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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD DEMOGRAPHY: Densi . km Urbanization b SN 1. 2. 3. S.no Continent Asia Euro e South America Africa North America Oceania Continents: Continent South America Euro e North America erson/s 108 101 21 20 14 3 Urbanization 78 74 68 20 Countries b Area Countr 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Russia Canada United States China Brazil Australia India Ar entina Kazakhstan Sudan To Area (lakh s 170 99 96 95 85 76 32 27 27 25 km) S. N 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Countr Al eria Dem. Re of Con Mexico Saudi Arabia Indonesia Lib a Iran Mon olia Peru Chad Worlds Most PO ulous Countries S.N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Country China India United States Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Ban ladesh Russia Ni eria Mexico Phili ines Vietnam Population in million 1,306 1,080 295 241 186 162 144 143 128 127 106 87 83 S.N 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1 Country German Ethio ia Turke Iran Thailand France United Kin dom Dem. Re of Con Ital Korea, South Ukraine o o Area (lakh s km) 23 23 19 19 19 17 16 15 12 12 Population In Million 82 77 73 69 68 65 60 60 60 58 48 47
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Contributions of 1m ortant Geographers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Me alo olis conce Conurbation Conce Polar Front Theo Antic clone term E uilibrium Theor t t, Wrote 'Cities in Evolution' of tides D namic Theor of Tides Pro ressive Wave Theor Canal Theo Stationar Wave Theo of Tides Process of Preci itation First used the term Ecolo Father of Ecolo First used the term late Coined the term Antecedent Stream Classification of clouds Icec stal Theor Collision-Coalesce Theor Glacial Control Theor of Coral reef formation Subsidence Theor of Coral reef formation Stand Still Theor of Coral reef Conce t of rade Law of Stream number/Len th Location Allocation Models Law of Retail Gravitation Conce t of Threshold & Ran e Introduced the conce t of Possibilism Coined "Areal Differentiation' General S stem Theor Develo ed H ther ra h POI conic Pro•ection Globular ro•ection Jean Gottman Patrick Geddes J. B •erknes Sir Francis Galton Issac Newton La lace William Whewell G. B. Air R. A. Harris Ber eron Tansie Haeckel J. T Wilson J. W. Powell Luke Howard Tor Ber eron Geor e Sim son & Mason Dai Darwin Murra G.K. Gilbert R. E. Horton P. Ha ett W.J. Reill B.J.L. Berr Lucien Febvre Hartshorne Ludwi von Bertalanff G. Ta lor Ferdinand Hessier S.J. Fournier 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Gra hite Gold Platinum Chromium Diamond Zinc Uranium Nickel Coal Steel Iron Ore Minerals & Their Lar est Producers Mada ascar South Africa, Australia South Africa, Canada. South Africa, Russia South Africa, Re ublic of Con o & Australia Canada, Australia Canada, USA, Australia, Ni er, France, South Africa Canada, Russia, Australia, USA. China, USA, India, Russia China China, Brazil, Australia. 2
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Cement Man anese H dro Power Tun sten Asbestos Natural Gas Flax Tantalum Bauxite Lead Cadmium Antimon Uranium (Reser.) Zirconium Titanium (Rutile) Iron Co er Tin Silver Mercur Sul hur Rock Phos hate China China, South Africa, Australia. Canada Canada, USA, (Norwa hi hest %a e User) China, Thailand, Korea Canada Russia, Zambia, Zimbabwe Russia, Canada, Al eria, Iran Russia Australia Australia, Guinea, Jamaica & Brazil. Australia, China, US Canada China Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada, South Africa Australia Brazil *Australia* China, Brazil, Australia Chile, United States, Canada, Armenia, Zambia, Zaire China, Indonesia, Peru, Brazil, Mala sia Mexico, Peru, Chile & Poland. S ain, China, Ital Mexico, USA & Poland USA, Peru (Guano). A ricultural Commodities & Their Lar est Producer Milk Coffee Tobacco Pork Rice (ex ort) Rice Banana Banana (Ex ort) Maize Wheat Cork Palm Oil Fresh Water Fish Barle Tea (Ex orter) Rubber Pul (Ex ort) Pa er (Ex ort) Su ar Su ar (Ex ort) India Brazil, Vietnam China, turke China Thailand, Vietnam China, India India, Brazil Costa Rica, Jamaica, Honduras, Columbia USA, China China Portu al Maia sia Russia German , Canada, Russia, France Sri Lanka Thailand, Indonesia, Mala sia USA Canada Canada India, Brazil, Cuba Cuba 3
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    Ghanshyam Thori 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Oil Palm Oil Palm (im ort) Cotton Cotton (ex ort) Man oes Manila Hem (Abaca) Raw Silk Tobacco Oran es Oats Millets Sor hum Pulses Su arcane Tea Dates Olives Wine (Ex orter) Wine (Producer) Coconut Gra es Potato So abeens Island of Cloves Land of Lilies Land of Golden Fleece Geography Notes Mala sia, Indonesia India China, USA, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan in that order. USA India Phili ines (75%) China, Ja an, India, Korea. China, USA, India USA, Brazil Russia India Russia USA India Brazil India, China Iran, E t S ain *Al eria* Ital , France Indonesia, Phili Ital , France China U.S.A, Brazil ines, Port of Five Seas Island of Pearls Hermit Kin dom Land of Golden Pa Cit of Canals Hoi Land Herrin Pond oda Cit of Golden Gate Cit of dreamin S ires Land of Canals Em ire cit Land of Cakes Land of Eskimos Island of Pearls Granite Cit Garden of En land Cock it of Euro e Sobriquets Zanzibar Canada Australia Moscow Bahrain Korea Yan oon (M anmar) Venice Palestine Atlantic Sand Francisco Oxford Netherlands New York Scotland Greenland Bahrain Aberdeen, Scotland Kent Bel ium 4
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    Ghanshyam Thori 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Cit of brotherl Love Cit of Ma nificent Distances Gatewa of tears Textile Ca ital of Russia Manchester of Ja an Emerald Cit The earl of the Antilles Geography Notes Philadel hia Washin ton DC Bab-e1-Mandab Ivanovo Osaka (Textile) Ireland Cuba Hi hest Peaks In Various Regions/ Mountain Chain Africa North America Euro e Antarctica Asia Oceania South America Australia Urals Andes Rockies A alachians South West Asia (Elbruz Chain) Mt. Kiliman•aro Mt. McKinle Mt. Elbrus Mt. Vinson Mt. Everest Mt. Carstensz Mt. Aconca ua Mt. Kosciusko Mt. Gora Naradna a Mt. Mont Blanc Mt. Aconca ua Mt. Elbert Mt. Mitchell Mt. Demavand 1m ortant Places/Re ions & Their Locations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Llanos Cam os Iberian Peninsula Katan a basin Canterbu Plain Chaco / Gran Chaco Kra Peninsula Parana re ion Matto rosso Do er bank Grand bank Geor es bank Nordic Countries 0b, Yenise & Lena Sarawak, Sabah, Labuan Yucatan Peninsula Ozark Plateau Sinai Peninsula Tro ical Grasslands of Venezuela Tro ical rasslands of Brazil S ain Democratic re ublic of Con o Lar est lowland area of New Zealand Low, flat, arid region covering Argentina Paraguay & Bolivia. Maia sia Brazil —Lar est roducer of wheat, corn cotton Thick •un le in west central brazil north of Bolivia. Shallow fishin area in north sea, 100km off UK Shallow fishin area off new foundland, Canada Near ba of fund & Gulf of Maine Norwa , Iceland, Greenland, Denmark. Ma•or rivers of Russia These three states make u east Mala sia. Mexico heavily forested upland region, between the Missouri and Arkansas rivers In north eastern E t. 5
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    Ghanshyam Thori s. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Miscellaneous Data of Various Nations Geography Notes Forest 070 25 Country/ Re ion Canada USA Britain Ital Norwa New Zealand Switzerland Ja an France Lithuania German Australia S. E. Asia Russia Urban 75 76 80 20 60 Hydro Elect % 60 50 90 75 74 Nuclear Thermal 070 10 24 32 77 78 30 90 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Kalmuks Kir hiz Gauchos Mestizos Ost aks P mies Boro Seman Pa uans Bushmen or San Bedouins Masai Kir hiz Saami or La Yuti Chukchi Yakuts Aleut Yuit Inuit Samo ed Punan s Afrikaner/Boer Tribes of the World Inhabit the Altai mountains & nearb areas - astoral Occu the Tien Shan & ad • acent Pamirs Cowbo s of the am as of Ar entina & Uru ua Peo le of mixed white & Indian arenta e West Siberian tribe Con o basin — Zaire, Con o, Gabon. Amazon basin-sub rou of red Indians. Maia sia New Guinea Kalahari — Namibia, Botswana, An Ola Nomadic Arabs in Africa & Middle-East East Africa - Ken a, U anda Central Asia. Muslim b faith Norwa , Sweden, Finland — Also known as La landers Siberia Far Eastern Siberia Tundra re ion of Russia Aleutian Islands Siberia Greenland, Canada & Siberia West Siberia Borneo Dutch race in S. Africa 6
