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English Literature Notes For Class 12

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By take through Notes, the students will get knowledge how to write a Journal and prepare them accordingly.

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    World Population Crosses 6.5 Billion Mark Comprehending This chapter is written in an argumentative style and presents two opposite views of the problem of overpopulation of the earth. While one argument presents the argument that the growing population IS nothing to be alarmed about, the other argument does present a fearful consequence of a burgeoning population. Overall, some useful statistical data is received, through which we can decide which point of view to accept and thereby set our collective priorities. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus withstand — bear; confront; cope; endure; grapple; resist; tolerate emit — eject; expel; discharge; exude; radiate claustrophobic (kloss-truh-foh-bikh) — harbouring the fear of being trapped in a closed place; here it means, not breathable afford — having enough money and time prospect (pros-pekth) chance; opportunity; outlook fettle — condition ergo (er goh) therefore correlates (kor-ruh-late) relate with one another gay abandon (gay uh-ban-dun) cheerfully ignore eventually (even-chu-alli) — finally onslaught — a fearful and destructive attack predicts — augurs; forebodes; forecasts; foresees; hints; prognosticates; presages huddles crowds together commutes — travels on a regular basis industrious — hard working anthill — a mound of sand and soil created by ants for the purpose of habitation Analysing Listening to the Text 1. 1. The total population that the earth can withstand is about 200,000 times the present population of 6.5 billion. 2. Though population has grown, the rate of growth has fallen sharply. 3. The text is about some alarming statistics related to the burgeoning global population. Although two Sides of the argument have been presented, yet we cannot Ignore the fact that the sharp contrast in resource distribution and population density IS a major cause of concern and something concrete is needed to be done for the purpose.
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    11. 1. The current human population on earth is 6.5 billion. 2. The most publicised technological innovation is the declining thickness of the iPhone. 3. It is predicted that in future, there will be 2000-storey buildings. 4. The future does not exactly look bright because, if the population continues to grow, there will be a lot of other problems apart from proportional distribufion of resources. We will be forced to work like ants without any scope of giving our imagination and creativity to blossom properly. Aids to Comprehension 1. They arrived at this figure by calculating the amount of heat a human body emits. 2. In fact, fertility is actually on the decline worldwide. 3. The earth is capable of comfortably a population several times the current 6.5 billion. 4. Figures show that a bigger population does not amount to greater consumption. 5. Concerns over scarcity of food are equally baseless. 6. If people starve In many countries, it IS not because food IS becoming scarce. b. 1. True. 2. False. Though population has grown, the rate of growth has fallen sharply. 3. False. The US overconsumes. 4. True. 5. True. c. 1. The earth can withstand 200,000 times the current population by ensuring that the heat emitted by us does not become too high to sustain the rising global temperature. 2. There is a heavy demand on resources not only because of the burgeoning population but also because of wastefulness, especially by the rich, who are careless about the way, resources are utilised.
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    3. This datum implies that the richest of the riches, consume most of the natural resources of the planet because of their wasteful habits. 4. Although it had been projected twenty years ago that the human population would reach 11.16 billion by 2050, now it seems the figure would not touch more than 9.37 billion and at any rate, it is believed that the population would stabilise at about 11.5 billion 5. According to the report, when the populafion reaches the 1.3 million billion mark, we should be scared of feeling like a can of sardines because of the heat that would be generated by human beings. 11. a. 1. The number of people on this planet is right now approaching seven billions. 2. India itself has more than a quarter of its population below the poverty line. 3. The researcher predicts 2000-storey buildings to hold a burgeoning earth population. 4. With that sort of crowding, our lives are sure to become constant huddles. 5. We might have trouble finding housing on the same hemisphere as our workplace or any sunlight ever In our homes. b. 1. True. 2. True. 3. True. c. 1. The biggest problem that India would face is related to housing for all. Almost a quarter of the population lives in slums which are not permanent shelters. A steep increase in the population will further extenuate the problem. Another important issue is communication. In India, public transport is always crowded and it would be even more difficult in the future which would make commuting to the work place a nightmare. 2. Technology will not be of much help in this regard because it IS not focused In this direction. As per the author, in recent years, the only focus on technology is the slimming down of the iPhone. 3. Living conditions will undergo a sea-change. In order to house a bigger population, 2000 storey buildings have to be made and this would mean complete dependence on artificial light as the sunlight would be blocked by such tall skyscrapers. 4. With lack of proper housing facilities, nightmarishly long commuting time and no sunlight, the world would not be fit for human habitation.
