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English Literature Notes For Class 12

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By take through Notes, the students will get knowledge how to write a Journal and prepare them accordingly.

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    Who was the Happiest of Them All? Comprehending Narrated in the form of a story within a story, 'Who was the Happiest of Them All' is a story with a moral. Here, a little girl complains that for the previous three days her grandmother had not told her any stories about kings and this time she wanted to hear the story of a good king, not one who does horrible things with his subjects, like jailing them or punishing them. Grandmother then tells Meenu the story of a good king who always thought about the welfare of his people and constantly looked out for ways and means to keep them happy. However, the people of his kingdom, who were happy and had plentiful for themselves, were used to getting much more and in due course of time, their need turned to greed. This actually came to the fore when the King's minister advised him to throw open the gates of the royal garden so that people could come In and meet him in person. In doing so, they first wandered in the outer regions of the garden and plucked whichever fruits and they liked and as much as they could. But, as they went deeper into the garden, the people were greedily collecting the golden fruits and the flowers made of precious stones, forgetting the ones they had already plucked. Finally, the people found that the King was waiting for them across a river and to go and meet him, they had to keep their sacks on the bank and then wade across. This made them angry as they were wet and had to leave behind what seemed to be a lifetime's collection. After the enfire episode, the King felt rather saddened by the greed of his people. However, one young man was quite cheerful in spite of it all. He had left behind what he collected and was the first to cross the stream to meet the king. He was quite content at having tasted the tasty fruits to his heart's desire and thankful that the king had allowed them to the opportunity to roam in the beautiful garden. This explanation brought a smile to the King's face and the whole exercise turned out to be a lesson well-learned people who are frilly happy, are never swayed by gains or losses. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus pouted (pow ted) — pushed the lips forward in order to make a facial expression to show sulking terrace — the flat upper portion of the a house or palace prosperity wealth; richness; affluence; opulence contented (kuhn-ten-ted) satisfied; complacent; gratified; pleased summon — officially ask someone to attend a meeting; command; convene; convoke; muster humming singing rear — back buzz — a low and continuous humming sound wailed — cried In a high-pitch out of pain, anger or grief; caterwauled; lamented; mourned trudge (truj) walk with slow and heavy steps beckoned (be-kond) signalled to approach swayed (swade) — moved from Side to side; oscillated; rocked; rolled; swung; undulated Analysing
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    Preparation 1. Old age is like a second childhood and so, grandparents are able to relate to children easily because of the childishness that they develop. Moreover, they are always ready with an abundant supply of stories about kings, queens, warriors and so on. That is why they are loved so much by grandchildren. 2. Grandmothers usually tell stories about kings and queens, princes and princesses, magnificent palaces, beautiful gardens with different types of juicy and tasty fruits, sweet-smelling and pretty flowers, and huge ponds with clear dazzling waters full of rare fishes. 3. Such stories are made unforgettable because of the mode of narration which is like a dream- sequence. Children are almost able to visualise the scenes. Listening to the Text 1. 1. Chandan was the minister to King Amrit. 2. The king and the minister spotted the weekly market from the terrace of the palace. 3. The king was delighted to see the prosperity of his kingdom. 4. The next day he asked his people about their contentment in the special session of his court. 5. The king decided to test what the people said in the court. 11. 2. False. 3. False. 4. True. 5. False. 111. 1. Except for the young man who was the first to cross the stream, all the other commoners were ashamed of their behaviour. 2. The young man was not sad because he had not attached any material value to the things in his sack. He was not greedy about collecting a lifetime's possession. He had eaten to the full all the tasty fruits that he wanted to eat and knew that if his little daughter could not taste the fruits of that garden, then she would definitely be able to do so from some other garden. 3. There was a smile on the king's face because finally he had come across somebody in his kingdom who was contented With whatever he possessed. Aids to Comprehension
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    1. Meenu was upset because her grandmother, Ajji, had not told her a story about a king for three days. 2. From this story we get to know that Meenu's grandmother, Ajji, is a very good storyteller and IS a wise lady because she does manage to convey a moral through the story she narrates. 3. According to Ajji, kings needed intelligent ministers to give them proper advice when they are making mistakes and to show them the right path at times. 4. In this text, Ajjl mentions two examples of good kings and intelligent ministers. The first example is that of Emperor Akbar and Birbal and the second one is that of Raja Krishnadevaraya and Tenali Rama. 5. Our well wishers like parents, grandparents, teachers and friends can tell us when we are doing something wrong. 