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English Literature Notes For Class 12

Published in: English
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By take through Notes, the students will get knowledge how to write a Journal and prepare them accordingly.

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    Concrete Jungle Comprehending This poem brings us face to face With the stark reality that the natural beauty of the world is being slowly overshadowed by the artificial beauty of concretisation. While it is a symbol of progress and prosperity for the inhabitants of the world, it is also alarming because of the huge ecological stress that is being laid on our planet. We are no longer able to witness the beauty of the dense forests or the snow-covered mountain peaks because they have given way to 'civilisafion'. This is all an outcome of our selfishness as we have stopped thinking about our future generations and focus on satisfying our own needs only. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus stroll walk in a leisurely manner; amble; meander; saunter; wander tickling — lightly touching in such a manner so as to make us laugh rugged (rug-gid) — rough and tough; bumpy; craggy; irregular; jagged; uneven trail — route; path; track g impse — g ance; peep; squint; view; espy bobcat — a North American mammal of the cat family that IS hunted for its fur debris (deb-ree) rubbish; wreckage; fragments; flotsam; litter; waste Intoxicating losing control under the influence of some drug or alcohol; stupefying; inebriating swaying swinging; oscillating; undulating; rocking skyscrapers — very tall buildings extravagant (ik-stra-vuh gunt) — excessive; flamboyant; grandiose; lavish titanic — huge caressing stroking gently; cuddling; fondling — traditional stories originally passed down by word of mouth folktales littered — dirtied potions — brews; concoctions; elixirs; medicines; tonics; decoctions Analysing Preparation 1. From the title 'Concrete Jungle' we can understand that the poem is about the unbridled development that is taking place and causing great threats to the environment. Natural forests are being cut down and greenery is getting reduced only to make way for human settlements. 2. Man's indifference related to urbanisation is leading to a lot of problems. Due to the sudden Increase in consumerism, people have a lot more money in their hands that they can spend. Thus, their growing greed is giving rise to more and more cities and townships; but most of them are highly unplanned and congested. There is hardly any vegetation all around and this is
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    causing a rise in global temperatures because of the Increasing percentages of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, which is otherwise absorbed by plants. 3. The picture shows that the earth is choked because of the increasing pollution levels in the atmosphere. 1. 1. The poet used to stroll barefoot because (ii) he wanted to enjoy the morning walk over the green grass. 2. Today the poet hardly has a glimpse of a bobcat because (iii) bobcats are used to clear the pavements of all debris. 3. The smell from the forest of pine (i) energized his lungs and mind. 4. The poet used to watch the valley play hide and seek (i) because he had integrity with the nature and landscape. 5. According to the poet only littered swamps could be our reality because (i) vast, endless oceans are getting polluted due to our neglect of floras and fauna. 11. 1. The poet describes the beautiful experience of strolling barefoot on the grass which tickled his feet with the morning dew. 2. The poet says that we have become selfish because In our zeal to lead a better and comfortable life, we are destroying nature in such a manner that our future generations will have to bear the brunt of it. This is unlike our forefathers who were continuously eager to establish our connecfion with nature and gave us lessons about preserving it. 3. At one time, the largest things known to man were the immeasurable peaks of mountains and their valleys. 4. The poet's experiences In the proximity of nature, especially in he used to sit beside streams, was to feel the gentle breeze play with his hair and watch the antics of the magnificent untamed beasts that lived in or near them. 5. The lines that reveal the callous opportunism and overexploitation of natural resources by human beings are, 'No more vast endless oceans Only littered swamps, the colour of a witch's potions'. 6. Yes, this poem does emphatically speak about the degradation of our ecosystem. This is evident from the poet's constant reference to the vanishing flora and fauna as well as the natural beauty. With our selfish drive towards development, we have made swamps of oceans, causing
