blatantly striving frying; attempting; working hard sequence (see-qu-ns) — order; line; course C. Northcote Parkinson (1909 to 1993) — he was a British naval historian Analysing 'The greatest challenge IS to be yourself in the world where everyone wants to be somebody else'. Nido Qubein 1. If I were forced to become somebody else, my reaction would be to resist it at all costs and make an honourable exit from the situation, frying not to antagonise anybody. 2. It IS always good to create our own Identifies because that gives us recognition In the world and makes our voice heard. Also, It helps us to inspire others to achieve. 3. The title of the text Indicates that to make a mark in this world, it IS most Important to remain grounded as much as possible. That prevents success from getting into our heads and prevents us from falling low when the tlme is not right. Aids to Comprehension 1 1. The very process of being a somebody may reduce you to a nobody. 2. you become a somebody, you invite enemies. 3. People love and extol me. 4. Gandhiji stunned everybody by cleaning up latrines. 5. Talent is lauded to the extent of killing it. 6. Other boys of Mill's age had, in fact, grossly undermined their capabilities. 11.
  • 3
    1. According to the author, a prominent urge in every person's life is to be a 'somebody' and to have an identity of one's own. 2. The author speaks of the human tendency of seeking recognition and forging ahead to uncharted territories. 3. Dickinson proudly declares she is happy to be a 'nobody'. This is because she feels that a somebody' is like a frog who croaks throughout the day to the bog or mire, to which the multitudes of admirers have been compared. 4. The downslide begins when people start feeling proud about their achievements. This is because they get used to the adulation and that feeling of speciality persists so much that it ultimately leads to stagnation. 5. To remain a free 'nobody' Gandhiji steadfastly and continuously brushed aside adulation. At the Congress session, he cleaned the latrines and indicated to the Congress workers to give up their false sense of status. 6. J. S. Mill learnt up Greek and Latin in early childhood not because he was extraordinary but because he was doing the same thing that others could do. In fact, children of his age could not utilise their capabilitles and were wasting their early years In striving too little. 7. C. Northcote Parkinson connects the raising of imposing buildings to the beginning of the decline of empires. 111. 1. The great poet Rahim, from emperor's Akbar court, felt rather embarrassed and ashamed when people praised him and as a consequence, lower his eyes. 2. By cleaning up the latrines during the Congress session, Gandhiji conveyed to the party workers the need to shed their false sense of status and stardom and return to the grass-roots. 3. According to the writer, doting parents kill the talent of their children by over-praising their commonplace acts and utterances. 4. In his early childhood, John Stuart Mill could read the Greek and Latin classics In original. This was at a fime when most children of his age could barely lisp a few words. 5. His father's constant reminders that what he was doing was nothing extraordinary because others were not striving hard enough to do the same thing kept him from being heady over his spectacular achievement. 6. John's father made him realise that other children of his age were merely wasting time and not trying hard enough to do what could be done. 7. The text conveys the meaning that to attain true success in life, one should shed pride and ego. There should be no inhibition about the type of work and people should also cease to consider themselves as superior to other human beings. Vocabulary
  • 4
    1. danger — pitfall cleverly subtly dull — dreary praise — extol carefully — assiduously prevent — stunt speak imperfectly — lisp feel excited — heady expressing clearly — enunciating Impressive — Imposing 2. The answer is 6c. Best of a group. Grammar Modal Auxiliary Verbs are verbs that express necessity or possibility, e.g. must, shall, will, can, may, might, should, could. Rhetorical Questions: 1. & 6. 1. Won't our cricketers come back as winners? Our cricketers will come back as winners. 6. Aren't children wiser than men? Children are wiser than men. Extension 1. Cleanliness Drive of Enthusiastic Schoolchildren Raises Social Awareness 1 January, Pune: The recently held cleanliness drive by the students of St. Patrick's School, Pune was a grand success because of the huge attendance and the general awareness that was raised regarding cleanliness and hygiene. The event started with an inaugural address of the Chief Guest, the local MLA. He emphasised not only upon the need for personal hygiene but also community hygiene which has an important part to play in preventing the spread of diseases and epidemics. Next, an eminent city doctor gave some important tips for maintaining hygiene. Thereafter, the Head Prefect administered the Oath of Cleanliness where everyone pledged to keep their surroundings clean. This was followed by a cleanliness drive where everyone picked up brooms and buckets to clean the neighbourhood and burn all the trash that could be burnt. All plastic materials were heaped in a separate pile, to be removed by the municipal workers later on. Everyone, including the Principal, the Chief Guest, teachers, students, parents, doctors and social activists participated enthusiastically.

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