6. The grandmother's advice can be followed by listening to our well wishers and rectifying ourselves accordingly. b. 1. Ajji shared a beautiful relationship with her grandchildren. They were very close to her and loved her very much and so were always eager to listen to stories from her. Ajji also loved to gratify them by telling stories as per their wishes. And she made sure that the stories are told in an intelligent and Interesting manner so that a moral could be conveyed, which would be remembered for a long fime. 2. King Amrit was a good king because he was always concerned about their welfare. He made sure there was peace and prosperity in his kingdom. However, he thought that this peace and prosperity was mistaken for contentment by him. He realised that by contlnuously catering to the needs of his subjects, the king was making them greedy for more. 3. King Amrit shared a special bond with his minister, Chandan. Chandan was wise and Intelligent and was used to the strange orders of the king. But, he was also able to provide proper guidance to the king when necessary and the king did not feel belittled while accepting Chandan's advice. 11. 1. King Amrit was happy on seeing the market because the people were buying and selling cheerfully, dressed in colourful clothes. There were plenty of things to buy and people had the money to buy too. Also, there were no poor people in sight anywhere. So the king felt a sense of achievement in making his people happy and prosperous. 2. The minister, Chandan, corrected the king's folly by advising the latter to test his subjects. Accordingly, the king asked his people to meet him the next day in his garden. The condition
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    was that they would have to enter through the main gate and walk towards him to the rear. At the tlme of entry, they would be given sacks and the people were to fill up those sacks with whichever fruits or flowers they wanted. As per the plan, the people gathered in front of the gates on fime and filled up the sacks with juicy fruits and beautiful flowers. However, as they moved deeper inside the garden, the people came across golden apples, silver mangos and flowers studded with gems and jewels. Soon the fruits and flowers were forgotten and the people were greedily collecting a lifetime's worth of wealth. On further penetrating the forest, they found that the king was waiting for them on the other side of a stream which was not very deep but which had a strong current. There were no boats to carry the people across and neither could they swim across the stream with their heavy sacks. Consequently, the people had to unwillingly leave behind their sacks and wade across it to meet their king. All these events were being closely followed by the king and they saddened him. Through this exercise devised by Chandan, King Amrit realised that in the name of contentment, his subjects were actually being greedy. 3. The punch line or the climax of the story can be found in the realisation that to meet the king, the commoners would have to leave behind their sacks full of treasures and wade across the stream. They had completely forgotten that the king had devised a test to check whether his subjects were really contented or not. 4. True happiness, according to Chandan, is being contented With what one has as long as the material needs are satisfied. However, when greed gets the better of us then we tend to lose that happiness in our constant pursuits of material wealth. 5. The characteristics of a good narrafive are proper examples for explaining a point. This story is also laden with examples. In fact the entire story of King Amrit is an example of the ill-effects of greed. Then again, Ajji points out the names of such great counsellors such as Birbal and Tenali Rama who helped their kings to govern judiciously. 6.* What kind of story did Meenu want to listen to? Menu wanted to listen to a story about a good king, not a horrible one who punishes his subjects or puts them in jail. 7.* How did the people react when the king asked them whether they were happy and contented or not? The people were at first surprised to hear the king's question and did not realise what to reply, so they looked at each other. Later, they came forward one by one and informed him that they were happy because of there was abundance of food in the kitchens, the businesses were running well, the king had ensured their security, the formers had grown plenty of food crops and the fishermen had enough to catch because the ponds were full of fish. 8.* was the condition that the king lay in front of them regarding the next day's meeting?
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    Regarding the next day's meeting, the king laid out the condition that the people would have to enter the royal gardens through the main gate and walk all the way to the rear gate where the king would be waiting for them. 9.* X/hy was there an excited buzz among the people upon hearing the kin's announcement? There was an excited buzz all around because the people thought that it would be a fun-filled experience because no one was usually allowed to enter the gardens and it was heard that the king had planted trees from all over the world which bore fruits that were sweet-smelling and tasty. Also, the king had announced that at the gates the guards would hand them sacks, which the people could fill up with whatever fruits and flowers they wanted. 10.* What were the first things that the people picked? The first things that the people picked were juicy apples, plump mangoes, ripe pomegranates, grapes and colourful flowers that no one had seen before. 11. What did they see when the people went deeper into the garden? How did they behave? When the people went deeper inside the gardens, it became wilder and they saw that the trees were laden with golden apples and silver mangoes and the flowers were embedded with precious gems and jewels. In that moment, they completely forgot about their claims of being contented and began to empty their sacks so that those could be filled up with these precious things. Soon the garden was made untidy with the heaps of fruits that had just a little while ago tasted as sweet as nectar. 12.* What difficulties did the people face when they finally tried to meet the king? the people finally tried to meet the king, they realised that he was standing across a stream. The water was rushing madly over pebbles and big boulders from behind some rocks. Also, the current in the stream was strong although it was narrow. Since there were no boats they could not be ferried across and it was difficult for them to swim also because of the heavy sacks on their backs that were laden with the gold, silver and precious stones from the garden. 