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Notes On English Words And Meaning

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The Notes will help student to know the meaning of the words and how to use them.

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    Audience with Anant Pai Comprehending This chapter is about an interview with Anant Pai, the creator of the Tinkle series of comics that has been popular with generations of Indian children. It tells us about his inspiration to start the series and the trials and tribulations that he had to undergo In order to make it a success. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus uphill journey — struggling journey; arduous; gruelling; strenuous; taxing; laborious mythology (me-thol'y) a collection of myths commitment — dedication; pledge; promise confess (kuhn-fess) admit embarked (m-bark'd) — began; set out venture (ven-chur) enterprise; experiment; gamble; dare; chance; speculafion mammoth (ma-moth) — huge; massive engrossed (n gross'd) — involved reverence — deep respect baffled — puzzled; bamboozled; bemused; bewildered; confounded; perplexed; flummoxed acquaint (a-kwa'nt) — make aware; enlighten; reveal heritage — culture; history; inheritance; legacy; tradition pursuit (puh soot) — activity; employment; occupation; obsession integration — blending; amalgamating; assembling; coalescing; fusing; consolidating version (vuh zun) — account; descriptlon; portrayal; renditlon precise — exact; accurate; unambiguous; unequivocal; punctilious; scrupulous meticulous (mi-tik yuu-luhss) very careful and precise; particular; perfectlonist; finicky random — In no proper sequence; haphazard; fortuitous; serendipitous; arbitrary illustration — diagram; drawing; image; photograph mediocre (mee-di-oh-ker) — average; commonplace; medium; middling; moderate; ordinary self-employed and hired to work for different companies freelance (free-lahnss) steadfast — firm; determined; devoted; dedicated; patient; persevering runaway success — quick and uncontrolled success disheartened — lost confidence; depressed; discouraged; dismayed consistent — constant; dependable; faithful; steady Initiated (in-i-shi yated) — introduced; started; activated; triggered solicit — asked for; appealed to; entreated; importuned; petitioned; sought compliment — admiration; praise stupendous (styoo-pen-duhss) extremely Impressive self-esteem — confidence In one's own worth and abilities Analysing Preparation 1. During our childhood days, comics were liked better than story books because they contained illustrations that were expressive of the various moods and expressions of the characters. We could therefore easily comprehend the meaning conveyed through the stories in the comics. 2. No, creating a comic from a story is not easy; in fact, it IS harder than writing a story. This is because illustrations have to be created for expressing every single facet of the story. Also, those
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    illustrations should be able to properly depict even the behaviours and facial gestures of the non- speaking and minor characters Involved in the story. The colour schemes should also be appropriately selected. Lastly, the comics should be able to get across the meaning to the Intended readers even after all the funny features. Aids to Comprehension 1. 1. Anant Pai says that initially he had no anxiety or high ambition for the project because, to him, the task looked very simple—he would only create comics for little children who would be learning about the stories from Indian mythology in a fun way. 2. He became aware of the ignorance of Indian children regarding our heritage while watching a quiz programme on Doordarshan, the national broadcaster, during the 1960s. He found that the children were able to answer questions related to reek mythology but did not know the name of Lord Ram's mother. 3. The task became a mission for Anant Pai when he became fully immersed in the project. He found it to be tough but intellectually satisfying. 4. The versions of the Ramayana that Pai read were that of the original by Valmiki along with Tulsldas' Ram Charit Manas; Krittlvas' Bengali Ramayan, the Krittivas Ramayan; and Kambar's Tamil Ramayan, known as Kambaramayanam. 5. In order to ensure that the stories were accurate, Pal and his team read and researched a lot. 6. The creation of the story of Vivekanand took several months because there was no information available as to in which position he was sitfing and who were on both sides of him just prior to his delivery of the speech at the World Religious Conference at Chicago. The team just could not draw random illustrations. 7. Most of the scripts for the Amar Chitra katha were written by Pai himself and some were written by Kamla Chandrakant and Subbarao. Freelancers also contributed with some of the scripts. 8. It was difficult to get illustrators for the series because at that time there was no training available for illustrators and artists for comics in India. Even the artists in advertising specialised in graphics or commercial art. 9. Initially, Pai had written off Ram Veerkar because the latter was a cartoonist. However, his persistence and some beautiful sketches landed him in the team. 10. The main objective of Tinkle magazine was to expose children to science and natural history in an illustrated manner that would be appealing to them and thereby hold on to their interest of studying further. 11. Children were attracted to reading Tinkle because the magazine did not 'teach' or 'preach' like other books. They depicted the lives, feelings and thoughts of children as realistically as possible. In fact, some of the stories In Tinkle were contributed by children themselves.