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. Afridis Veddas Bantus Berbers Maori Bindibu Cossacks Croats Flemish Finns Hamites Hottentots/khoi khoi Kaffris Kiku u Masuds Mestizos Amerinds Mulatto Moors Semites Tartar Zambas Zulus Akka Oromo or Galla Kubu Fulani/Fu1a Bur at Aeta Ainu Yanomamo N. West Pakistan Racial stock of Sri Lanka Central & southern Africa — Swahili is Bantu derived Ian ua e. Morocco, Al eria & Tunisia New Zealand Western Australia Russia around black & Cas ian Sea Inhabitants of Hun a Croatia Bel ium Euro ean Tundra N-W Africa — Dark skinned muslims Tro ical Africa S. Africa — known as martial race Ken a's most o ulous ethnic rou Waziristan re ion, Pakistan Peo le of mixed Indian & Euro ean blood in Latin America N. America — Peo le of mixed Euro ean & Indian blood Mixed Euro ean & black blood in South America Mixed tribe of Arabs & Berber eo le of Morocco Jews & Ethio ians Turkic eo le of eastern Euro e & central Asia Peo le of African & Native American Indian in S. America Peo le of Bantu famil inhabitin South Africa Democratic re ublic of Con o African eo le of hamitic ori in in Ethio ia & Ken a Turkic eo le inhabitin N-W china & Kazakhstan. Inhabitants of Sumatra Cattle herders of Ni eria, Sene al, Guinea or Chad Lar est ethnic minorit in Siberia inhabitin bur atre ublic. Mon oloid racial stock found in Phili ines (indi enous) Caucasoids of Ja an. Indi enous eo le of Brazil & Venezuela Largest Producers of Fish in the World, 2001 S.no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Country China Peru USA Japan Indonesia WORLD 7 Prod in Million tons 16.5 8 4.9 4.7 4.2 92.4
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Worst deforestation rate of S.N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Country Nigeria Vietnam Cambodia Sri Lanka Malawi Indonesia rimar forests, 2000-2005 Deforestation Rate % 55.7 54.5 29.4 15.2 14.9 12.9 Highest average annual deforestation of primary forests, 2000-2005 in hectares 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Brazil Indonesia Russian Federation - 532,200 Mexico - 395,000 Pa ua New Guinea - 250,200 Total forest cover in hectares - 2005 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Russian Federation Brazil Canada United States of America China Highest total forest cover as a ercentage of total land cover, 2005 Suriname French Guiana Micronesia (Federated States of) American Samoa Se chelles Minerals & Their Ores 94.7 91.8 90.6 89.4 88.9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Iron Nickel Man anese Antimon Titanium Chromium Uranium Haematite (Fe203), Ma netite (Fe304), limonite & Siderite Millerite, Pentlandite P rolusite, Braunite, Psilomelane Stibnite Rutile Chromite Pitchblende (U02) 8
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Lead Thorium Zinc Mercur Ber Ilium Cobalt Lithium Ma nesium Potassium Silver Sodium Galena Thorianite, Monazite, Allanite, Ilemnite Calamine, S halerite Cinnabar Ber l, chr sobe I Smalitite, Cobaltite S odumene Ma nesite, Dolomite, Kieserite, Carnallite. Carnallite (KCI.M C12.6H20) Ar entite Chile Salt eter (NaN03) Cassiterite Major Discontinuities within the earth Tin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Conrad Discontinuit Mohorovicic Discontinuit Re etti Discontinuit Weichart-Gutenber Discontinuit Lehmann Discontinuit Between outer & inner crust Between crust & mantle Between outer & inner mantle Between mantle & core Between outer & inner core. 1m ortant Mining Centers Of The World Cleveland Un ava & Belle Island Cara as Yam i Sound Paraburdoo Bilbao Niko 01 Chu uicamata Morenci El Chino Katan a Mount Isa Broken Hill Witwatersrand Kai oorlie Fushun Donetz Kuznetsk Kara anda Mesabi ran Pittsbur Port Louis Anshan Lille Y allourn Iron Ore (U. K.) Iron Ore (Canada) Iron Ore (Brazil) Iron Ore (Australia) Iron Ore (Australia) Iron Ore (S ain) Lar est man anese mines of world (Ukraine) co er (Chile) Co er (Arizona - lar est in US) co er (New Mexico) co er, cobalt, uranium, cadmium, tin, Silver, lead, zinc & co er (Australia) Silver, Lead & Zinc Gold (S. Africa) Gold (Australia) Manchuria (Coal) Coal (Ukraine) Coal (Russia) Coal (Kazakhstan) Iron ore (Northern Minnesota) old, silver (DMC) iron & steel ca ital of the world (Penns Ivania) Su ar industr (Mauritius) iron & Steel (China) Textiles (France) Coal (Australia) 9
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    Ghanshyam Thori 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 1 oh Tula Chiatura Chilean desert Pilbara Bomi Hill Montana Kra Peninsula Iron Knob Minas Gerais Jos Plateau Ozark Bin ham Chihuahua Rum Jun le Krivoi Ro Sudbur Kinta Valle Wei a Gi sland Flin Fion Catavi Braden 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Iso ones Isohel Isobront Isocheim Isothere Isanomal Isochrones Isoh se Isonif Iso hene Iso otential Isor mes Isarithm Isone hs Co-seismal lines Isoh se Iso ach Isotach Isotherombrose Geography Notes Tin (Kinta Valle , Maia sia) Iron ore (near Moscow) Man anese (Geor ia) Caliche (Chile Salt eter-NaN03) Iron ore (Australia) Liberia (Iron Ore Uranium accounts for 75 er cent mineral ex ort co ( USA) Tin (Narrowest oint of Mala sia) Iron ore (Australia- Now almost exhausted) Iron Ore (Brazil) Tin (Ni eria) Lead-Zinc Ores (USA) Co er (United States lar est mine) Important mining town of Mexico — Iron, Lead, copper, silver. Uranium (Australia) Iron Ore (Ukraine) Nickel (Canada) Tin (Maia sia) Bauxite (Australia) Li nite(Australia) Minin centre in Manitoba, Canada Bolivia Chile (Co er) 1m ortant Iso leths E ual ma netic declination E ual amount of sunli ht. Thunderstorm at the same time Same mean winter tem erature Same mean summer tem erature Iso leth of Anomal E ual travel time from a common center. Or Contour lines Amount of Snow Iso leths of seasonal henomena Surface to which artesian water can rise E ual frost A line re resentin continuous value on ma E ual cloudiness Simultaneous seismic activit Or contours E ual thickness of eolo ical strata Same wind s eed E ual ratio of summer rainfall to annual rainfall 10
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    Ghanshyam Thori 20. 21. 22. 23. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ll. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. Isochasm Isod namic Iso en Isokeraunic Yorkshire Lancashire Glas ow Sheffield Lorraine Silesia Lodz Hambur Stutt art Munich Karl Marx Stadt Sambre-Meuse Marseilles Baku Chica o Detroit Seattle Cadiz Chan chun Chel abinsk Dresden Dusseldorf Essen Essex Kharkov Kiev Ma nito orsk Nizhn Ta il Venice Vienna Philadel hia PI mouth Yenan Yan Gork / Nizhn Belfast E E E E ual fre uenc of aurorae ual ma netic intensit ual birthrates ual occurrence of thunderstorms Places & Their 1m ortance woollen textile cotton textile shi buildin Cutler & steel works Iron ore (France) Silk Indust (France) Coal (Poland) — hi h rade Manchester of Poland Shi Buildin (German ) Automobile (German ) Instruments (German ) Textile (German ) Coal (Bel ium) Oil Refiner Ca ital cit of Azerbai•an & chief refinin Bi est railwa •unction Automobile Aircraft Cork (S ain) Automobile & machine tools (China) Iron & Steel (Russia) Geography Notes center. O tical, Photo & Gra hic instruments (German ) Novo orod Iron & Steel (German ) Iron & Steel (German ) En ineerin works (En land) Machine buildin & En ineerin En ineerin (Ukraine) Iron & Steel (Russia) Cotton & Shi buildin (Ja an) Iron & Steel (Russia) Glass Industr Glass Industr Locomotives (USA) Shi buildin (USA) Oil Drillin (M anmar) En ineerin Industr Shi buildin (Ireland) Types of Delta 11 (Ukraine)
