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English Literature Notes For Class 12

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By take through Notes, the students will get knowledge how to write a Journal and prepare them accordingly.

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    Towards Ideal Villages Comprehending This chapter is about the remarkable achievements through organised human activities. A poor village in the drought prone Vidarbha region of Maharashtra sees a turnabout by virtue of a planned and disciplined approach to emerge as a 'model village'. This success story is to be repeated in 38 other villages of the state so that they become liveable and farmer suicides can be prevented. Such is the success of the scheme that Hiware Bazaar, the model village has a branch of the Bank of Maharashtra where there are 80 loan accounts totalling Rs 1 crore and there is not a single defaulter. In fact there are only three families which are below the poverty line whereas in 1989, all the 216 families were below the poverty line. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus experiencing frequent shortage of rainfall over long periods of drought-prone (drowt-prone) time revival — recovery; renewal; resurgence; upsurge acute — serious; Intense; severe; extreme watershed — an area of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins or seas reeling staggering under the burden of something revolutionary spark — the desire to do something new and different so that a difficult or adverse situation can be dealt with properly and forever addiction (a-dikshun) — compulsion; craving; dependence; fixation; habit; obsession vasectomy (vuh-sek-tuh-mi) — the surgical cutting and sealing of part of each vas defrence as a means of sterelisation pre-marital — before marriage norm — a standard that is required or acceptable complacent (kuhm-play-z'nt) — uncritically satisfied with oneself with oneself; smug initiate (ini-shi-ate) s tart empowerment — giving authority and power to build confidence and strength defaulters — people who fail to fulfil an obligation, especially to repay a loan perks — benefits that one is entitled to Analysing Preparation 1. a. Lack of irrigation facilities. b. Lack of banking facilities for irrigation loans. c. lack of cold storages and godowns. 2. Some of the problems, if not all, have been resolved to a great extent by the persistent efforts of the government through different schemes. For example, most villages have now been linked to towns and cities through inter-state and national highways to provide a ready market to the
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    producers. Similarly, new farmer loan schemes have been Initiated and some villages are receiving steady flow of electricity through the establishment of alternative electricity channels like solar energy and bio-energy. Aids to Comprehension 1. 1. Towards Ideal Villages Process of becomin an Adarsh aon Submit a proposa Inspection of the village by the Committee Follow the conditions/ rules The dedication to struggle against mediocrity Following democratic principles by taking decisions in the presence of all the members of the villagers at the Gram Sabha Chan es that take lace in Adarsh aon Reverse migration Free from any type of addiction No fear of HIV/AIDS and strict birth control Empowerment of women Decline in the number of BPL families No farmer suicides Establishment of branches of major nationalised banks and resultant financial empowerment 2. i. False. The aim of the State government's AGY is to make 50 villages 'Adarsh' every year. ii. False. After sending the proposals, the villages are inspected by the committee headed by Mr. Pawar. iii. False. The decision to become an ideal village is taken by the gram Sabha in the presence of all the villagers. iv. True. v. True. 11. Title Location Came under the state AGY (year) Complete revival in (year) Changes that took place • The Success Story of Hiware bazaar • Ahmednagar district, Maharashtra : 2014 : i. Watershed development — This was adopted to fight the acute water crisis in the region. Increased water levels resulted in better yields and more grass for animals to graze. This allowed farmers to adopt cash crops for cultivation and marketing of dairy products. ii. Health conditions — Health conditions have improved dramatically as villagers had to fulfil the criteria of being free from addiction to tobacco and alcohol. Also, there is compulsory pre-marital HIV testing to prevent infections as well as vasectomy. iii. Reverse migration — The success of the village In Its turnaround has led to many of the villagers in returning to their roots from the slums of Mumbai and Pune.