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    12. Pai pays a tribute to his wife by saying that she had inspired him through the struggle, looked after him and given him her unconditional support. He acknowledges that his wife was the guiding light in his life. 13. The message that Anant Pai conveys about parenting is that children should be given the opportunity to express themselves and not continuously told to do things. This approach helps to develop their self-esteem and they learn to give, help and love. 14. Pai feels that reading is very important because it not only imparts knowledge but it also helps us to build ourselves into better human beings. 11. 1. The interview does present an insight into Anant Pai the man. It brings about his love and concern for children and their development into proper individuals. This is remarkable considering the fact that in his personal life, he was childless. Also, Pai was very much concerned about the poor standards of education in the country which led to many children dropping out of schools. He was also staunchly patriotic and was alarmed by the fact that Indian children knew little about their own culture and heritage. Pai was also a determined individual driven by the zeal of a mission. In spite of numerous setbacks, he proceeded with the project, even giving up his job with The Times of India. Pai was Also very observant which allowed him to notice what others had failed to. Lastly, even after all his success, Pai remained a humble human being. 2. The various steps that were taken in the production process of the Amar Chitra Katha included thorough research and studies because the intention was to create something as accurate as possible. Also, there was a need to make the proper illustrations for the project. In both cases, he realised that there was hardly any talent pool in India and so, by a gradual process and painstaking search, he carefully built up the team. In fact he himself took up most of the responsibilities. The main challenge that pai and his team faced was to strike a balance between scholarly research, educational values, honest depiction of the past, national Integration and targeting the market. 3. Pai called his mission 'a route to the roots' because his intention was to teach Indian children the glory of our rich cultural heritage, the contributions of numerous people in developing it and the sacrifice and struggles that they had undergone for their achievements. Lastly, it was also aimed at developing national pride, inspiring to learn and instilling a sense of self-esteem in children. 111. 1. Where was Pai working when he saw the quiz contest that triggered in him the mission to find a route to the roots'? When Pai saw the quiz contest on Doordarshan, he was working with The Times of India. 2. suggested to him the name of Amar Chitra Katha? The name of Amar Chitra katha came up in a discussion with the writer, B. R. Bhagat. 3. How did Pai ultimately get the opportunity to pursue his dream? When? Pai got the opportunity to pursue his dream when the owner of IBH (India Book House), Mr. Mirchandani, gave him a small contract. This happened in 1967, after numerous other publishers refused to take up the project.
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    4. Xhat were the books that Pal and his team read up as a preparation for the project? As a preparation for the project, Pai and his team read up the original versions and the Hindi translations of the Indian scriptures and mythological texts published by Geeta Press of Gorakhpur, the Vedas and original versions of Valmiki Ramayana, Tulsidas' Ram Charit Manas, Krittivas Ramayan—the Bengali Ramayan and Kambaramayanam by the Tamil poet, Kambar. 5. X/hen was the Geeta Press founded? The Geeta Press was founded in 1923 in Gorakhpur. 6. Give one example of variations of the same story as mentioned by Pai. Pai mentions that there were numerous versions of each stories and he cites one example in the Lakshman-Rekha episode which was not found in either Valmiki Ramayan or Ram Charit Manas but was introduced by Krittlvas. 7. Xhat was the problem that Pai and his team faced while dealing with the story of Vivekanad? While dealing with the story of Vivekanad, he and his team realised that there was no information ofwhere the great mystic saint was seated and who were beside him, just prior to his speech at the parliament of Religions in Chicago. 8. had Pai to rewrite most of the scripts himself? Pai had invited scripts from writers but since they had never written for children , their stories were mediocre. 9. How did Pai resolve the problem of getting more scripts? He and his team had developed a network of freelancers who wrote under his guidance. 10. Which were the first two stories of Amar Chitra Katha? What was Pai's experience about it? The first Amar Chitra Katha was about Krishna and was published in 1969-70. This was followed by Shakuntala. Initially, the sales figures for Krishna was disheartening only 20,000 copies int he first three years. Thereafter, sales picked up and It was reprinted 75 times In different languages and sold over a million copies. 11. How was the Idea of Tinkle conceived? Pai conceived the idea of Tinkle after learning from Dr. Pradip Chunder, the then Educafion Minister that 650 0 of Indian children dropped out of school before completing grade 4. He realised that the reason was not merely a matter of affordability or low income; it had to do With the erroneous pedagogy that did not make learning fun for children. 12. How did the name Tinkle come to be for a serious comic magazine that aimed to arouse the interest for mathematics, science or natural history in children? Every time the team would sit down to discuss the project or to think of a name for the magazine, the phone would make a tinkling sound of ringing and so the name came into being. 13. What is the name of the interviewer's son and how old is he? The name of the interviewer's son is Aarit and he is 13 years old. 14. Who paid Pai the compliment of 'Father of Indian comics? How did Pai feel about it? Pai was paid the compliment of 'father of Indian comics' by Debashish Mukherjee in an article published in Bharat Jyoti the Sunday Edition of the Free Press Journal. Pai felt really humbled and pleased by the compliment.