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    Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Arcuate Delta Di itate or Bird-Foot Delta Estuarine Delta Cus ate or Tooth-Sha ed Delta Geography Notes Nile, Ganga, Rhine, Hwang Ho, Volga, Indus, Mekon , Rhone, Danube. Mississi i Elb, 0b, seine, Narmada, Tapti, Mackenzie, Hudson, Amazon, Rhine Tiber in Ital , Ebro of S ain. Ma •or Natural Re ions E uatorial Lowland E uatorial Hi hiand E uatorial Hi h Plateaus Tro ical Eastern Mar in Tro ical Interiors Tro ical Western Deserts Warm Tem erate/Subtro Warm Tem erate/Subtro Warm Tem erate/Subtro Warm Tem erate/Subtro ical Western Mar ins ical Eastern Mar in ical Interior Lowland ical Interior Plateau Cool Tem erate Western Mar in Cool Tem erate Eastern Mar in Cool Tem erate Interior Lowland Cool Tem erate Interior Hi hland cool Tem erate Hi h Plateau Polar Lowland Polar Hi hiand Major Deserts Amazon T e Maia T e Ecuador T e Monsoon T e Sudan T e SaharaT e Mediterranean T ChinaT e TuranT e Iran T e Euro eanT e St. Lawrence T Prairie T e Altai T e Tibet T e Tundra T e Ice Ca T e S. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 1. Desert Sahara Gobi Pata onian Rub' Al Khali Great Sand Great Victoria Chihuahuan Takia Makan Sonoran Kalahari K z 1 Kum Thar Sim son Mohave Nafud Desert Dasht-1-Kavir Mars Location Northern Africa Mon olia/Northeastern China Ar entina Southern Arabian Peninsula Northwestern Australia Southwestern Australia Mexico/Southwestern United States Northern China Mexico/Southwestern United States Southwestern Africa Uzbekistan India/Pakistan Australia Southwestern United States Arabian Peninsula Iran Planets & satellites Deimos, Phobos 12
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    Ghanshyam Thori 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ju iter Saturn Uranus Ne tune Pluto H 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. Gaseous H othesis Nebular H othesis PlanetesimalH othesis Tidal H othesis Meteoric H othesis Binar Star H othesis Fission H othesis Ce heidH othesis Su ernovaH othesis Interstellar Dust H othesis Nebular Cloud H othesis Proto lanetH othesis Geography Notes Gan mede, Callisto, Euro a, 10 Titan, Teth s, Rhea, la etus, Dione Oberon, Titania, Umbriel, Ariel Triton Charon othesis of the ori in of Earth Kant La lace T.C. Chamberlain & F. R. Moulten James Jeans & Harold Jeffre s Lock er H.N. Russel Ross Gun A.C. Banefi F. Ho le Otto Schmidt Von Weizsacker Gerald Kui er Percentage Area of various bodies 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Land 35.4 % 18.4 % 14.5 % 29.2 % Ma •or Trenches in the Ocean Aleutian trench, Tonga trench, Philippine trench, Peru-Chile trench, Mariana Trench (near Micronesia) Puerto Rico trench, South sandwich trench, Romanche trench Java trench Submarine Can ons in various oceans Tok 0 Can on Berin Can on Columbia Can on Juan De Fucca Can Montere Can on Ar uello Can on Scri s Can on Coronados Can on Atlantic Ocean 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Atlantic Ocean Oceano ra her Can on Hudson Can on Wilmin ton Can on Norfolk Can on Con o Can on San Francisco Can on Mississi i Can on Basins of the Oceans 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Indian Ocean Indus Can on Gan es Can on on South Antilles basin, Ca e basin, A ulhas basin 13
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. A B C D E H 1. 2. 3. 4. Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Catham rise Gala a os rise Nazca rid e South Tasman rise Louisville rid e Juan de fuca rid e (N-E P) Gorda rid e ( N-E P) Ex lorer rid e Austral Marshall Gilbert Carnei e rid e Cocos rid e Norfolk Island rid e Caroline-Solomon rid e Mascarenes, Sulu, Celebes, Banda basin Caroline, Solomon, New Hebrides, Guatemala basin Major Ridges & Rises in various Oceans 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Atlantic Ocean Rio Grande rise Waivis rid e Re Vanes rid e (Iceland) Sierra Leone rise Para rise New foundland rise W ville Thomson rid e DOI hin rise Challen er rise 1. 2. 3. 4. Indian Ocean Carlsber rid e Laccadive-Cha os rid e Cha os-St Paul rid e Ker uelen-Gausber rid e Lomonsov rid e & Gakkel rid e is in arctic ocean. Ko en's Classification Tro ical Climate Dr Climate Mild Humid (Mesothermal) Climate Snow forest (Microthermal) climate Polar Climate Undifferentiated hi hland climate s W T F m w s h k Ste e Climate Desert Climate Tundra climate Ice Ca climate Preci itation in all months Monsoon t e Dr season in winter Dr season in summer Dr hot; mean ann. Tem >18 C (B onl ) Dr cold; mean ann. tem < 18 C (B onl ) a b c d Third Letter Hot summers in which the warmest month has a mean temperature of above 22 C. Used in C & D climate Warm summers in which the warmest month has a mean temperature of below 22 C. Used in C & D climates Cool short summers with fewer than four months having a mean temperature above 10 C. Used in C & D climates Very cold winters in which the mean temperature of the coldest month is below -38 C. Used in D climate onl . Types of Climate Under Koppen's Scheme 14
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    Ghanshyam Thori Am Aw BS BW Cf Cw Tro ical Rainforest Tro ical monsoon Tro ical savanna Ste e climate Desert climate Cs Df Dw DS ET Geography Notes Mild humid climate with d summer Snow forest climate with on dr season Snow forest climate withdr winter Snow forest climate with dr summer Tundra climate.0100 cm 20 t0100 cm 0 to 20 cm -33.3 to O cm -67 to -33.3 -100 to -66.7 cr E' 15 Me athermal Mesothermal Microthermal Microthermal Tundra Frost 57 to 114 42.7 to 57 28.5 to 42.7 14.2 to 28.5 < 14.2
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Com osition of the Earth Earths Crust Whole Earth 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ox en Silicon Aluminium Iron Calcium Sodium Potassium Ma nesium 46.6 27.7 8 5 3.6 2.8 2.6 2.1 Iron Ox en Silicon Ma nesium Nickel Sul hur Calcium Aluminium 35 30 15 13 2.4 1.9 1.1 1.1 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Mountains & Geolo ical Periods Pre-Cambrian Mountains Feno-Scandian mountains, North west highlands Caledonian Mountains Hercynian Mountains Alpine Mountains Block Mountain Fold Mountains Relict Mountains Dome Mountain Formed during Silurian & Devonian period. E.g. Scottish hi hlands,A alachians, Aravallis Formed during Permian period. E.g. Spanish Messeta, mountains of Iberian peninsula, Brittany of France, Vosges, Black forest, Mendi s, Harz (German ). Formed during tertiary period. E.g. Rockies, Andes, alps, Carpathians, Pyrenees, Caucasus, Balkans, Himalayas , Sierra Nevada, Za ros & Elburz (Iran), Verkho ansk mountains Mountain T es Ruwenzori Mountain range in Central Africa, Black forest, Vosges, bohemian massif and the Sierra Nevada in the south-western USA. Himalayas, Aravalli, Appalachians, Alps, Rockies, Andes. Aravalli, Rajmahal, Nilgiris, Satpuras, Western Ghats. Waterfall An el Falls Yosemite Falls Mardalsfossen-South Thukela (Tu ela) Falls Cu uenan Sutherland Henry mountain, USA Hi hest Waterfalls of the World Location Venezuela United States Norwa South Africa Venezuela New Zealand 16 Total dro 979 739 655 614 610 580 (m)
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Worlds Lar est Lakes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Cas ian Sea, Lake Su erior Lake Victoria Lake Huron Lake Michi an Lake Tan an ika Great Bear Lake Lake Baikal Aral Sea Great Slave Lake Lake Balkash Lake Titicaca Lake N asa Lake Lado a Lake One a Lake Rudolf Lake Torrens Lake Vanern Lake Urmia Lake Mobutu 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Other 1m Asia North America Africa North America North America Burundi (N), Zambia DMC (W) North America Asia Asia North America ortant Lakes Kazakhstan Bolivia-Peru Malawi, Mozambi ue, Tanzania Russia (N-W) Russia (N-W) Ken a Just South of Lake E re in S. Australia Sweden Iran U anda Princi Nitro en Ox en Ar on al Gases in the atmos here Carbon Dioxide Neon Helium Methane Kr ton H dro en Xenon Heteros here Molecular Nitro en la er Atomic Ox en la er Helium la er H dro en la er 78.084 20.947 .934 .0314 .0018 .0005 .0002 .00011 .00005 .0000087 90-120 km 200-1100 km 11000-3500 km 3500-10000 km Albedo of Some Surfaces Fresh Snow Cover Clouds Sand 17 70-80% 20-30 %
