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Notes On English Words And Meaning

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The Notes will help student to know the meaning of the words and how to use them.

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    Ecowatch — 'R' You Ready? Comprehending So long we have been reading about the ways in which we have been degrading and polluting our world, but in this chapter, awareness has been raised regarding what measures can be adopted for cutting down pollution, even if it is for one day in the year. At least it will make us conscious of the gravity of the problem and let us know what remedial measures can be adopted on a long term basis. In a way, from this chapter we learn to take 'a small step but a giant leap' towards conservation of the environment. Words — Meanings, Pronunciations, Thesaurus commemorate — to honour the memory of somebody or something Sanctuary Sanctuary Asia, India's premier wildlife and ecology magazine toxic — poisonous; lethal; noxious incandescent (in-kan-dess-uhnt) glowing as a result of being heated segregation (seg-ri-gay-shun) — isolate; exclude; cut off; separate; sequester compost — decayed organic materials used as fertilizers food miles — a term that refers to the distance travelled by food from the time of production to the time of consumption. It IS a factor that IS used to assess the impact of food on global warming ignite — burn; catch fire; kindle; set alight upfront — bold and frank usher welcome emphysema (em-fi-see-muh) — breathlessness due to damaged and enlarged air sacs aquifers (ak wi-fers) a body of rock that holds water or through which water flows Analysing Preparation 1. The purpose of celebrating the numerous National and International days is to create awareness about social issues so that in due course of time they acquire as much importance In our lives as that of birthdays, anniversaries and the like. 2. The manner in which we celebrate our festivals IS not always eco-friendly. In fact, most of them cause Irreparable damage to the environment. One such festival is Deepawali, the Festival of Lights which gets converted into the Festival of Sounds and Harmful Gases because of the tradition of bursting crackers. Not only does that cause sound-pollution, but also It leads to breathing troubles because of the smoke and the gases. 3. The surroundings of smaller towns are bearing the brunt of development because of the unplanned and rampant non-biodegradable garbage disposal. This not only causes environmental pollution, but also visual pollution as the aesthetic beauty of the landscape is marred.
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    4. These visual images convey the message as to the probable solutions to reduce pollution. They are simple and can be implemented at the individual levels. 1. 1. The six R's that can reduce consumption are Refuse, Repair, Reuse, Recycle, Reject and Renew. 2. The steps taken to keep our neighbourhoods clean can be using decayed organic wastes of the neighbourhoods as fertllisers, selling to the garbage collector whatever can be sold, volunteering with friends and neighbours to pick up litter from a public place and ensuring that leaves are not burnt. 3. Pesticides are used at home to kill rats and cockroaches. However, since they are poisons, they affect us also. The dead bodies of these rats and cockroaches spread a lot of germs that lead to diseases. 4. People can get together and lobby the municipality to adopt better garbage disposal methods as well as to ensure better public transport network and the reduction of private vehicles on the roads. Better garbage disposal methods include segregating dry and wet garbage as has been made mandatory in many cities. 5. Legislating the segregation of dry and wet garbage which will reduce littering of roads and thereby reduce the number of stray animals. 6. Teachers have an important role to play in spreading awareness about the ecosystem and ecology. They should ensure that the shed leaves are not burnt, but used as compost, practice the segregation of dry and wet garbage, spread awareness about the ill effects of bursting fire crackers during festlvals, involving their students in initiating rainwater harvesting methods in schools and then in their neighbourhoods. 7. Leaf burning should be avoided because it results In emphysema and other diseases. 11. 1. The benefits of car pooling result In reduced consumption of petroleum products, lesser release of greenhouse gases like oxides of carbon and sulphur, reduces traffic congestion on roads and proves economical also. 2. We can reduce the food miles by switching over to locally produced organic food rather than relying on canned food which have artificial preservatives in them and are unhealthy for consumption on a long-term basis. 111. 1. Tasks that can be undertaken regularly I. sto usin thin lastic ba s Tasks on Earth Day 1. send self-made Earth Da cards to friends
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    2. desist from burning leaves 3. practice the segregation of dry and wet garbage 4. practice rain water harvesting 5. desisting from littering the roads and streets 2. organising awareness campaigns related to environmental issues 3. organising local cleanliness campaigns to clear litter from the neighbourhood pledge to inculcate and practice 4. environmental issues on a regular basis 5. chart out long-term policies and action plans to ensure that whatever is done on Earth Day, is done on all 365 da s of the ear 2. by yourself using bicycles not littering avoiding excess use of gadgets TASKS with friends/ family planting trees organising community cleanliness drives saving electricity and water with NGOs participating in rallies organislng awareness campaigns lobbying for legislatlve reforms beyond us recycling not using plastic 1. is Earth Day celebrated? How is this different from the other days' that are observed? Earth Day is celebrated on 22nd April every year. It is different from the other days that are observed in the way that while others celebrate bonds between different human beings, this celebrates our bonding between the earth and ourselves. 2. IS Sanctuary? Sanctuary or Sanctuary Asia is India's premier wildlife and ecology magazine and was started by Bittu Sahagal. It addresses major issues related to the conservation of our environment and wildlife. 3. Xhat are the author's suggestions on cutting down of energy consumptions? The author suggests that to cut down upon energy consumptions, we should switch over from the incandescent bulbs to CFL and LED bulbs; walk or use public transport to reach office and avoid using private vehicles; if vehicles have to be used, then we should opt for carpools and reduce the number of trips as much as possible; use Skype instead of travelling to office and thereby save fuel; and switch off unnecessary gadgets. 4. According to the author how can we cut down on wastes and plastics?
