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English Literature Notes For Class 12

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By take through Notes, the students will get knowledge how to write a Journal and prepare them accordingly.

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    What Would it be Like? Comprehending This article, written by Muhammud Yunus, the great Noble Prize winning economist from Bangladesh, explores the possibility of eradicating poverty from the face of the earth. The author feels that with the help of micro-credit a lot of the poverty-related problems can be eliminated and the countries of the world would not require doling out packages and other benefits, which actually add to the burden of the national economy. Like there has been a concerted effort to do away with slavery, polio and apartheid, there should also be a concerted effort to fight poverty. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus cynicism (sl-nih-ciz'm) — doubting; mocking; questioning; sneering conceive (kuhn-seve) — think of; devise; design; hatch; imagine malnutrition — undernourishment because of lack of enough food and the right kind of food; hunger; starvation subsidized — funded by government or other agencies to support an undertaking that is in the public interest; aided; financed; sponsored handouts — money given In aid to needy persons and organisations soup-kitchens — places from where free food is distributed to the poor and the homeless safety-net — a safeguard against possible hardships rationale (ra-shuh-nahl) — logic or reasoning for a course of action or belief riddled — filled with something undesirable; perforated; pierced; punctured; peppered innovations (In-noh vay-shun) — a new method, idea or a product; change; invention; departure; novelty; reform boom-and-bust cycles — these are situations when the economy surges up or falls down steadily and are highly dependent on market factors surmount — overcome catastrophe (kuh-tass-truh-fi) — calamity; cataclysm; debacle; disaster; fiasco; tragedy; blow bankruptcy (bank-rup-si) declared by law to be unable to pay one's debts; insolvency; liquidation; insolvency; ruination downturn — a decline in economic or other activity enterprises — projects or undertakings sovereign — autonomous; independent; self-governing democratic — chosen; elective; popular; representative apartheid (uh-par-tayt) an official policy of racial segregation or discrimination that was earlier followed in South Africa reinforcing — bolstering; fortifying; strengthening; augmenting Analysing Preparation 1. 'Great men' dream for everyone where larger numbers of people will benefit, irrespective of class, boundary, social structure, religious constraint or any such debilitating factors. 2. Dr. Babasaheb (Bhimrao Ramji) Ambedkar and Mahatma Jyotiba Phule dreamt of an India that would be free of the social evils of caste discriminafion and gender inequality, enabling the
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    establishment of a truly modern country. They were great social reformers and worked untiringly towards the development of society. They advocated the rights of Dalits and women and took on the Brahmins for their exploitative attitude. 3. Muhammad Y unus is a great Bangladeshi social reformer and Noble Prize winner for Peace (2006) who has introduced the concept of microfinance and microcredit to the poor so as to make them independent of the clutches of traditional money-lenders. The aim of his concept is to improve the economic condition of the poor and make them self-reliant. 1. 1. False. Today 40,000 children die daily around the world from hunger related diseases. 2. True. 3. True. 4. False. Finally, a poverty-free world would be economically much stronger and far more stable than the world today. 11. 1. According to the author, a world without poverty would mean a place where person would have the ability to take care of their basic needs In life and nobody would die of hunger or suffer from malnutrition. All the people of the world would have access to education and good health- care services because they would be able to afford them. Also, all Institutions created for providing dole to the poor and needy would cease to exist as there would be no poor or needy. 2. Yes, a world without third or fourth-class citizens can be created just in the same way sovereign' states, 'democratic' political systems or 'free' market economies are created. 3. Note: Here the question should actually read as 'poverty-free' rather than 'poverty-ridden'. In such a world, the economy would be much stronger and more stable compared to the world's economy at present. Nobody would be at the mercy of anybody else in such a world. 4. The poverty free world would take care of natural disasters by the market mechanism of Insurance and other self-paying programmes, assisted by other social-consciousness-driven enterprises. 5. A developed world will be a class-less society although there might be slight differences between the middle-class and the luxury class. This difference would be similar to the difference between first and second-class carriages on European trains of today. There would not be any third or fourth-class. 6. Yes, governments play a role in a poverty-ridden society. It undertakes campaigns of social support and poverty alleviation by distributing aid to the poor and the homeless, thereby Increasing the burden on the public exchequer, without any significant reduction in poverty