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    Ghanshyam Thori Grass Dr Ground Wet Ground Forest Water (Solar Elevation > 60) Water (Solar Elevation Geography Notes 15-30 % 15-20% 5-10% 3-5% 25-30 % 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. L simeter Anemometer Ps chrometer Planimeter Panto ra h Parallax Bar Abne level Clinometer Dum level Theodolite S ectroradiometer Stereosco e O isometer/ Meilo Eido ra h Alidade Aneroid Barometer Sextant a h Various Measuring Instruments Eva 0-Trans iration Wind Humidit Area on Ma s Enlar ement & Reduction of Ma s Measurin elevations from to o ra hical ma s. Measurin an les in a vertical lane An les in vertical lane Measure an les both in horizontal & vertical lane Measure an les both in horizontal & vertical lane Measures s ectral reflectance at different wavelen ths. View hotos in 3D view. Channelises one ima e to one e e. Measurin len th of curved lines on a ma Enlar ement & Reduction of ma s A sighting device or pointer for angular measurement used in lane table surve Used for measurin altitude as ressure decreases with hei ht Used to measure an le of ob•ects located on the field 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Mistral Bora Blizzard Pur a Bise Levanter Pam ero Pa a a o Haboob Fria em B uran Norther Etesian Surazo Norte Tehuante 1m ortant Local Winds of the World Cold Winds Blows in S ain & France from N-W to S-E. Common durin Blows alon the shores of the Adriatic sea. Snow laden wind in Snow laden wind in Russian tundra. Much like Buran. An extremel cold wind in France Blows in strait of Gibraltar between S ain & Morocco. Pam as of S. America Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicara ua. Sudan Amazon Valle Eastern Russia & central Siberia Texas, Gulf of Mexico & western carribean Eastern Mediterranean. Cold wind blowin from Ar entinean am as & Pata onia. A stron cold northeasterl wind which blows in Mexico. winter ecer This is a violent, s uall wind from north or north-east in S. Mexico. Hot winds 18
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    Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Soil Fohn Chinook Harmattan Brickfielder Black Roller Shamal Norwester Sirocco Simoom Santa Ana Yamo Zonda Tramontane Samun Karaburan Ber Shamal Austru Almwind Geography Notes Warm & dr local winds blowin on leeward side of Al s in Switzerland. Warm & dr local winds blowin on leeward side of Rockies in USA Blowin from east & northeast towards west in Sahara Victoria rovince of Australia Great lains of USA Meso otamia & Persian Gulf New Zealand From Sahara over Mediterranean. Known as khamsin in Egypt, Chili in Tunisia, Gibli in Lib a, Levech in S ain & Leste in Madiera & Morocco. Warm & dr dust wind in the Arabian desert S. California — blowin out of Santa Ana can on A warm & d wind in Ja an A warm & d wind of the Andean valle s in Ar entina A warm wind of central Euro e. Warm wind in Iran Hot dust wind in central Asia — Tarim basin, Mon olia. A hot dr wind blowin from interior in South Africa. A hot wind of Ira and the Persian ulf Dr blows from the lee side of the mountains in Romania (much like fohn). Local name of fohn that blows in Hun ar & Poland over Tatra mountains. Soil Classification Name Alfisol Aridisols Entisols Inceptisols Histosols Mollisols Oxisols Spodosols Ultisols Common Characteristics Moderately weathered, having a medium to high base saturation & have a subsoil accumulation of clay. Most develo under forest Desert soils with little or no organic content but si nificant calcium. Affected b salinization. Soil Type with little or no horizon development. Found in young formations (lava, sand-dunes etc) More significant horizon development than entisols but less than others. Used for cultivation of sugarcane & coffee Or anic soils found in bo s, swam s & wetlands Dark coloured with upper horizons rich in organic matter. Geographically associated with aridisols Infertile, acidic, deeply weathered soils with contain cla s of iron & aluminium oxide Sandy soils which develop under forests particularly in coniferous areas. They are acidic & have accumulation of or anic matter & iron & aluminium oxides. These are acidic, dee I weathered soil of tro ical & 19 Fertility High Low Low to Moderate Moderate to low Very High Low Good Poor, Typical Location Parts of Canada, U.S & Europe Deserts River valleys, flood plains & deltas Mountain & other geologically oun formation Swam s & bo s Great American plains. Pampas & Ste es Amazon basin & Con o basin Coniferous areas in cool climate. Tem erate
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    Ghanshyam Thori Vertisols Gelisols Andisols s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. subtropical areas with clay accumulation in the B horizon. Not as intensel weathered as oxisols Cla soils which ex and when wet & crack when dr . Soil where ermafrost lies within 2 m of the surface Contain ash & volcanic glass require fertilizers Good Poor Poor Old Name Ab ssinia Aden Bechuanaland British Honduras Dahome Formosa Lenin rad Persia Meso otamia Batavia South-West Africa Tan an ika/Zanzibar U er Volta Gold Coast Stalin ad Azrak Ister Paulus Meotus Raha Albion Euxine Mare Internum Ta robana Northern Rhodesia Southern Rhodesia Leo oldville New Hebrides Manchukuo Sea of Herkend Chan ed Geo New Name Ethio ia Yemen Botswana Belize Benin Taiwan St. Petersbur Iran Ira Jakarta Namibia Tanzania Burkina Faso Ghana vol 0 rad Azov Danube vol a Blue Nile En land Black Sea Mediterranean Sea Sri Lanka Zambia Zimbabwe Kinshasa Vanuatu Manchuria Indian Ocean ra hical Names 29. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. Old Name An ora Basutoland Batavia Constantino le Ca e Canaveral Christina Con o Constantino le Dutch East Indies Dutch Guiana Maia a Manchukuo Meso otamia N asaland Ran oon Rhodesia Salisbu Ascension Bohemia Cilicia Ellice Islands French Guinea Portu uese Guinea British Guinea French West Africa West French Africa Dutch Gu ana Cities Located on Rivers Cit Alexandria Amsterdam Antwe Ankara Ba hdad River Nile Amsel Scheldt Kizil Ti ris Countr Netherlands Bel ium Turke Ira Cit Lahore Lisbon Live 001 London Montreal 20 River Ravi Merse Thames Ottawa Geography Notes humid & tro ical re ions. Seasonall dr Peri lacial areas Near volcanoes New Name Ankara Lesotho D akarta Istanbul Ca e Kenned Oslo Zaire Istanbul Indonesia Surinam Ni on Maia sia Manchuria Ira Malawi Yon on Zimbabwe Harare Saint Helena Czech Re ublic Turke Tuvalu Guinea Guinea Bissau Gu ana Mali Mauritania Surinam Countr Pakistan Portu al En land En land Canada
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    Ghanshyam Thori Ban kok Bel rade Berlin Bonn Bristol Buda est Cairo Canton Chitta on Chun kin Colo ne Glas ow Hull Hambur Karachi Khartoum Menam Danube S ree Rhine Avon Danube Nile Canton Karna huli Yan -tse-kian Rhine Cl de Humber Elbe Indus Nile Thailand Yu oslavia German German En land Hun ar China Ban ladesh China German Scotland En land German Pakistan Sudan Moscow Nankin New Orleans New York Paris Philadel hia Quebec Ran oon Rome Shan hai Tok 0 Vienna Warsaw Washin ton Moskva Yan -tse-kian Mississi i Hudson Seine Delaware St. Lawrence Irawadi Tiber Yan tze-kian Sumida Danube Vistula Potomac Geography Notes Russia China USA USA France USA Canada Burma Ital China Austria Poland USA 21
