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Notes On English Words And Meaning

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The Notes will help student to know the meaning of the words and how to use them.

  • 1
    A Tale for Many Cities Comprehending This chapter raises awareness about the condifion of India's cities, the likely outcome of it we do not take the Inlfiafive to reform them and offers some practical solutions to make the cities more liveable like those in Europe, the Americas and Japan. In this context, the author points out the Initiatlves taken up by the inhabitants of numerous Cities to make them environmentally clean and pollution free by the use of modern technology, proper planning and employment of dedicated personnel for the purpose. The author has also shed light on the initiatives taken by some of our own countrymen to make our cities prepared for the future. Such steps will lead to maximum resource utilisation with minimum wastage while at the same time ensure that all the amenifies of a modern city life is available to the inhabitants uninterruptedly. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus chaos (kay os) confusion; anarchy; bedlam; disorder; mayhem; tumult; turmoil crucial (kroo-sh'l) central; critical; decisive; major; pivotal; momentous juncture (jungk-cher) — particular point of time; a place where things get joined vigorously (vig-rusly) — energetically; actively; briskly; dynamically; forcefully urgent (u gent) essentially; compulsively; immediately; exigently; unavoidably surged (sug'd) gushed; moved up; increased tremendously alarmingly; appallingly; shockingly; startlingly amalgamation (uh-mal-guh-maysh'n) — association; alliance; combination; coalescence equity (ek wi-ti) — fair, just and impartial sustainable — something that can be continued further or prolonged pragmatic — practical; sensible evolving developing; emerging; improving; maturing; modifying; progressing sewerage — drainage diversity (dai-vuh-citi) variety; assortment; heterogeneity cohesive — forming a whole; unifying meticulous (mi-tik yuu-luhss) accurate; exact; painstaking; precise implementation (im-pli-muhnt-ashun) — putting into effect some plan or policy akin — related top-notch of the highest quality think tank group of policy-makers Innocuously (in-nok yoo-uhss) — not harmful; inoffensive mandate (man-dayt) official order or permission to do something pedestrians — people who prefer to walk on foot rather than use vehicles Analysing Preparation
  • 2
    1. Our cities are expanding because of the influx of more and more people from the villages. 2. Unplanned people do make the life of the citizens miserable because of lack of proper infrastructure, poor drainage, poor availability of basic amenities like water and electricity; traffic congestion, weak public transport system and high pollution levels. 3. planning a city, one needs to keep in mind the fact that it has to be made liveable and so there should be greater emphasis on in infrastructure development and so, pragmatic planning. Reading Unit 1. a. Our urban planners perhaps have not understood the nature of the modern city. b. The first requirement of a city is a development plan. c. Delhi, and even port Blair have good master plans. d. Citizens need to be pro-actively involved when evolving master plans. e. The second requirement of a city is good social Infrastructure. 2. (i) CRRI — Road Research Institute (ii) Tokyo world's most populous city (iii) Singapore — managed to limit cars (iv) CBRI Building Research Institute (v) Shanghai wonderful footpaths (vi) New York — cycling facilities (vii) IFS - Indian Forest Setvice (viii) Holland, Denmark and Scandinavian countries Infrastructure (ix) NIMRDA Mumbai (x) DDA Delhi 1. developed cities around a bicycle 1. The two choices that we have about our cities are either to make them more chaofic or more meaningfully planned by 2020. 2. The author defines a city as a dense amalgamation of buildings and people. But it should also provide equity and be sustainable. 3. A city must provide basic services and social infrastructure. 4. evolving a master plan, the citizens need to be involved pro-actively. 5. The essenfial components of a city are streets, public transport system, traffic management, affordable housing, cars and parking, drainage, water supply, sewerage and garbage disposal.
  • 3
    6. To emerge as a good city, the requirements are a pragmatic plan and good social infrastructure such as parks and places for leisure such as river and sea-fronts. 7. The Graduates Welfare Association, Fazilka are bringing about change with the mandate of citizens participation in governance and are facilitating the creation of physical and social infrastructure across 22 citles of Punjab. They have introduced a network of rickshaws known as Eco-cabs that can be booked with the help of a mobile phone, car-free zones and food and culture streets. 8. The most democratic part of a city is the pavement or the footpath. 9. When parking will become difficult and expensive, people will start using public transport rather than their personal vehicles. 10. The writer dreams of a charmed life and graceful living. 11. 1. We are at a crucial juncture as far as urbanism goes because of the pressures on the cities due to their growing populations. If no actlon is taken right now, then the future of our children will be catastrophic. 2. Our cities can be made liveable by focusing on two main aspects: on the provision of basic services and social infrastructure. 3. It is necessary to update our city development to make sure that it is in tandem with the evolving nature of the cities and the changing needs of its people. 4. To bring our cities to any level of development, the most important thing that is required is a pragmatic plan. 5. Cities will become areas of graceful living and a charmed way of life if they can be made liveable in terms of reduced pollution, provision of basic infrastructure and better amenities. 111. 1. Yes, the needs of the city people do change. This is because of burgeoning population, higher Income generation and rise in the quality of living. 2. It is necessary to have places for leisure so that people can relax and de-stress themselves as well maintain good health through properly breathing in good quality air. 3. The Indian cities lack effecfive involvement of the inhabitants in the development of their own cities. This is compounded by the shortage of visionary planners and effective executioners of policies for development purposes.
