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English Literature Notes For Class 12

Published in: English
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By take through Notes, the students will get knowledge how to write a Journal and prepare them accordingly.

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    Under the Yoke Comprehending This is a heart wrenching story of a woman's determination of saving her family from the brink of starvation. It points out the problems that farmers are beset With and the contributions of the womenfolk in the sustenance and development of the village economy. Yet, in spite of their efforts, their contributions go largely unrecognised. This does not, however, deter them to act selflessly for family and society. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus sufficient — enough confine (kuhn-fyn) — limit; restrict; circumscribe; enclose; restrain sphere — world; arena operations — functions; working; management subsidiary — less important; ancillary; auxiliary; complementary scribe — a person who copies out documents; clerk; amanuensis petitions — appeals; requests; solicitations; supplications Invariably — always; certainly; permanently embarked — boarded; began; departed; set out conceivable (kuhn-see vabl) — imaginable grievance (gree vaans) cause of complaint; injustice sundry different; various; divers; assorted enrolment (in-rohlment) — admission revenue (rah V-new) — Income; gain; yield dispensers — allotters; disbursers; distributors; Issuers venerable (venerabl) respected; admired; esteemed appellate — (typically of a court) concerned with or dealing with applications foe decisions to be revers ed supernatural some force beyond the laws of nature; abnormal; ghostly; inexplicable; magical; spiritual; occult; weird oracle — a priest who acts as a channel to communicate with god; an authority which is always correct deity (day-i-ti; dee-i-tl) — a god or goddess; creator; idol; spirit communal (kuh myoo-n'l) shared or done by all members of the community; collective; common; mutual banquet (bang-kwit) — feast invoked (in vokh'd) — prayed to a god or spirit to be witness; appealed; entreated; implored; solicited; supplicated solemnised (sol-uhm-nyzed) — a religious ceremony duly performed favourable; promising; propitious; suggesfing that there is a good auspicious (aw-spi-shuhss) chance of success postpone — delay tide over the — help someone through a difficult period
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    pitched in — joined In enthusiastically in some activity devoid (di voyd) completely lacking in pliant — pliable; modifiable scraggy — thin and bony trekking — long and difficult foot journeys ungainly clumsy; awkward intervened (in-teh veen'd) — came between two things to alter a situation; arbitrated; interceded; interfered; interposed; interrupted; intruded; mediated crazy — mad shaken shocked wheedling tone — flattering tone; endearing tone resolutely (rez-uh-lootly) — adamantly; boldly; firmly; determinedly; decisively propelled — drove; pished forward; pitchforked; set in motion; spurred; thrust simpleton — a foolish person slumped — collapsed; crashed; plunged; drooped; slouched exhausted — tired; worn out strapping big and strong kick up the heels — be ready racked his brain — thought very hard hoisted — lifted; hauled up; heaved embankment — dam; causeway; earthwork; mound; rampart wager (way-jer) bet; gamble procure — acquire; get hold of brooding thinking deeply about something; agonizing; dwelling spouse — husband or wife butted in; yoke — fastening a wooden plough over the necks of two animals to help them to pull it shuddered — trembled; shook; convulsed; jerked; shivered; vibrated ploughshare — the main cutting blade of the yoke furrowing making a channel; creasing; cutting; ditching; drilling; trenching sheer — absolute; arrant; complete; pure; total tongue-tied — to shy or embarrassed to speak rake — a tool consisting of a pole with metal prongs at the end, use for drawing together leaves or cut grass, or smoothing the soil breathless — panting; puffing; gasping; winded something which is difficult to believe; Impossible; improbable; inconceivable; Incredible miraculous; untenable; unthinkable trio (try-o) a group of three scornful condescending; contemptuous; contumelious; deprecafive; derisive; disdainful; dismissive; mocking prostrate (pross-trayt) stretching on the ground with the face down kneading (neading) massaging; pounding; pressing aching (a-king) — paining Analysing
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    'Though modern technology has changed the rural scene, farmers still face many problems'. 1. Some of the major problems that farmers face are the lack of proper irrigation facilities, poor farming incentives, non-availability of cheap loans to buy tractors or other implements for mechanised farming and lack of education. Also, they are riddled with social taboos and superstitions that prevent women from coming to the forefront and sharing an equal status in society. 2. These problems can be solved by the greater involvement of the government in village welfare activities and employing grass-roots workers to ensure that most of their problems are solved in a practicable manner within the ambit of the village itself. 3. Although women have an equal role to play in the development of the economy and culture, they are hardly credited for their activities. They share equal, if not more, responsibility in increasing agricultural activifies. After completing the household chores, the women accompany their men folk to the fields to participate in seeding, ploughing and harvesting. They also carry the harvested crops to the mills on their heads so that the grains can be separated from the husk. 4. The title of the story contains more than one connotation. Firstly, it conveys the literary meaning of working under the yoke which actually happens to Sheku's wife while ploughing their field. Secondly, it also conveys an implied meaning that the lives of the poor villagers are tied down to their fates and fortunes. Aids to Comprehension 1. 1. The boys came to school whenever they felt like. 2. The school-master did time-honoured jobs without a murmur. 3. It was unusual for disputes to cross the boundary of the village. 4. If financial difficulties threatened to postpone a scheduled wedding, the village often helped to tide over the situation. 5. Sheku asked the teacher to find him a bullock from somewhere. 6. Sheku's better half was a strapping woman standing head and shoulders above all other women and half the men in the village. 7. Sheku's wife pulled by the side of the bullock by sheer physical strength. 8. Together they went to work with a rake until the seed was evenly covered by the upturned soil.