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    111. 1. From the texts the major is that IS coming up is the problems posed by the burgeoning global population and its effects on countries like India. Already, there is the imminence of a crisis of natural resources because of the unwise and wasteful manner in which they are used and if this goes on unbridled then the situafion would be absolutely fearful. 2. The texts serve to highlight the global problem of overpopulation and its steady increase. 3. The statistics provided in the text may be frue because they have been put together after a lot of painstaking research. In that case, the future really looks scary. This is because of the constraint that would be placed on natural resources. Some of the statlstlcs that point at the scariness of the future Include statements that the global population would reach up to 11.5 billion by 2050, the necessity of constructing 2000 storey buildings to house a population that is double the present size which would lead to lack of natural sunlight and complete dependence on artificial light, problems of commuting from place to place and increased pressure on natural resources. 4. Some of the factual statements from the text are: (a) there is a decline in fertility and the growth rate of the population has decreased; (b) 200 0 of the highest earners, use up almost 860 0 of the world's natural resources and 200 of the poorest use up merely 1.30 of those; (c) America has only 50 0 of the world's total population but it uses up close to 400 0 of the world's resources; (d) global food population has actually kept up with population growth; (e) starvafion has been linked to the inability to buy food rather than lack of food grains; (f) about a quarter of India's population lives in slums; @ the most talked-about technological achievement of recent years IS the declining thickness of the iPhone. Some of the opinions expressed are: (a) the earth can withstand up to 200,000 times the present population and from calculafions of the heat emission from the human body, it is evident that 1.3 million billion would be the appropriate figure before the earth becomes inhabitable; (b) the projected human population by 2050 would be 9.37 billion; (c) the human population would stabilise at 11.5 billion; (d) by 2050 or even in 10 years from now, technology and human bodies will have done much to adapt and innovate from the resources available and made more Inventions for sustenance and comfort; (e) construction of 2000-storey buildings to house an (0 increased commuting times because of overcrowding; (c) dependence even larger population; on artificial lights as the tall skyscrapers would prevent natural sunlight from penetrating deeper Into the earth. IN'T. * 1. In which context does the author refer to a can of sardines? The author says that researches have announced that the earth would become unsuitable for inhabitation when the population reaches 1.3 million billion or 200,000 times the present population because then the heat emitted by human bodies would increase global temperatures to such an extent that it would be impossible to adapt ourselves accordingly. Under such circumstances, we will feel like a can of sardines. 2. are the concerns related to global food crisis considered baseless?
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    Concerns related to global food scarcity are considered baseless because as per research, food production has actually risen along with the population and the causes of starvafion in most countries are because of the fact that people in such countries do not have the money to buy food. 3. Xhat hope is expressed to fide over the imminent fear of crisis? To tide over the food crisis, it is hoped that by 2050 or even 10 years from now, technology and human bodies will adapt in such a manner that there would be more Innovations and Inventions to overcome the situation. 4. What opinion IS presented about the Intervention of technology In resolving the problems of overpopulation? The author is of the opinion that technology will be of no use in controlling the population because, in any case, over the past few years, the only talked about technological achievement is the decreasing slimness of the iPhone. 5. Xhat would be the associated problems faced by human beings if population is unchecked? The associated problems of an unchecked population include overcrowding everywhere. People would always be in huddles both indoors and outdoors. Also, the construction of tall skyscrapers to house the huge population would mean lack of proper sunlight reaching the ground and complete dependence on artificial lights. At the same time, there would be nightmarish experiences while commuting for any reason. 6. does the author feel that the world would then resemble an anthill? The author feels that the world would resemble an anthill because of the fact that our daily needs would multiply exponentially and there would be a constant struggle to reach workplaces on fime as well as to earn a decent living. In such an eventuality, the entire focus of every individual would be to earn as much as possible and we would become excessively hardworking like the ants but experience a decline in our creafive faculties. Vocabulary 1. 1100 — one thousand and one hundred 100,000 — hundred thousand or one lakh 1,000,000 one million or ten lakhs 1234753 one million two hundred and thirty-four thousand seven hundred and fifty three or twelve lakhs thirty-four thousand seven hundred and fifty three 2. 1000 000 000 000 - hundred billion 1000 000 000 000 000 — hundred thousand billion 1000 000 000 000 000 000 - ten million billion Grammar
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    1. In the first sentence, 'a' has been used because firstly it comes before a consonant and secondly, it refers to a person who has been compared to either Picasso or Shakespeare. In the second sentence also, 'a' comes before a consonant and it describes a person who resembles Hitler. 2. i. I would have learnt English for 12 years when I join the Senior College. ii. Mother cooking when father comes home. iii. Sachin would have scored his 101 st century by the end of this year. Extension 1. Money Solves all the Problems of Human Beings Given below are some points from both for and against the motion, which students can utilise to organise a debate. Points for the motion: money helps to build proper Infrastructure; allows people the power to purchase things as per their capacity; allows people to live with dignity rather than beg for alms; helps in providing humanitarian aid by procuring medicines and clothes for the poor; monetary investments help in establishing business and providing employment opportunities for people. Points against the motion: money cannot buy love and compassion which are the pre-requisites to undertake humanitarian activities; money cannot produce the will to act for a common cause; money makes us greedy and selfish; money causes us to be wasteful and over utilise our natural resources.

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