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. MISCELLANEOUS FACTS—I Netherlands is the most densely populated country of western Europe. France is the second largest nuclear energy producer after USA World Average of Urbanization is 43%. Portugal is one of the least urbanized European countries — only 30 %. Iceland, U.K., Belgium, Netherlands & Spain — 90% Urbanization Latifundia — Europe, Haciendas — Latin America, Ranches — USA, Stations — Australia, Entancias in South America. Primary sector — red collar; secondary sector — blue collar; tertiary sector — pink collar; quaternary sector — white collar; quinary services — gold collar. 18. Nigeria has the highest rate of deforestation in the world & brazil looses the maximum forest area. 19. Shifting cultivation is known as Ladang in Malaysia, Caingin in Philippines, Humah in Indonesia, Chena in Srilanka, Milpa in Africa & Central America & Taungya in Myanmar. 20. Santos is the major coffee port of Brazil accounting for 3/4 th of the export handling. 21. Mocha coffee is from Yemen. 22. India is a net importer of copper. 23. The only area in the world where zinc is mined without lead is the Franklin Furnace area in New Jersey State of USA. 24. Republic of Congo is the largest producer of industrial diamonds. 25. Nearly three-fourths of the electric requirement needs of south American countries are met hydroelectricity. 26. Benelux countries include Belgium, Netherlands & Luxembourg. 27. Atlanta is the busiest airport in the world, followed by Chicago airport. 28. Israel is the most urbanized country in the world with >90% urban population. 29. Orinoco river of Venezuela rises in the Guiana highlands & passes through llanos. through 30. Shrublands — chaparral in California, macques in Mediterranean region, the caatinga of northeastern Brazil, and the mallee of Australia, which is dominated by low-growing eucalyptus. 22
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 31. South of the Great European Plain, a band of dissimilar geological structures sweeps across Europe, creating the most intricate landscapes of the continent—the Central European Uplands. Throughout this region the forces of folding (the Jura range), faulting (the Vosges and Black Forest mountains), volcanism (the Massif Central, or central highlands, of France), and uplift (the Meseta Central, or central plateau, of Spain) have interacted to create alternating mountains, plateaus, and valleys. 32. Islamabad is situated on Potwar plateau. 33. Period of rotation is the longest for the planet Venus & shortest for Jupiter. Venus takes longer time to complete one rotation on its axis than one revolution around the sun. Mercury & Venus do not have any satellites. Mars has two satellites & Pluto has one. 34. Venus is closest planet to earth. Venus is also the hottest planet in the solar system perhaps due to its slow rotation causing longer exposure of a particular area to sun. 35. The period of revolution of planets increases outwards without any exception. The linear distance of a degree of latitude on an average is 69 miles. The length of longitudes outside tropics varies widely. Vernal equinox is on March 22 & autumnal equinox on September 23. 36. Earth is the densest of all planets & Saturn has the least density. Earth is almost twice the radius of mars & roughly equal to Venus. Uranus is slightly bigger than Neptune. 37. Caledonian movement (e.g. Scottish highlands) & Hercynian movement (Harz mountain range in central Germany) took place during Devonian period & Permian period respectively. 38. Pleistocene epoch is best known for emergence of humans & Great Ice age. 39. Annual range of temperature is the difference between the mean monthly temperatures of the warmest & the coldest months. The difference is not between highest & lowest temperature. 40. In absolute humidity the denominator is dry air while in specific humidity it is moist air. The temperature at which an air parcel gets saturated at its present moisture level is called dew point. 41. Stratiform or layered clouds; Cumuliform or globular clouds. Cirrus or highest clouds & Alto or medium clouds. Nimbus or rain bearing clouds. Stratus clouds are very close to ground surface. 42. Cirrocumulus clouds form 'mackerel clouds' & cirrostratus clouds produce 'haloes'. Alto-cumulus are called sheep clouds. Rain falling from nimbo-stratus but not reaching ground is called virga. Low clouds less than 2 km high are stratus, cumulus, stratocumulus & nimbostratus & these are the only ones which give precipitation. 43. Slope of the warm front is much gentler (1: 100 or less) than cold front (—1:50). In the warm front precipitation is gradual but of long duration. In cold front precipitation is short but in the form of heavy downpour. 23
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 44. One fathom = 1.84 meters. The width of the continental shelf on the western coast of India is broader than the eastern coast as the former is coastline of submergence & latter is emergence. 45. Flat-topped seamounts are called guyots (pronounced "gee-o"). 46. Mariana trench, off the island of Guam, Emden Deep off Philippines, & kuril trench in which lies the famous Tuscarora Deep & Mindanao deep (Mindanao, island of the Philippines, the second largest, after Luzon and southernmost of the country's islands) are prominent in Pacific. 47. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge breaks the ocean's surface in several places, forming seven islands or groups of islands. From north to south, these islands include Iceland, the Azores, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rocks, Ascension, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, and Bouvet. 48. Strait of Hormuz, linking the Persian Gulf on the west, with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea on the east. Bab el Mandeb connecting the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden. 49. Salinity is equatorial areas is lower than in the tropical areas. It's lowest in polar areas. Great Salt lake in Utah has a salinity of 220 C/o, Dead Sea has 240 070, & Lake Van in Asia Minor has 330 070. 50. Lake Laguna De Bay (Philippines), Lake Biwa (Japan), Lake Tiberias (Israel & Syria), Lake Asad (Syria), Lake Sevan (Armenia) 51. From the equatorial region, water density tends to rise in the tropics. From the tropics to the middle latitudes there is a decline & it increases again in polar areas due to temperature decline. 52. Kuril Island - small volcanic islands in far eastern Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean. Faroe Island is under Denmark. Orkney Islands lie north of Scotland. 53. In 24 hours & 52 minutes every place will have two high tides & two low tides. Two successive high tides are about 12 hours & 26 minutes apart & the time difference between the high tide & the following low tide is about 6 hrs 13 minutes. The extra 52 minutes are caused due to revolution of the moon around the earth in the same direction i.e. west to east. The tidal magnitude at a given meridian will be more in the low latitudes & lesser in the higher latitudes due to the greater centrifugal force on the equator. 54. O, A, E, B & C & R are the soil horizons from top to bottom. The removal of soil minerals & colloids from the upper horizons is called Eluviation & deposition in lower horizons is Illuviaton. 55. Rich, dark soils called Chernozems. They lack the leached E horizon. Soils in cooler continental climates (coniferous forests) are known as Podzols, a soil type that is not very fertile but rich in humus due to cold climate. The leaching action of heavy rain and water runoff removes many of the nutrients from podzols. Lateritic soils, one of the least fertile soil types are found in wet & hot climate (Tropical Forests). Gleization is the pedogenic regime of warm water-logged areas. Glei soils are rich in organic material & 24