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    4. To make our cities and towns Ideal, we can suggest to the Town Planning Department effective and scientific methods of garbage removal and disposal, implementation of 'green corridors' or areas solely meant for walking and cycling, planning superior drainage and sewerage systems. 111. 1. At what rates have the populations of some of the Indian cities increased? Delhi's population increased from 12.8 million in 2001 to 16.3 million in 2011 and Bangalore's grew from 5.7 million to 8.5 million during the same period. 2. According to the author, which is the basic point that Indian urban planners have missed out? The basic point that Indian urban planners have missed out on is that cities need not be just run properly, they need to be liveable also. 3. Xhat are the two things that need to be developed together? Provision of basic services and social infrastructure are the two things that need to be developed simultaneously. 4. With which city has the author been closely connected? The author has been closely related to the development of Delhi and its planning. 5. As an architect, about what is the author more concerned? The author IS more concerned about the direction that IS needed to be taken so that future generations don't end up living in chaotic dysfunctional cities. 6. According to the author, which Indian cities have reasonably good master plans? According to the author, Delhi, Buhbaneshwar and Port Blair have reasonably good master plans. 7. What are the agencies in other cities that are meant for the planning and development of the cities ? The other cities have City Development Plans that are supported by the funds from the JNNURNI project set up by the central government. 8. What would be the result of deficiency in planning about all the essenfial components of a city's development? A deficient city planning would make it unworthy of handling the pressure of an Increased populafion and changing needs. 9. Why is social infrastructure important? Social infrastructure is necessary to preserve and protect our heritage. Also, the nation's rich cultural diversity can have a proper platform if the right facilities are provided. Lastly, it is also necessary for the establishment of affordable educational and healthcare facilities.
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    10. information has the author shared regarding the initiatives taken by cifies In other countries for their qualitatlve Improvements? Singapore has managed to restrict the uses of cars and developed an efficient public transport system; Shanghai has beautiful footpaths everywhere; New York is actively developing cycling facilities in large parts; Tokyo, the world's most populated city has almost 800 0 of its population using the metro system; and Holland, Denmark and the Scandinavian countries have developed cities around a bicycling infrastructure and creating a complete culture around them. 11. What are the prerequisites for the development of cities? Hard work, cohesive planning and meticulous planning, coupled with high management skills are necessary for the development of cities. Vocabulary 1. a. Marxism the political and economic principles of Karl Marx b. opportunism taking opportunifies c. truism — a statement that is obviously n-ue and says nothing new or different d. narcissism — excesstve obsession With one's own physical appearance e. populism — a politician's approach of representing the views of the people f. tokenism doing something in an Insincere manner so as to keep up appearances in front of a group of people 2. a. fax — facsimile b. chimp — chimpanzee c. photo — photograph d. mob — mobile vulgus e. pram — perambulator taxi/ cab — taxicab or taximeter cab/ cabriolet Grammar Relative clauses are dependent clauses Introduced by relative pronouns that refer to the main nouns the clauses depend upon. They always immediately follow the noun It modified. Like all clauses, relative clauses have a subject and a verb. The relative pronoun may be the subject of the clause, but it isn't always so. a. Amit gave me an envelope which contained some papers. b. Seema, who is a psychologist, works as a counsellor. c. I admire your belief which is always right. d. We are going to a place that is warm in winter.
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    Extension 2. To The Editor, The Times of India, Mumbai Sir, Sri Nagri Society Hadapsar Pune Sub: Unplanned Expansion of Pune This is to bring to you the unplanned expansion of the city, especially in and around Hadapsar and Magarpatta, where a lot of high-rise buildings have come up recently, causing acute scarcity of water, congested roads and alleys and frequent power failures. The situation is further accentuated by the fact that the city administration has at the same time undertaken the project of expanding the roads and completing the flyovers, without properly notifying the residents of the concerned areas and causing unnecessary traffic jams. To add further to the woes of the city, the traffic department does not deploy adequate number of policemen to manage the situation. During weekends, the scene is even more chaofic as the city traffic police hand over the responsibility of traffic management to the security agencies of the different malls. As they do not have any authority, so drivers rampantly flout the rules and there is nobody to take action against the errant drivers. Monsoons are the worst as the poor drainage system leads to overflow of water and muck, making the roads slippery which are already cluttered with construcfion materials. However, as all problems have solutions, so also this. The only solution IS to properly plan In a scientific manner and involve the residents of the various localifies also. For example, for a city like Pune, it is highly recommended that it have not only an underground drainage system but also an underground transport system. Also, there should be proper and regular waste disposal. Yours truly, Sachin

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