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    11. 1. The subsidiary role of the school-master was to act as a scribe—to write letters, petitions and applications for the villagers. However, in due course of tlme, when it became known that the school-master did these time-honoured jobs without a murmur, the dimension of the subsidiary role increased to make him an adviser and counsellor to all and sundry. 2. The school-master was consulted for every problem with the belief that he was as well versed in law and commonsense as he was educated and wise like other school-masters. 3. To make up for the poor enrolment of the students, the school-master made numerous excuses like the school being In an experimental stage or that it was the fime for sowing seeds and so on. 4. Apart from being a school-master, the varied roles that he played included that of a judge, a policeman a revenue official and even a stamp vendor. 5. Sheku's problem was that one of his two bullocks had died and nobody was willing to help him in the sowing season. 6. By evening, Sheku and his wife had sown the entire two-acre land. 7. In the village, there was a varied reaction about the feat of Sheku's wife. It was a mix of admiration, astonishment and an occasional feeling of scornful amusement. 111. 1. The villagers got their disputes settled at the 'panchayat' meetings. If however, someone was dissatisfied by the opinion of the 'panchayat' then they could invoke some deity, a Supreme Being, recognised by everyone. However, that meant an expenditure of seven or eight hundred rupees because a communal banquet had to be given before invoking the Supreme Being. 2. Weddings were also solemnised on a communal basis on an auspicious day so that no one was ever required to feed the whole village single-handedly. There might have been the possibility of ten or twenty weddings a year and each family was required to feed more or less of an equal number of persons. If ever there was a postponement due to financial difficulfies then the village members pitched in to tide over the situation. 3. Sheku's wife solved his problem by getting herself tied to the yoke alongside the other bullock and ploughing the field. 4. The character in the story that appeals the most is the character of Sheku's wife because she is a woman who shows a strong determination to fide over the problem that has befallen her family by the death of one of her bullocks. No amount of adversity can bog her down. After her husband gives up hope of getting a bullock from anybody, she herself tries to get one. When even that proves to be a failure, Sheku's wife lets herself fill in for the other bullock. In spite of her supreme effort her name remains unknown to us till the very end of the story. This is
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    symbolic of the fates of almost all village women who share equally in their husbands' fate but whose sacrifice goes unnoticed in the face of gender disparity. 111. 1. Why does the narrator say that the school had no regular calendar? The narrator says that the school has no regular calendar because everywhere else there was a summer vacation but in that village, they took a break for the harvesting season. 2. is the school-master's lot compared to that of the country bus driver's? As country buses cannot ply unless there is a sufficient number of passengers in it, the bus driver has no work to do. So also the school master had no work to do because of the fact that the children attended school as and when they liked and he could not do anything until there were a sufficient number of children. 3. How often did the school-master visit his hometown? The school-master visited his hometown every weekend. 4. X/hat kind of advice and counselling did the school-master offer to everyone? The school-master offered advice regarding everything from lost sheep to a quarrel with the wife. 5. How did the narrator keep the school going? The narrator had kept the school going by letting it play the function of a court, a village-hall a police station and a municipal office in addition to being a school. 6. vVho were the main dispensers of justice in the village panchayat? The main dispensers of justice in the village panchayat were the school-master and such venerable villagers like old Karbhari, Rama's Kakuba, Shekuba and others. 7. was the rule of judgement in the village? The rule of judgement in the village was that people usually accepted the decision of the 'panchayat' and paid the fine decided by them. 8. What did people do if they were ever dissatisfied with the judgement of the panchayat? If the panchayat failed to deliver satisfactory judgement then people appealed to an appellate authority, usually a Supreme Being or deity whose oracle was recognised by all the shepherds of the district. The goddess was consulted in the presence of all the shepherds of the district. 9. Why does the narrator say that a stage had come when the village could no longer do without him? The narrator says so because he had wholeheartedly plunged himself in the day-to-day life of the village in spite of his Dadu's threat. 10. What was the cause of the unwanted weeds?