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes the soil changes to blue colour due to reduction of iron minerals. Calcimorphic soil develop in areas of seasonal drought. 56. Hydroponics, term applied to cultivation of plants in nutrient solutions without use of soil. 57. Pyramid of energy can never take an inverted form, the other two (biomass & number) can. 58. Boreal forest refers to the Taiga vegetation comprising coniferous trees. The Mediterranean type of vegetation is also called Sclerophyll forest (e.g. Chaparral). 59. Serengeti National Park is located in northern Tanzania. Asuncion is the capital of Paraguay & Montevideo is the capital of Uruguay. Paraguay is landlocked. 60. Elephant grass is found in Savanna & Buffalo grass is typical of Steppe grasslands. 61. The period of revolution & rotation of the moon is the same i.e. 27.3 days. The shortest route between two places on the surface of the earth is along the great circles i.e. longitude. 62. Orogenetic forces producing mountains are horizontal & epeirogenetic forces are vertical. 63. Block mountain — black forest, Old fold mountain — Appalachian, young fold mountain — rocky, relict mountain — Scottish highlands 64. Arenaceous rock (having sandy features) — Sandstone, Argillaceous rock (having clayey features) — Shale, Plutonic rock (intrusive igneous rock) - Gabbros & dolerite, Volcanic rock (extrusive igneous rock) Andesite, Rhyolite, Basalt. Sedimentary rock — Ironstone. Slate results from the metamorphosis of shale or clay. Basaltic magma is fluid & granitic is viscous. 65. A basin-shaped depression surrounded by mountains is called bolson. In a karstic region, a steep natural shaft which emerges at the surface is called Ponor. A steep-sided hill, of roughly circular cross-section, characteristic of karst topography is called "hum". 66. A broad slope of alluvial material at the foot of an escarpment is called Bajada. From the eroded angular peaks of more resistant rocks, alluvial fans lead away to deposit large slopes of debris, called bajadas, at the base. These slopes level off to form low basins called playas. Salt covered playa beds are called Salinas. 67. The deposition of sediment building up a sand bridge that connects the island to the mainland. The sand bridge is called a tombolo. 68. The inclination of a fault from the vertical is called hade & it is complimentary to dip. The horizontal displacement is called heave. Rake angle measures the slip. 69. Erosion of the ground beneath and at the sides of a snowbank, mainly as a result of alternate freezing and thawing is called nivation. 70. An area of shifting desert sand-dunes, esp. in the Sahara is called erg. 25
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 71. The trades are strongest in winter season. The primary divisions of koppen classification are based on mean monthly temperature & mean precipitation & evaporation. The secondary divisions are based on seasonality of rainfall. 72. Temperate cyclones generally develop over land. 73. Ninety East Ridge is situated in Indian Ocean. The mid Atlantic ridge comprises the Dolphin rise on the north & challenger rise to the south separated by Romanche deep. It is known as Wyville Thompson ridge between Iceland & Scotland. The ridge becomes quite extensive to the south of Greenland & Iceland & is called Telegraphic plateau. 74. Globigerina ooze is the most abundant in Atlantic Ocean. Warm Agulhas current flows in the Indian Ocean in southerly direction & Cold Falkland current in Atlantic Ocean towards north. 75. Azov Sea, inland sea, connected with the Black Sea by the Strait of Kerch. 76. Magnetic declination is the difference between true north (the axis around which the earth rotates) and magnetic north (the direction the needle of a compass will point). 77. A traveler crossing the International Date Line from west to east gains a day & from east to west loses a day. 78. Earth is the fifth largest planet & Pluto the smallest. Pulsars are sources of powerful, pulsating radio waves in space which are rapidly rotating neutron stars. Quasar stands for quasi-stellar object & is a compact object that looks like a point of light but emits more energy than a hundred super giant galaxies. 79. Earth's history has two main divisions or eons: the Cryptozoic Eon & Phanerozoic Eon. The cryptozoic eon is divided into Hadean, the Archean & the Proterozoic eras. The Phanerozoic Eon is divided into Palaeozoic, Mesozoic & Cenozoic eras. 80. Amphibolite is a metamorphic rock & is formed by metamorphosis of igneous rocks such as basalt & gabbro. Chert & flint are sedimentary rocks. Clastic rocks are mechanically formed. Hornblende is igneous while hornfel is metamorphic. 81. Cratons form the cores of most continents and consist of inactive geological areas more than 2 billion years old with thick crust and deep roots extending into the mantle beneath. 82. Because North America and Africa were connected, the Appalachians form part of the same mountain chain as the Atlas mountains in Morocco. 83. Inselbergs (bornhardts) eventually erode & degenerate into what are called Kopjes. 84. Isoclinal Fold is one in which both limbs are approximately parallel. Recumbent Fold: A fold with a nearly horizontal axial plane. Monocline: When folding takes place in very small magnitude or at a very small angle a monocline is formed. Here the limbs are almost horizontal producing simple flexure. 26
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Monocline 85. The Peru-Chile trench marks where the Nazca plate is being subducted beneath the South American plate. The volcanic activity and uplift of the Andes are a result of the subduction. 86. There are 26 oceanic trenches in the world: 3 in the Atlantic Ocean, 1 in the Indian Ocean, and 22 in the Pacific Ocean. 87. Examples of cinder or ash cones are Mt Jorullo of Mexico & Mt Izalco of San Salvador. Most of the famous volcanoes have composite cone. Mt. Etna of Sicily is an example of parasitic cone. Caldera (Lake Toba of Sumatra is most famous example). Maar is a broad, low relief crater that is caused by a phreatic eruption or explosion caused by groundwater contact with magma. 88. Kilauea, the world's most active volcanic crater, located on central Hawaii Island. 89. Mt Etna of Sicily, Mt. Vesuvius of Naples & Mt Stromboli, the northernmost & Mt Vulcano the southernmost of the seven Lipari Island are all located in Italy. 90. The classification of volcanoes in order of increasing intensity of explosion is: Hawaiian type, Stromblian type, Vulcanian type, Vesuvian type, Pelean type. 91. Fluid basaltic lava forms pahoehoe lava flow & viscous forms blocky aa lava flow. Mt Hood & Mt Rainier & Mt. Vesuvius are dormant volcanoes. Mt Meru (Tanzania) & Mt Elgon (Kenya-Uganda border) are extinct volcanoes. 92. Laccolith is mushroom shaped causing the crust over it to form a dome. Lopoliths are saucer shaped with concave side upwards & Phaccoliths are lens shaped deposits in anticlines & synclines. 93. Thawing of slopes in the summer may move soil downslope to produce solifluction, or "flowing soil" terraces. Rockfalls produce a deposit called talus at the base of the cliff. 94. Sequent Streams are those which are well adjusted to the geological structures & follow the regional slope. Insequent streams do not follow regional slopes. 95. Centrifugal drainage is also known as radial drainage (e.g. Sri Lanka). In barbed pattern the tributary flows in opposite direction to the master stream & such pattern usually develops due to river capture. Annular/Circular drainage pattern is different from centrifugal pattern. 27
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    Ghanshyam Thori Subsequent Geography Notes Annular Drainage pattern o Annulu 96. Abrasion or Corrasion is with the help of erosional tools. Attrition refers to the wear & tear of erosional tools in themselves. 97. Block disintegration is due to different material. Granular disintegration is due to different colour. Shattering is due to rain shower over heated rocks. Sheeting & cambering refers to the development of horizontal & vertical cracks due to unloading. Spalling is development of platy rock fragments due to unloading. Flaking results from differential heating of outer & inner layers of a rock. After flaking the wind peels off the layer & this is known as exfoliation. 98. Structural benches are formed due to differential erosion of soft & hard rocks while river terraces are produced due to valley-in-valley topography by rejuvenation. Victoria fall on Zambezi river is a result of faulting & Yosemite falls California is due to glaciated hanging valley. 99. Alluvial fans have a gentler slope as compared to cones. Sometimes neighboring cones & fans meet to form Piedmont alluvial plain or Bajada. 100. Yazoo Channel meets the original river at deferred junction. 1. Miscellaneous Facts - Il Davisian cycle ends in peneplain, Penck's in endrumpf & kings in pediplain. Kings cycle basically deals with the evolution of landforms in arid & savanna regions. 28