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    the birds and animals to either die or to move off to other natural habitats. This IS best exemplified by the following Imagery from the poem: 'No more vast, endless oceans, Only littered swamps No more natural goods'. 7. The expressions that speak about the loss of biodiversity and extincfion of animals include, 'Watching the magnificent . Now they are just characters of folktales . 'No more soaring birds overhead Only planes so loud, they rock your bed. No more woods No more natural goods'. Poetic Devices and 1. An Antithesis is a figure of speech where two opposite ideas are placed together in a sentence In a balanced manner. Some examples of Antithesis from the poem are as follows: 'Only thinking in the present, not learning from the past' and 'No more natural than the over processed food we eat'. 2. This is an example of the figure of speech known as Alliteration. Other examples of Alliteration from the poem are, . me, myself and I', . snow sprinkled trail', only one type . fur free . .. footpath in a forest of pine . mountain's Immeasurable . . caressing our crown .. far, far from town'. 3. This deliberate repetition emphasises the fact that the beasts have gone so far away from civilisafion that they can no longer be seen around us. 4. More examples of Personification from the poem are: plastic trees swaying in my rear view mirror . the wind caressing our crown Towards Appreciation 'Only planes so loud, they rock your bed'. 1. The past life appears to be more beautiful and appealing because of the proximity to nature. It had a sense of liveliness and variety that is missing in the present life of the modern 'concrete jungle'. It offered simple joys like walking barefoot on dew-filled long grass or looking into the
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    eyes of bobcats to admire their ferocious beauty or feeling the cool breeze from the stream ruffling our hairs while watching the birds fly or the fish and other aquatic animals frolicking in the water. All these had a soothing effect on us. But, in the modern world all these simple joys have gone missing. 2. After reading this poem, a sense of loss seems to bear down upon us. We feel as if in our greed for material gains and comfortable living, we have sacrificed for ever the simple joys of life. The artificiality of our present lives cannot substitute them nor can they be returned to us In any manner. 3. Yes, we can agree with the poet on these points. Consumerism and urbanisafion have taken a toll on the flora and fauna of the world. Their species are gradually declining and some of them are on the verge of exfincfion. Every creature on this planet, be it birds, animals or plants, has a distinct role to play in order to keep the cycle of life going. If only humans are left in the world, we will be absolutely alone and our lives would be dreary. Moreover, the ecological balance will also collapse because all creatures are interdependent upon each other in some way or the other. 4. Out of the above, only 'witch's potion' is unfamiliar because this is something hypothetical while the rest are absolutely visible to us. 5. Yes, sustainable growth based on the principle of 'reduce, reuse and recycle' and eco-friendly living can help us to stall the degradation of the ecosystem to a certain extent but not completely halt it. The above principle would reduce the wastage of natural resources like paper that is obtained from plants or the wood of the furniture that is obtained from trees as well. Extension Past: You know Present, you are basically selfish in your outlook. In the past, we used to constantly worry about our future generations and strive to keep the world as pure and clean as possible. Present: Selfish! Do you think it is selfish to think about growth and progress? is the harm In living for the moment and enjoying the present. Moreover, with our present outlook of a modern and progressive world order, we can ensure that the future of our posterity would be secured and they will have a comfortable life. The infrastructure we build today will enable them to develop it further instead of experience the pain of starting from scratch! It will make their lives easier. Past: Do you really think that you are securing the future of your children? Present: Are you in any doubt about it? Past: Tell me, will your children be able to enjoy the pleasure of walking on the dew-filled long grass and the tickling sensation as a result of it? Will your children be able to enjoy the coo pleasant breeze by the river side? The tastes of the delicious fruits or the Intoxicating fragrance
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    of the beautiful flowers? Or, the simple joys of watching the birds fly in the sky and the fishes playing in the water or of the other beautiful sights? . um ... Don't know . .. Never thought like that. Present: Um . Past: Your children will only inherit a lot of dead concrete jungles, polluted air and water, contaminated fruits and vegetables. Your stupidity will gift them with global warming and high temperatures that would kill all animals and plants and leave them all alone on the face of the planet. And then one day, they will also become extlnct because of the inability to adjust with the extreme climafic conditions on earth. Present: then what am I supposed to do? Past: wake up, before it is too late. Cut down on the consumerism and the so called progress just be content with the bare minimum and try to preserve as much of nature you can preserve. You will realise that nature will give you back as much as you give her. Now is the time to begin. So, wake up before it is too late!

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