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    The cause of the unwanted weeds was the 'Mriga' rains which had resulted in the fields being overgrown with thick, hardy grass. 11. How much longer did the farmers wait before sowing the seeds? The farmers had to wait for another rainy fortnight and a spell of dry weather before commencing with farming activifies. This is because, the rains had caused the soil to become softly pliant but as there was still too much water on it, the dry spell had to be waited for. 12. Which are the crops generally grown by the farmers? The crops generally grown by the farmers are bajra, gram and other pulses. 13. What do we get to learn about Sheku and his wife from the text? From the text it IS learnt that Sheku is not often seen in the village and he has two or three acres of land just outside the village, whose cultlvatlon was his only interest In life. His face was scraggy and his feet were dusty and the nails on his toes were ungainly. Sheku's wife was a strapping woman, taller than all the village women and half the men. In fact, on the field, she could do a man's work. We also learn that one of his two bullocks have died and as the ploughing season is nearby, he requires another one but nobody is willing to lend him one. 14. What was the predicament that Sheku and his wife were faced with if they could not get a bullock? If a bullock could not be got, Sheku and his wife were looking at imminent starvation. 15. Why cannot anyone lend a bullock to Sheku? No one can lend a bullock to Sheku because they have their own sowing to do without delaying It in any way. 16. Why had Sheku come to the school-master for the bullock? Sheku had come to the school-master for a bullock out of sheer desperation. Having failed to find one for himself from anyone he was of the opinion that only the school-master could help him because everyone in the village said that he was helpful in tlmes of difficulty. 17. Who was with the school-master when Sheku came? 1%at was the reaction of the second person at Sheku's plea? Ayubu was with the school-master when Sheku came to him for seeking help. Ayubu intervened on behalf of the school-master by admonishing Sheku and then turning him away. 18. What couldn't the school-master brush away after Sheku left? After Sheku left, the school-master could not brush away the feeling that it merely teaching the village people to read and write would not solve their problems. Their needs were different: Ayubu was without a family, Ananda needed bread and Sheku wanted a bullock. 19. What was Sheku's situation two days later? Two days later, Sheku was still without a bullock although he had travelled far and wide about it. In exhaustion, he slumped down on the floor of his house.
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    20. Describe the look that the woman saw in her husband's eye. In her husband's eye, the woman saw the look of a lamp which has nearly run out of oil. 21. What did Sheku's wife resolve to do after seeing her dejected husband? Sheku's wife resolved to find a bullock by the next day so that they could start sowing their fields. When prodded by Sheku, she curtly replied that it was her responsibility to find a bullock and he should not bother about it. 22. Was Sheku's wife finally able to find a bullock? Yes, Sheku's wife did find the bullock in herself. After failing to procure one from anybody else, she decided to get herself yoked to the plough and pull alongside the bullock. 23. How did Sheku react to his wife's decision? Sheku was very shocked by his wife's decision and shuddered at the thought. After great difficulty, he managed to find his voice and make his protestations but when his wife resolutely asked him to tie her up tightly to the yoke, he gave in. During lunch Sheku was tongue-tied once again. 24. How long did they work on the field and by evening, how much of the land had been tilled? They worked with a rake untll the seed was evenly covered by the upturned soil and by evening, they had sown the entire two-acre plot. 25. What did the school-master see, standing in front of Sheku's house? Standing in front of Sheku's house, the school-master saw inside that his Wife was lying prostrate against the side of a wall and Sheku stood on her back, kneading her body with his feet. Supporting himself by placing both his hands against the wall, he was massaging his wife's aching back with a slow movement of each foot. 26. What message does the last paragraph of the story convey? The last paragraph conveys the message that no work is either too lowly or too high to be done. Also, for a happy life, people should equally share the burden of the family by overcoming their false egos and sense of pride. In his despondency, the frail Sheku was bailed out by his strong willed wife with a manly strength and in return, he took up the responsibility of providing succour to his wife by messaging her back In order to relieve her of her pain. 27. What is the source of this story? The source of this story is a chapter from the English translation of Vyankatesh Madgulkar's novel, Bangarwadi, done by S. D. Deshmukh. Vocabulary 1. rational — irrational mortal — immortal visible — invisible connect — disconnect responsible — Irresponsible practicable — impracticable legal — illegal regular — irregular
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    adequate — inadequate logical — illogical violence — nonviolence natural — unnatural efficient — inefficient literate — illiterate cooperation — noncooperatlon courage — discourage curable — incurable agree — disagree credible — incredible -s grace — disgrace relevant — irrelevant legible — illegible mobilize — immobilize tolerable — intolerable ability inability honour — dishonour educated — uneducated stop — nonstop loyal — disloyal profitable — nonprofitable 2. Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Grammar Noun satisfaction sufficienc com laint occasion finance difficul reveal weddin Verb safisf , -in , -ied, -les suffice, -s, -in -d com lain, -in , -s, -ed occasioned financed, -in wed, reveal -In , -S, ed Adjective satisfacto sufficient x occasional financial difficult revealing, revelato x Adverb satisfactoril sufficientl com lainin I occasionall financiall difficultl x x 1. i. She was rich enough to buy a car. ii. The old man was too weak to walk properly. iii. The mathematical problem was too difficult for the students to solve. iv. Their house is large enough to accommodate their large family. v. She is too emotional to tolerate any rude behaviour. vi. The peak was too high for the mountaineers to climb. vii. The dog was sensitive enough to trail the hiding place of the criminals. 2. ii. He said that those who owned bullocks had their own sowing to do as no one would put up with a delay in sowing. He had tried everywhere. When the teacher asked him, whom he should ask in that case, the latter replied that the teacher could ask anybody he liked but the teacher should help him in his need.