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    iv. Financial empowerment — Establishment of a branch of a nationalised bank to withdraw loans instead of being at the mercy of the village moneylender who charges exorbitantly and under unethical terms and conditions. 111. 1. The state's AGY scheme is an innovative scheme to make the poor villages of Maharashtra self-sufficient and prosperous. Under it, villages have to present a proposal to the government, which is then inspected by a committee. After fulfilling all the desired norms, the government allocates a sum of money, provided an equivalent contribufion is made by the village from its own funds. After the scheme is successful, the village repays the loan to the government. 2. According to Mr. Pawar, the decision to become an 'Adarshgaon' has to be jointly taken by all the villagers because there should be a unified and concerted effort in coming out of poverty. For this, certain strict norms need to be followed which include abstaining from tobacco or liquor, compulsory vasectomy and pre-marital HIV tests, and contributing to labour for village development. These are all individual choices and unfil everybody consents, the scheme cannot be fruitfully worked out. 3. Vidharba is a priority under the A Y G because of its severe drought-proneness and the high incidence of farmer suicides. The people are poverty-stricken because they are burdened with the pressure of land for agriculture, while at the same time there is complacency because of the number of 'Vidharba packages' 4. The women of Pandharkavda in Yavatmal district have pledged to take the challenge of not accepting the 'Vidharba package' and rebuild the village on their own. They have also promised that the funds given by the government to initiate the project would be returned. 5. The initiation of banking services also helped Hiware Bazaar to be a model by reducing the dependence on village moneylenders. Consequently, there are no defaulters in loan accounts. 6. It is difficult to bring behavioural changes in people all of a sudden, but not impossible. If there is a conscious and concerted effort made by people then definitely the most seemingly impossible tasks can be performed easily. The social changes that should be given priority include abstaining from liquor and tobacco, and encouragement for vasectomy and pre-marital HIV tests. Such social changes can be affected only when there is moral improvement at the personal level. One has to come forward and take the initiative and cannot wait for someone else to take the lead. 7. As a volunteer, I would interact regularly with the villagers, learn about the problems they are facing for the purpose of implementation of a scheme and provide guidelines and suggestions as to how to overcome the problems and proceed with the implementation. Also, I will ensure that the guidelines are properly discussed before being implemented. 1. is Jhamrun Mahali? What does the author announce about it?
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    Jhamrun Mahali is in the district of Washim in the Vidharba region of Maharashtra. The author announces that Jahmrun Mahali along with 37 other villages in the drought-prone, poverty-stricken Vidharba region are set to become Adarsh Gaons or Model Villages just like Hiware Bazaar village has become. 2. How much rainfall does Hiware Bazaar have annually? The village of Hiware Bazaar gets only 400 mm of rainfall every year. 3. What was the method adopted to resolve the acute water crisis of the village? How did the method bear fruit? The method adopted to resolve the acute water crisis of the village was the adoption of watershed development technique. This helped the villagers to get higher yields for their cash crops and provided greener pastures for cattle to graze on, which in turn, has helped them to market dairy products. Thus the method bore fruits and helped the villagers to come out of poverty. 4. When did the story of Hiware Bazaar begin? When did come under the state government's The story of Hiware Bazaar began in 1989. It came under the state government's AGY in 1994. 5. What are the strict rules that villages need to follow to be Adarsh Gaons? The process of becoming Adarsh Gaons begins with the watershed technique and water auditing. Also, it has to be ensured that the village's natural resources are responsibly taken care of by planting trees, stopping grazing, contributing labour to village work and expanding further to bring about social changes through improved behavioural patterns like banning tobacco and alcohol, practising vasectomy, and undergoing pre-marital HIV tests. Lastly, one of the conditions of the AGY is that the villages cannot accept any money from the government without themselves contributing an equal amount. Also, this amount has to be returned to the government. 6. is the greatest victory of the AGY? The greatest victory of the AGY is the reverse migration from the slums of the big cities to the villages. Almost 93 families have returned to their village. 7. What is the present financial condition of the families in Hiware Bazaar In comparison to that of 1989? As compared to 1989, when all the 216 families of the village were under BPL, today there are only three and even those are also frying desperately to come out of the situation. 8. Name some of the other villages that have been selected for the AGY. Some of the other villages selected for the AGY are Panharkavada of Yavatmal district and Sukru Naik Tanda, an adivasi village in Nanded district. 9. is the district that has experienced the highest number of farmer suicides? Yavatmal district has witnessed the highest number of farmer suicides.