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    levels. Thus, it actually contributes to the growth of poverty by limiting the scope of Innovation and undertaking charity. 7. Yes, creating a poverty-free world is a greater challenge than anything else because it will need to transcend the boundaries of social stratification, religion and caste and political and geographical demarcation. 8. The term 'Apertheid' is defined as a policy of social segregafion and discrimination of the blacks that was earlier practised in South Africa. By this inhuman practice, the white ruling classes captured and kept the natural resources of the country under their control. 111. 1. To achieve his desire, the author suggests the concrete plan of implementing the principles of micro-finance practically. 2. In fulfilling this desire, the youth have a large role to play. They should come out whole- heartedly and be ready to work hard even at the ground levels. It is the youth which can ultimately make the concept of micro-finance and the idea of poverty-alleviation absolutely successful. 3. A poverty-free world is a possibility if planned properly. Most of our energies and resources are wasted In providing aid to the poor and the homeless. This can be prevented by creating a conducive atmosphere such that nobody is poor or homeless. In such a case, dependence on aids and charities as well as the practice of begging would totally cease. 4. Liberalisation of the market would allow organisations to work with lesser capital investment and earn greater profits while reaching out to the grass-roots level. Also, taxes and tithes have to be reduced and rules for trade and business should be simplified. Thus, a free economy would have lesser government interference and greater freedom for organisafions to conduct business, while at the same time, contribute to corporate social responsibility. 5. A 'Free Market Economy' implies an economic setup where there is little governmental intervenfion in the form of taxes, levies or subsidies, except for enforcing private contracts or the ownership of property. Under such a market, most of the producfion is under the hands of the private sector. Vocabulary 1. i. micro-credit — help poor families to overcome poverty 11. first-hand — direct personal observation or experience hand outs something that is given or distributed free 111. IV. soup-kitchens — place where food is offered free state-run — government owned v. VI. safety-net safeguard against adversity vii. boom-and-bust — alternate periods experienced by the economy
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    2. i. apartheid — discriminafion on the grounds of a person's race li. utopian society a community aiming for a society in which everything is perfect ili. approximafion — the estimafion of something in a fairly accurate way iv. surmount — overcome a difficulty v. rationale — a set of reasons for a course of action or belief vi. inhabitant — a person who lives In or occupies a place Vil. reinforce — make a feeling, idea etc. stronger or more intense Note: Although 're-inforce' is a hyphenated word in the Board's textbook, in modem English, it is a single word without the hyphen. Thus, 'reinforce' is the actual fom of the spelling. Degrees of Comparison 1. Most metals are less precious than gold. 2. You have lesser books than me. 3. No man was wiser than Birbal in the court. 4. No woman In the world looked happier than her. 5. There is no other work in dancing that is earlier than the Natya Shastra. Extension How can we lead people from the poverty-ridden world to the poverty-free world? 2. In order to realise the dream of complete eradication of poverty from the face of the planet there should be a whole-hearted and sincere effort from all levels of society. People should view this as a collective problem and come out of the debilitating factors of caste, religion and region to contribute to the overall development of society. The first and foremost thing that is needed to counter poverty is to encourage business and industrial production. For this, governments need to adopt an 'open and free market' policy. The policy should focus on reformative measures like introducing practical and defining guidelines, lessening government interference, simplifying licensing laws, reducing taxes and bank interest rates and encouraging small entrepreneurs. Reducing bank Interest rates will allow people to take loans and repay them easily while reduce the dependence on survival only on bank interests from savings schemes. Thus, the major focus will be on Investments. Lessening the burden of taxes will allow more consumerism and therefore generate a higher growth market with greater purchasing power. This is another very important decision to encourage business and remove poverty. Secondly, the governments should encourage micro-finance and micro-credit institutions to reach larger sections of society at the grassroots level so that people do not have to depend on money-lenders and their exorbitant rates to sustain their families. This would help them to start their own small-businesses and gradually develop them into larger setups. In this regard, the government should use its own channels to effectively introduce the above concepts as private organisations might not always operate on a not-for-profit principle. At the same time, there should be concrete guidelines as to the recovery of the loans disbursed through the system In an efficient manner without resorting to strong-arm tactics. Thirdly, governments should gradually withdraw all subsidies and charities given for the purpose of aiding the poor and the homeless. This would encourage them to find a means of
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    sustenance for themselves rather than make them dependent on government dole and thereby encourage lethargy. Fourthly, there should also be a concrete policy to improve education and healthcare facilities in the country so that their benefits are available to everyone. As a part of their corporate social responsibilities, large business organisations should be asked to start schools and hospitals that would cater to the needs of their employees at affordable rates. Education should emphasise on skill development and research so that the receivers of such education are market- ready for better job opportunities. Merely vending degrees and certificates should be discouraged. Also, to attract quality teachers, teaching should be made a paying profession with greater opportunities for career growth. Research must be made a compulsory part of education right from the school-level. Healthcare can be improved by making It compulsory for the manufacturers of drugs and medicines to print the generic names on the labels and asking doctors to prescribe medicines according to their generic names rather than their brand names, so that people know which medicines to choose from. These should be the main areas of focus in fighting against poverty although there are many more areas where focus IS necessary.

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