13.* Who resolved the problem? How? The problem was resolved by a young man who left his sack on the bank and waded into the water and swam across. 14.* What reason did the young man give for not feeling sad or ashamed like the others? The young man said that he did not feel like the others because unlike them, he had filled his sack only with the tasty and juicy fruits so that he could carry them home for his little daughter. He himself had eaten them to his heart's content. But when he realised that the stream could not be crossed with the sack on the shoulders, he did not hesitate to leave it behind because he knew that his daughter could get tasty fruits from other gardens too. 15.* X/hy was this young man feeling happy? This young man was feeling happy that the king had given the people the chance to wander around the garden and see the beautiful plants and animals. Also, he felt that the king was great
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    because he had created a garden of such beauty and he felt that it was a pleasure to wander along such a garden. 111. 1. In answer to the question posed by the title, we can understand that the happiest of them all was the young man who was the first to swim across the stream. 2. The story focuses on the traditional wisdom we share by conveying a moral in a pleasant manner. For this, the author has made use of such common devices like characters of kings, ministers and ordinary people; and beautiful gardens with magical fruits and flowers. Such themes are Ingrained In our culture. 3. Yes, one can fully agree to the fact that the stortes told by our grandparents go a long way in shaping up the way we live. They basically form our life skills. For example, we always remember the well-known story of two good friends who were attacked by a bear in a forest. One saved himself by climbing up a tree and the other, by pretending to be dead. In the end, both of them were saved but the second young man was the wiser because he learnt that his good friend could desert him in the time of need. 4. The major appeal of the story lay in the fact that a simple narrative method has been employed in telling a great story. At the same time, a clear message has been intelligently sent. Vocabulary 1. 'All right, Dear. Here is a king, just as you wanted... 'okay' and performs the function of an adjective. . Here, 'all right' has been used in place of 2. 'Seeing all the people gathered there waiting for him, he was even more pleased'. Here 'all the people' means the entire population of the kingdom and 'all' performs the function of a Predeteminw. 3. 'As your king, I need to know if all of you are contented'. Here 'all of you' means everyone and 'all' performs the function of a Predetemziner. 4. 'I am delighted that all of you have said that you are happy'. Here 'all of you' means everyone and 'all' performs the funcfion of a Predetemziner. 5. 'Tomorrow, I want all the happy people of this kingdom to come and meet me in the royal gardens'. Here 'all the happy people' means the only those people in the kingdom who are happy and 'all' performs the funcfion of a Predetemziner. 6. 'All of you will have to enter the garden from the main gate, walk across and meet me by the gate at the rear'. Here 'all of you' means everyone and 'all' performs the function of a Predeteminer.
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    7. 'They all forgot that they had said they had more than enough for their needs at home'. Here, 'all' serves as a collective noun for 'they' and means everyone. 8. 'Greed took over their minds and all they could think about was adding more and more valuables to their sacks'. Here 'all' stands for 'the only thing' and acts as a detemziner. 9. 'Then one young man did what they all knew needed to be done'. Here, 'all' serves as a collective noun for 'they' and means everyone. 10. 'When I asked you yesterday if you were happy with your lives, all of you said you were contented and did not need anything more'. Here, again, 'all' serves as a collective noun for 'they' and means everyone. 11. 'But I am so happy the king let us all wander around his garden, looking at the trees and plants and animals'. Here also, 'all' serves as a collective noun for 'us' and means everyone. 12. ' X/hy just kings, we all need someone to tell us if what we are doing is wrong'. Once again, 'all' has been used as a collective noun for 'we' and means 'everyone'. Grammar The Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense IS used: (a) for actions that happened before a past event and is always denoted by the word 'had'. Also, words like already, just, never etc. are used with the past perfect; (b) when people's words and thoughts are reported; and (c) when unreal or hypothetical situations, defined by the use of the word 'if, are described. Book Exercise: The police had warned the people that the road could be blocked due to the landslides in the hilly area. The school authorities declared that the school would be closed for two days. Our family had reached our place before the landslide. People had moved to safer places with their animals so that there would be no loss of life. The government and the local authorities had taken every precaution, so the landslide could not cause much damage. If proper care had not been taken by the people and the government, there could have been more losses. Adverb Clause of Time An adverb clause of time shows when something happens. It IS usually introduced by time adverbs. Examples are: before, after, as, when, while, until, as soon as, since, no sooner than, as long as etc. All adverb clauses are subordinate clauses and cannot stand on their own; they must be attached to an independent clause. Book Exercise: My friend called me when I was packing the things. While I was packing the things, the bell rang. It kept ringing while I was talking to my friend on my mobile. When I opened the door, I was
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    surprised to see my closest friend standing in front of me. he saw me, he hugged me warmly. I felt very happy when I saw him. We had met after a long gap of ten years, we had many things to talk about. He had always helped me.

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