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Penck cycle has three stages. Aufsteigende Entwickelung means a phase of waxing (accelerating) rate of landform development where the slopes of the valley sides are convex in plan. Gleichformige Entwickelung means uniform development of landforms. Absteigende Entwickelung means wanning development & parallel retreat of slope continues Boschungen is the upper steep part & haldenhang is the lower part with lesser inclination. Thus the intersection of boschungen & haldenhang produce a sharp knick. Ultimately the boschungen are reduced to inselbergs. Monadnocks are also known as unakas & mosores. Sinkholes < Swallow Holes < Dolines
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 15. Pedestal or Mushroom rock is also known as Gour in Sahara & pilzfelsen in Germany. 16. Inselbergs or Bornhardts are isolated hills rising abruptly from virtually level plain. Demoiselles have resistant rock cap at the top. Zeugens have horizontal rock strata & yardangs have vertical. Ventifact with a single face is called einkanter, zweikanter (2 faces) & driekanter (3 faces). 17. Areas of shifting sand-dunes is called erg. Barchans are also known as transverse dunes. 18. Glacial loess of N. America is called adobe & that of Europe is called limon 19. When a basin is more or less rimmed by mountain (inter-montane basin), it is called a bolson. The basin is characterized by centripetal drainage which leads to formation of salty lakes called playas in N. America, "Shatts" in Sahara, 'Mamlaha' & 'Khabari' in the Arabian desert. 20. The whole slope between the mountains to the playas is called pediment. 21. When two cirques converge cutting back it is called col. A cirque lake is called tarn. Paternoster lakes are formed at the foot of glacial stairways. A nunatak is a mountain top that is not covered by land ice, and protrudes out of a surrounding glacier. Roches moutonnees is a residual rock hummock whose upstream is smoothened by abrasion & downstream is roughened by plucking. Riegel marks the outcrop of a highly resistant rock layer. They have plucked downside. 22. Eskers or Osser or Oss is a stratified deposit. If the ice front halts at regular intervals, beaded eskers are formed. Kames are small hills which are deposited by meltwater near or at the edge of the retreating ice sheets. 23. Kettles are depressions in the outwash plain. Large kettles are clotted with numerous low mounds called hummocks. Drumlins are elongated hummocks of boulder clay (basket of egg). 24. Protalus rampart is the accumulation of debris formed due to rockfall from the cliff. frost weathering of cliff and rock fall semi- permanent snow bank 25. sliding and rolling of blocks rampart 26. Varve is the yearly deposit of sediment forming distinctive layers. It is most frequently used to refer to deposits formed in lakes on the margins of glaciers. 27. Pingos are ice mounds formed due freeze thaw action in periglacial environment. Palsas are low permafrost mounds with cores of layered segregated ice and peat, similar to a pingo. Talik refers to an 30
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes unfrozen section of ground found above, below, or within a layer of discontinuous permafrost. Tors are piles of rock on the top & clitters on the sides formed due to congelifraction 28. Borneo is the 3rd largest island in the world after Greenland & New Guinea. Climatology: 'Mother of pearl' or 'nacreous' clouds are found in stratosphere. Noctiluent clouds are found in 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mesosphere. D layer E layer Sporadic E Layer E2 layer F Layer G layer Division of Ionosphere (60-640 Km) 60-. Km 99-130 km 110 km 150 km 1550-380 km 400 km & above Reflects signals of low frequency radio waves only. Disa ears with sunset. Called Kenley- Heaviside layer. Reflects medium & high frequency radio waves. Produced by ultraviolet hotons reactin with nitro en. Disa ears with sunset. Associated with very high velocity winds & created under s ecial circumstances. Reflects VHF waves Produced by reaction of UV photons with 02. Disa ears with ni ht. Consists of Fl & F2 layers collectively called Appleton la er. Reflects medium & hi h fre uenc radio waves. Persists day & night but not detectable as F layer reflects all the waves reflected by this layer. Interaction of UV hoton with nitro en roduces free electrons here. The auroras are maximum when the sun is very active. Hence they are opposite of sun spot cycle. Inside the magnetosphere are the Van Allen radiation belts concentrated in two bands at about 3000 km & 16000 According to Wein's displacement law, hotter the object smaller the wavelength. According to Stefan Boltzman law influx of radiation is proportional to the fourth power of absolute temperature of the radiating body. Heat Budget: Out of the 100 units of incoming solar radiation, 35 units (27-clouds, 2-snow, 6-atmosphere top) are reflected back as albedo. Out of the remaining 65 units, 14 units are absorbed by atmosphere & 51 units by earth surface. The earth radiates back 17 units directly into space & remaining 34 units are absorbed by atmosphere. The atmosphere than radiates back the 48 units absorbed by it. Green house gases include CFCs, Nitrous oxide, water vapour & ozone. CFCs account for 25 % of green house effect & methane for 15 %. Carbon dioxide leads with 55 %. The greatest range of temperature occurs at latitude 60 N. The major types of inversion are: radiation, air drainage, frontal, advection, subsidence. Advection inversion generally occurs when a warm air passes over cold water surface. 31
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 8. 9. Highs are Siberian, Hawaiian & Siberian. Lows are Aleutian & Icelandic. Anemometer is used for measuring the speed of wind. Beaufort scale deals with the wind speed & ranges from calm wind to hurricane. 10. Jet streams are fastest during winter season. They blow from west to east. 11. A mist becomes a fog when visibility is reduced to less than a km. Dry adiabatic rate is 10 C per 1000m & moist adiabatic rate is 6 C per 1000m. Stability occurs when the dry adiabatic rate is higher than the normal lapse rate & instability occurs when normal lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic lapse rate. If normal lapse rate is lower than wet adiabatic rate it leads to absolute stability & vice versa. 12. Sleet is partially melted snowflakes while hail refers to small balls of ice. Rime refers to very small super cooled droplets which strike ground & tend to freeze immediately on impact. 13. Four principal forms of airmasses are continental polar (cP), maritime polar (mP), continental tropical (CT), and maritime tropical (mT). Thermodynamic modification results in airmasses becoming warm represented by W or cold (K). Mechanical or dynamic modification causes it to become stable (s) or unstable (u). 14. Baroclinic zone is where distinct air mass regions exist & where Fronts separate warmer from colder air. Barotropic is region of uniform temperature distribution with lack of fronts. Temperate cyclones are formed under baroclinic condition & tropical under barotropic condition. 15. Anticyclones are larger than cyclones. Airflow converges aloft in anticyclones & diverges in case of cyclones. Katabatic wind blows from mountains to valley & anabatic vice versa. Oceanography: 16. The Peru-Chile trench is the longest in the world. The only difference between ridge & rises is that ridges are steep sided while rises are gently sloped. 17. Juan de Fuca Strait, is the arm of the Pacific Ocean between Washington & Vancouver. 18. Thermocline is the transition layer between the mixed layer at the surface and the deep water. The various salts in the sea in order of decreasing quantity are NaCl, MgCl, MgS04, CaS04. 19. Danube, Dneiper, & Dneister all fall into black sea reducing it salinity. 20. Water moves from areas over which there is a low pressure to areas over which there is a high pressure. 21. The pelagic zone includes those waters further from the land, basically the open ocean. It is divided into neritic zone (having a depth of 200metres) & the oceanic province (separated from the neritic province by the edge of the continental shelf). The benthic zone refers to the sea bottom itself & is divided into littoral zone & deep sea zone. The two zones have their frontier at a depth of 200 meters. Benthos (plants such as 32