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    iii. She enquired of her husband whom he had asked and he replied that he had asked all over the village but no one was prepared to give him a bullock. Again, when she queried what was to be done, he replied that they would starve to death. iv. She announced bravely that they would start sowing the next day and when he raised the question of the bullock, she replied that she would get one. When he asked her from where she would get the bullock, the reply was that she would get it from wherever she pleased. v. When he asked his wife that couldn't she get the bullock, she asked in return who had said such a thing. Then she asked him to get the plough ready and when he queried about the bullock once again, she replied that the bullock could be yoked at one end and she would pull at the other. Extension 1. According to the report of the India Meteorological Department, the picture of the rainfall in the whole country for the period 1 st to 27 dl June, 2012, is depressing (Source: T 01, July 1, 2012). the normal rainfall should have been 139.9 mm, the actual rainfall has been 108.1 mm, a shortfall of about -230 0. The highest percentage deficit in rainfalls was witnessed in north west India (-630 0) where the actual rainfall was 20.8 mm, far below the normal of 55.4 mm. In central India and the south peninsular India, the deficits were by 34 and 280 0 respectively. While in central India the actual rainfall was 90.6 mm against the normal of 137.4 mm, in the southern peninsular region, it was 100.6 mm against the normal rainfall of 139.3 mm. The only saving grace was noticed in east and north-eastern India where the rainfalls were 40 0 in excess of the normal. Here the actual rainfall was 322.8 mm as against the normal of 309.1 mm. 2. Beneficial government schemes for farmers. Akashvani Colony Sholapur Highway Pune To The Editor Bombay Times Mumbai Sir, A recent visit to the numerous government agencies like the Gram Panchayat, Taluka Panchayat Samiti, Municipal Council, Zilla Parishad and other such organisatlons revealed a slew of beneficial schemes that the central and state governments have planned for providing benefits to farmers but which they are unaware of because of lack of initiative In properly advertlslng and reaching out. So, your newspaper can act as a platform for reaching out to them and lightening their burdens. Also, the act would enable them to take advantage of the schemes and reduce the number of farmer suicides in the state significantly.
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    The first and foremost benefit that can be availed of is the farming Insurance provided by a leading public-sector non-banking financial institution. This scheme IS a term policy, where the farmers have to collectively pay an annual insurance premium for covering their crops against natural disasters like floods and droughts or insect attacks or fires. Within it is also included the quality of seeds available. This is a group insurance policy and within its ambit comes an entire village as demarked under a gram panchayat. Secondly, the government is providing farming loans at low rates of interest to the farmers through the Rural Banking Scheme. These loans can be utilised to purchase seeds, farming implements and fertilisers. As an incentive to the use of natural fertilisers Instead of chemical ones, a further rebate is given in the interest charged. Lastly, the government has also taken the innovative and bold step of providing training to farmers in Innovative farming practices whereby they can grow better quality crops and get higher yields by scientific methods of cultivation. At the same fime, free soil testing is done to advise the farmers as to which kind of crops can be grown best for optimum outputs and higher profits. For this, Agricultural Scientists are regularly sent to interact with the villagers by the concerned government department. Also, a 24-hour toll free telephone helpline has been started to provide farming related information and advice by experts in the language of the farmers thems elves. If all these beneficial schemes are properly utilised then most of the farming problems of the country would be easily resolved. Yours sincerely Ganesh Dhage

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