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    15. What is the name of pai's wife? Pal's wife was named Lalitha. 16. According to Pai, what is the most important value in life? According to Pai, self-esteem was the most important value In life. 17. When was the first Tinkle published? The first Tinkle was published in 1980. Vocabulary 1. visionless = vision + less Invisible = In + vision + ble Inaudible — in + audio +able preview pre + view helplessness = help + less + ness mistakenly mistaken + ly mismanage — mis + manage unstable = un + stable unpredictable = un + predict + able tonsillifis = tonsil + Itis regain = re + gain restless rest + less Words from the text include: rewrote, network, freelance, steadfast, runaway, disheartened, affordability, weakness, brightness, effortlessly, unconditional. 2. Homophones define a pair of words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings. 1. The walls of the safe are made of steel. This is a precaution so that no one can break open and steal from it. 2. Was he able to climb the stairs? From the stares of his friends, it is evident that something is amiss. 3. Meet me at the railway station at eight o' clock. We will have to unload the meat from the special carriage before the train leaves. 4. is the train fare to Mumbai? It isn't fair to charge so much for such a short distance. 5. The aircraft had to change course due to bad weather. You have to identify whether the rocks are coarse or smooth. 6. The nurse would peek into the wards at night. Winter IS the peak season for tourists to Visit this place. Complex Sentences: a. 1. It was tough but intellectually satisfying.
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    2. I went to several publishers but did not find any takers. 3. I have great reverence for India's heritage and am deeply rooted in its rich tradifion. 4. I realised the task was mammoth once the work began. 5. I wrote the scripts myself as their submissions were mediocre. b. 1. Though it was tough, it was intellectually satisfying. 2. Though I went to several publishers, I did not find any takers. 3. I have great reverence for India's heritage and culture because I am deeply rooted in its rich tradition. 4. Though they could answer questions on Greek mythology, they could not tell the name of Lord Ram's mother. 5. After resigning from The Times of India, I grabbed the opportunity. Voice: 1. How was a team put together for this ambitious project? a. 2. By whom has this prank been played? 3. Will she be permitted to go to college by her parents? 4. Have the General Knowledge questions been answered? 5. Will the corrupt workers be arrested? 6. How can anyone commit this crime? 1. The clothes are not properly washed by the dhobi. b. Fresh vegetables are not sown by the vendors? 2. 3. The mirror may not have been broken by the boy. 4. The terrorists have not been caught by the police. 1. You are requested to complete the assignment. c. 2. Let the fruth be spoken. 3. Please let her be left alone. 4. let the poor man be helped by us. d. 1. The student was gifted a pen by the teacher.
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    2. This name was given to me by Debashish Mukherjee. 3. I was given unconditlonal support by my wife, Lalitha. 4. I was offered a small contract by Mr. Mirchandani, the proprietor of IBH. e. 1. He was declared Young Scientist of the Year. 2. He was appointed broadcasting Minister by the President. 3. He was elected trade union leader by the employees. 4. He was voted General Manager by the Board of Directors. Extension 1. The questions to be asked depend on the profile of the important personality, that is, the type of work he or she does. So there will be different sets of questions for people from different backgrounds. But, some questions can always be asked of anyone. Examples: 1. How did you start of or what was the inspiration behind your achievements? 2. X/hat were the problems you had faced in the initial years and how did you overcome them? 3. X/ho were the people who helped you on the way? 4. Can you narrate any memorable incident from your days of struggle? 5. What message would you like to convey to the youth of today?

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