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    According to the author, we can cut down on wastes by setting up waste segregation systems In schools, buildings and neighbourhoods; converting organic waste to compost; handing over whatever can be handed over to paddi wallahas or rag-pickers and collecting waste paper from our old note books to stitch them up and use them to make new ones. To cut down on plastics, we can insist our local grocery shops to use paper packets rather than plastic bags, especially the thin plastic bags. 5. How can shramdaan or voluntary service be useful In environmental conservation? Shramdaan or voluntary service can be useful in environmental conservation because, through it we can raise awareness among our friends and neighbours regarding need for conservations and how to do. In other words, it is practising what one preaches and, therefore, leading by example to influence others to do the same. 6. Vhat IS the author's advice regarding cutting down on toxicity? The author says that the use of pesticides and insecticides at home is harmful because they are toxic materials and can affect our own health. To get rid of cockroaches and rodents like rats and mice, he suggests that keeping our houses and surrounding clean will be enough to get rid of them because they thrive best where there are food crumbs. 7. How, according to the author, can we save water? According to the author, we can save water by avoiding showers and bath tubs and bathing only In half a bucket of water. 8. Xhat notable achievement of teachers and students working together has the author cited? The author cites that teachers and students working together have campaigned for desisting from the use of fire crackers during festivals to reduce both air and sound pollution. Although it was approached from the angle of child labour, yet the environmental purpose was also served as the city saw a sharp decline in the sales of fire crackers. 9. X/hat homework can children set for adults? Children can set adults the homework of not burning dead leaves but using them as fertilizers and preventing emphysema and other diseases; asking them to stop dumping organic garbage by segregating dry garbage from wet garbage and using it to develop fertilisers; asking them to lobby for better public transport facilifies so that the number of vehicles on the roads can be controlled and asking them to actively Involve themselves in tree-planting actlvitles along pavements; encouraging to actively use water harvesting techniques. 10. How have maths teachers helped their students regarding water harvesting? Maths teachers have helped their students regarding water harvesting by calculating the amount of water that can be stored up in a place. 11. How can water harvesting be beneficial? Water harvesting can be beneficial to obtain safe drinking water if charcoal filters are installed. Even if the process fails, then that water can be safely channelised back to the ground through tube wells to recharge aquifers.
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    12. Why does the author insist that we take the steps as suggested by him? The author Insists that by taking the steps as advised by him we will not only be saving the planet but we will also be saving ourselves. Vocabulary 1. Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 111. Grammatical form of 'cut' Noun Verb Noun Noun Verb Noun Phrasal verb Phrasal verb The sentence talks about His arm The swimmer The sala Petrol consum Suit Mumbaikers Hon Dictionary meaning of 'cut' Wound caused by a sharp Instrument To o throu h somethin Reduction Deduction Reduction Desi n Suitable Isolated 2. i. syllabus, semester, textbooks, laboratory, period, marks 11. prescription, medicine, check up, surgery, appointment, inhale cash counter, teller, cheque, passbook, draft, ATM 3. herogi/i, lathicharge, mutton Papatha, chicken tikka, kebab joint, police chowki Grammar 1. In the present text, the writer has used imperative structures because he wants us to think for ourselves which will incidentally help to save the world from disaster. 2. Request: i. Will you do something this Earth Day? li. Do you want to give some of the adults in your life some homework too? Suggestions: i. Let's help protect our planets in very simple ways like these... ii. '... perhaps a garden, beach or wooded area?' iii. If schools were to separate wet and dry garbage .. the health of millions would improve'. Warning: i. 'Ask them to stop leaf burning .. .diseases'. ii. Using poison really ends up poisoning the family iii. Check out the impact of 'food miles' on Google. Appeal: i. 'Cut consumption . . renew'. ii. 'Cut out plastics ... plastic bags'. iii. 'Ask them to lobby for better public transport . . and repaired'.
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    Extension 3. Importance of eating organic food as against junk food Food habits are a major concern in today's fast-paced and ready-to-serve world. To save time and also for convenience, people prefer to have junk food, readily over the counter from outlets and food joints rather than take the effort to buy fresh food items from the markets regularly and then prepare them properly. Also, the rising affluence of people has made them search for exotic dishes out of season. They may taste good but are absolutely unhealthy. Also, they are a threat to the environment. And the Irony is that we are unaware of either. Canned and junk foods require a lot of preservatives like spices to keep them in edible state. For transportation from one place to another, especially over long distances and across countrtes they have to be properly packed In air-tight plastic pouches and metal or plastic cans. At the same time they have to be kept under refrigeration. All these activities have a negafive impact on our environment. Firstly, plastic is non-biodegradable and are a major source of land and water pollution. Also they clog the sewage systems and allow the accumulation of dirty water that is the breeding ground for many water-borne diseases and epidemics. Secondly, for refrigeration purposes a many different chemicals and gases are used that affect the ozone layer of our atmosphere, causing harmful UV and IV to penetrate to the earth's surface and cause numerous skin problems, some of which are carcinogenic also. Moreover, the preservatives apart from salt are again chemicals that affect the immune system on overuse. Lastly, refrigeration also increases power consumption which again exerts pressure on the environment because most of the power sources in India are dependent on thermal power stations that use coal in huge quantities. On the other hand, locally produced organic food items are more beneficial both in terms of health and environment. They are fresh and can be bought daily and as per requirement and so refrigeration is not required. That saves power consumption and the release of harmful gases Into the environment. Also, it prevents the intake of a lot of chemical pesticides that are required to preserve food. Lastly, they can be easily transported to our homes using jute or cloth bags, thus, reducing the use of plastics. Considering all the above factors, it is always better to have fresh organic food rather than junk food.

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