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    Vocabulary 1. watershed, water levels, water management, water auditing 2. poverty-stricken — noun + adjective; self-sustainable — noun + adjective; watershed development — noun + adjective; water crisis — noun + noun cash crops — noun + noun dairy products — noun + noun model village — noun + noun village requirements — noun + noun success story — noun + noun water management — noun + noun watershed technique — noun + noun water auditing — noun + verb natural resources — noun + noun village work — noun + verb joint decisions — noun + noun social change — noun + noun ideal village — noun + noun reverse migration — noun + adjective; poverty line — noun + noun gram panchayat — noun + noun farmer suicides — noun + verb government funding — noun + verb branch manager — noun + noun loan accounts — noun + noun village economy — noun + noun money-lenders — noun + noun Grammar 1. i. Seema used to visit her grandparents regularly. ii. The committee had to meet urgently for the team to be selected for the final. It also needed to arrange practice sessions. iii. We used to find difficult words in the text using a dictionary. iv. That medicine used to taste bitter but couldn't avoid it at all. v. The sling needs to support grandmother's fractured hand. vi. As the examinations begin next week, I have to study regularly. vii. In the summer season, you have to get a fan for yourself. 2. Participles and Gerunds: A participle is a word that expresses action or a state of being and is used as an adjective, often ending in '-ing' or '-ed'. However, in their capacity as adjectives, they
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    modify nouns and pronouns. There are two kinds of participles: present and past. The present participles end In '-ing' and the past participles end in '-ed', '-en', '-d', '-t', '-n' or '-ne'. Gerunds are a bit tricky to understand. When a verb ends in '-ing', it may be a present participle or it may be a gerund. It is important to understand that they are not the same. When an '-ing' form is used more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a present participle. For example: Rupali is swimming. However, if the '-ing' form is used like a noun, it is usually a gerund. For example: Swimming is fun. The past participles in the following sentences have been underlined. a. A learned person is always respected. b. The firm requires qualified and experienced persons. c. Who doesn't love a well-kept garden? Two examples of past participle from the text are: a. The increased water levels resulted in a better yield. b. Yavatmal was the worst affected district with the highest number of suicides. Extension 1. India's Changing Villages For ages, the backbone of the Indian economy has been its villages, but these have always been neglected. Basic amenifies were lacking and there was no scope of employment generation in them. All these resulted in a mass exodus of unskilled labourers to the larger towns and cities. Such migration created problems of accommodation, hygiene as well as employment. Slums came up and filth accumulated everywhere. To prevent this situation from going out of hand, the government ultimately took some concrete steps to ensure that the villages were liveable and looked after. So, a lot of planning went into the problem of developing villages and providing them with the basic necessities. Now, they are no longer the same out-of-touch with-the world places. They are places where people can live with dignity and pride. Today's villages have almost everything that is available in the cities: electricity, water, schools, colleges, health centres and even banks. They are getting more and more self-reliant and the rate of migration towards the cities has slowed down in some cases. Although a lot need to be done, yet there has been a significant improvement from the previous scenario. In fact, more and more slum dwellers in the cities are preferring to return to their roots to resume agricultural activities because of the improvement in Irrigation facilifies, availability of farm loans at low rates of interest from nationalised banks that has reduced the dependence of money-lenders, provision of clean and green energy resources from bio gas plants and solar panels has improved street lighting and almost nullified the dependence on wood for fuel. Road and rail communications between the villages and cities have also improved. These steps by the government and the villagers themselves through the system of gram panchayats and gram sabhas have also encouraged multinational telecommunicafion companies to open shop in rural areas and more such organisations are easily approaching the villages to
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    buy land for the purpose of setting up factories and industries. Overall, the face of Indian villages is changing rapidly for the better. 4. Our Mission to Make Our Place Cleanest Everyone wants to live in a clean and beautiful place but no one is willing to make that effort to clean. Day in and day out we are confronted by roadside hoardings, newspaper, television and radio advertisements about the necessity and importance of cleanliness, but actually do not bother because of the fact that requires a lot of effort. We tend to question the role of the administration and the civic authorifies In not being able to maintain cleanliness of the city. However, when it comes to our homes, we ensure that they are absolutely spick and span. Things are kept in their proper places; floors are cleaned with brooms and mops at least once a day. We are also careful that visitors too do not dirty our houses when they come to meet us. This is in marked contrast to our neighbourhood which we willingly dirty. The quesfion that arises to our minds is why there is such divergence In our attitude towards our homes and our neighbourhood. Probably, it is because of the sense of proprietary that we have for our own homes but not for anything beyond. It is therefore a revelatlon of our selfishness. We are eager to use things meant for the public but not look after their upkeep. The only possible remedy for such a thing is that we organise vigorous campaigns across the country about the necessity to realise the importance of maintain social cleanliness. It helps to prevent the outbreak of epidemics and does away with undesirable stench besides maintaining the aesthetics. And such campaigns can only be successful if the inhabitants are themselves Involved and encouraged to participate. However, It IS always 'I' who has to take the first step.

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