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English Literature Notes For Class 12

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By take through Notes, the students will get knowledge how to write a Journal and prepare them accordingly.

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    16 Killed in Haridwar Stampede Comprehending This chapter introduces the students to the rudiments of journalism. It teaches us how a problem can be approached and given importance so that the sleeping authorities may be stirred up to activity. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus stampede — a sudden and rapid movement among a group of people due to panic or extreme excitement; charge; dash; flight; panic gate-crashing entering a party or some similar congregation without Invitation (this word is generally written without the 'hyphen' as 'gate crashing' ) prima facie (pry-muh fay-shi-ee) accepted as correct until proved otherwise emanating (em-uh-nayting) coming out or spreading out from one particular source makeshift hastily built; temporary probe — enquiry; examinatlon; Investigation curtailed (ker-tayled) — reduced; restricted; shortened; decreased compensation — payment for damages; indemnity; amends sanctioned (shang-shun'd) gave official permission or approval; authorisation; approval; consent; endorsement deployment (dip-loy-ment) — move into position for military action; arrange; distribute; manage sequence — a particular order; sertes; concatenation; succession; string; train evoke (i vohk) — bring to mind; obtain provoke — cause a strong reacfion or raise high emotion In someone sensifised — make aware and sensitive to an Issue verge (vujh) — edge; border; boundary; brim; brink; margin Analysing 1. List of natural and man-made disasters: Natural Disasters Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, cyclones, floods, droughts, landslides and avalanches, blizzards, tsunamis, sand storms, hail storms, cloud bursts, forest fires Man-made Disasters Stampedes, traffic accidents, industrial accidents, collapse of dams and bridges, leakage of harmful chemicals and gases, oil s ills, mob violence, terror strikes, wars 2. Both natural and man-made disasters can be prevented, if not stopped, from assuming alarming proportions and causing huge losses to human lives and property if there is proper planning and preparedness. For this to be successful, a more professional approach is needed to address the issues and proper legislation and delegation of powers is necessary. Aids to Comprehension 1.
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    1. False. The number of deaths in the Haridwar stampede was 16. 2. True. 3. True. 4. False. Most of the victims were from Jhansi, Munger and Sultanpur in uttar Pradesh. 11. 1. According to the news item, sixteen people, including fourteen women, have been reported to be killed. 2. The stampede reportedly took place when devotees started gate crashing at one of the exit- points. 3. As per the report, more than 50 people were injured, but doctors said that about 150 came for injuries of which only 100 were admitted and the rest were sent to other city hospitals. However, only about five to seven of them had serious injuries. 4. The Chief Minister announced a compensation of rupees two lakhs for the kin of the deceased. 5. According to the editorial, the greatest lapse With regard to the tragedy was the absence of crowd managers. 6. According to the editorial article, wide-ranging reforms have been suggested. The first and foremost necessity to tackle such disasters is to form a concrete national disaster management policy and to give wide-ranging powers to the concerned authority for execution and implementation of those schemes. Next is to initiate police reforms and sensifise them to the necessity of handling such incidents of disaster more professionally and dedicatedly. 111. 1. The purpose of these texts is to raise the awareness for disaster management not only among the public but also, within the government by pointing out to the magnitude of the problem. Also, it is clearly understandable that much more of the disaster is because of the panic created by an incident than the incident itself. 2. These texts teach us the rudiments of journalistic ethics. Being a journalist does not mean only taking people to task but and criticising the powers at large; it also stands for pointing out the exact nature of the problem and providing possible logical solutions to the problem so that the mistakes do not recur and the situation is rectified for ever. 3. Yes, an effective disaster management, adequate arrangements and self-discipline can avert such mishaps. In fact, most of the disasters take place due to lack of self-discipline. Most people
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    are too impatient to obey rules or are always eager to throw about their weight on the face of organisers for special benefits and treatment. Vocabulary 1. Verb confirm accommodate curtail Invo ve discuss implement Noun confirmation accommodation curtailment Invo vement discussion implementation 2. (i) ceremony formal celebration or event (c) (11) centenary the 1 anniversary (111) mishap — accident (IV) emanating — giving out (v) probe an enquiery Grammar Voice Y%ether the subject of a sentence performs or receives the action or not is identified by the voice of the verb: either Active or Passive. In the Active Voice, it is the subject which performs the action expressed by the verb. For example, 'Manoj composed the song'. Here, Manoj IS the subject who performs the action of composing, which is the verb. But in the Passive Voice, the subject, instead of performing the action expressed by the verb, receives it. For example, 'The song was composed by Manoj'. Here, the subject, Manoj, recerives the action of the verb 'composed'. This receiving is made explicit by the use of the word 'by'. A simple trick to identify Passive Voice is to look out for words like 'be', 'by', 'been', 'let' and so on In sentences. If such words are missing, then the sentences are generally in the Active Voice. 1. In this sentence, the 'doer' is the 'mob'. (Sixteen people were killed In a stampede by the mob.) 2. Here, the 'doers' are the 'doctors'. (Some people were referred to other city hospitals by the doctors.)
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    3. Again, In this sentence, the 'doers' are the 'organisers'. curtailed by the organisers) More examples of Passive Voice from the text: (The five-day ceremony would be 1. '.. .a religious ceremony that was reportedly attended by nearly two lakh people'. the exact cause of the incident can be confirmed only after an enquiry'. 2. . the number of seriously injured would not be more than five or seven'. 3. . the five-day ceremony would be curtailed... 4. 5. '.. .announced as compensation by the organisers'. Extension The purpose of the text IS not only to offer suggestions and views, but also spread awareness and ensure that the organisers and administration understand the reasons behind incidents so that possible solutions can be found out to prevent recurrence of the same. Letter to the Editor Traffic mismanagement and consequent fatalities Sir, This refers to the article, 'Another Stampede' (IE, November 10) which points out the lack of Imagination in the administration to come out With concrete solutions to problems. This IS not an isolated example because the lack of Ideas and concrete solutions IS evident throughout the country in all spheres of activities. In our city, flyovers have been constructed for better traffic management but the administration has failed to provide proper markers to point out the directions. Strangely, there are one or two examples of flyovers starting from right at the head of a crossing and trees have been planted in such a manner that it is difficult for people to clearly see the traffic lights. Such lack of ideas has resulted in a number of fatal accidents with losses of life. A proper town- planning would have prevented the same in the first place. Sachin Kale Sholapur


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