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes kelp, sponges) are organisms that live on the ocean floor while nektons are swimming animals such as fishes & whales. 22. The east pacific rise is known as albatross plateau extending from north of New Zealand to the Californian coast. 23. Oozes are pelagic deposit in the form of liquid mud. There are divided on the basis of content into calcareous ooze (lime) & siliceous ooze (silica). Calcareous ooze is further divided into pteropod ooze & globigerina (most widespread) ooze. Siliceous ooze is divided into radiolarian (formed of shells of foraminifera) & diatom ooze. 24. Red clay is the most widely spread pelagic deposit & consists mainly of hydrated silicate of Aluminium & oxides of iron. Neritic deposits consists of dead shells of plants & animals. 25. Atlantic Ocean: The warm North Atlantic Drift (NAD) gives rise to the Irminger Current south of Iceland which travels along western and northwestern coasts of Iceland until it meets East Greenland Current. Another branch of NAD flows along Norway coast forming Norwegian current. Falkland current brings the cold waters of the Antarctic sea northward up to Argentina. 26. Pacific Ocean :Kuroshio (or Kuro Siwo) Current of Pacific is similar to the gulf stream of Atlantic. One branch separates from Kuroshio current & enters the sea of Japan as Tsushima current. The Cold Oyashio (or Oya Siwo) Current (similar to Labrador current) is also known as Kurile current & it flows through the Bering Strait in a southerly direction. The cold Okhotsk current flows past Sakhalin to merge with Oya Siwo current near Hokkaido Island & later mergers with the warm Kuro Siwo current producing dense fogs. The north pacific drift continues later as Aleutian current which divides into two parts — the northern branch becomes Alaska current while the southern branch becomes California cold current (similar to Canary cold current of Atlantic). Cromwell current also called pacific equatorial undercurrent is a submarine river & flows towards east. Mindanao current is a southward flowing boundary current along the Philippine coast. 27. Indian Ocean: One branch of the south equatorial current moves southward through the Mozambique Channel to form the Mozambique Current. This current joins the Agulhas Current & moves to the southern tip of Africa. During the northeast monsoon season the Somali Current flows southward & During the southwest monsoon the current develops into an intense northward jet 28. La Nina is opposite of El Nino & intensifies the Humboldt Current. El Nino causes drought conditions in India, Southern Africa, Australia & heavy rains in Chile, Colorado. The El Nino events of 1982 & 1997 were severe. The Southern Oscillation, a more recent discovery, refers to an oscillation in the surface 33
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes pressure (atmospheric mass) between the southeastern tropical Pacific and the Australian-Indonesian regions 29. Tahiti is the largest and most important of the Society Islands, in the southern Pacific Ocean. The chief town on the island is Papeete which is also the capital of French Polynesia. 30. In gravity waves (large waves) the restoring force is gravity while in capillary waves (ripples caused by winds) the restoring force is surface tension. Swell refers to long crested waves with longer periods which have traveled out of their source areas. Surf refers to a belt of nearly continuously breaking waves. Internal waves are caused due to density differences. Seiches are standing waves (e.g. Lake Geneva). Biogeography 31. Field capacity refers to 50 % water & 50 % air. Leaching produces increasingly acidic & mineral deficient soil. Laterization (now called Ferralization) occurs in humid tropics where heavy rain & uninterrupted warmth give rise to a deeply weathered layer. Melanization refers to darkening of soil profile while Leuciniation refers to lightening of the colour both in A horizon. Induration refers to hardening of soil & Audification refers to the accumulation of H ions mainly in surface horizons. 32. The surface horizon is usually referred to as the O layer; it consists of loose organic matter such as fallen leaves and other biomass. O horizon is further divided into 3 sub horizons. The layer of plant material on the soil surface is classified as: the L horizon (fresh litter); the F horizon (decomposing litter); the H horizon (well decomposed litter) 33. Below that is the A horizon, containing a mixture of inorganic mineral materials and organic matter. Next is the E horizon, a layer from which clay, iron, and aluminum oxides have been lost by a process known as leaching (when water carries materials in solution down from one soil level to another). Removal of materials in this manner is known as eluviation, the process that gives the E horizon its name. Below E horizon is the B horizon, in which most of the iron, clays, and other leached materials have accumulated. The influx of such materials is called illuviation. Under that layer is the C horizon, consisting of partially weather bedrock, and last, the R horizon of hard bedrock. Hence the horizons are L, F, H, A, E, B, C & R from top to bottom. 34. Aridisols (23 %), Inceptisols (16 %), Alfisols (13.5 %) & Entisols (11 %) — Coverage. 35. Epiphytes are abundant in tropical rainforest (Selva) which have little undergrowth. 36. Gross primary productivity less that is used in respiration is net primary productivity. Only 1 % of the sun's energy reaching the earth is used by plants through photosynthesis. The mean productivity of the world is around 300 gm/sq.m/year. 34
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 37. 15 lakh species of animals & 2.5 lakh plant species on earth. Out of which 75 thousand animal & 15 thousand plant species are found in India. 38. The most commonly used Freon is Freon-12, or dichlorodifluoromethane (CC12F2). Freon-Il is Trichlorofluoromethane (CC13F). 39. Solonchak soils are defined by high soluble salt accumulation & formed from saline parent material under conditions of high evaporation. Pedocals are soils of arid regions and are characterized by calcite (CaC03) cementation due to upward movement of water (evaporation). Pedalfers are soils of humid regions and are characterized by highly leached clays due to downward movement of water. Extreme pedalfers are called laterites. 40. Ferrous group includes iron, chromite, manganese, & nickel. Non-Ferrous group has copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, aluminium, vanadium etc. 41. The largest number of sheeps & goats are both in China. 42. Coal, Petroleum & electricity are respectively known as black, liquid & white gold. 43. Czechoslovakia separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Yugoslavia was created by joining various regions (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro), and then split again 44. Intercropping refers to the growing of more than one crop on the same field while mixed cropping refers to the growing of a variety of crops on different fields. 45. Weir canal connects Lake Erie & Ontario. Worldwide jet stream that occurs in winter is the sub-tropical jet stream. 46. Port Said lies towards the red sea side on Suez Canal. Purus, Sao Francisco & Madeira are all large rivers of Brazil. 47. Oder Niesse line is the boundary between Poland & Germany. 38th Parallel between North & South Korea. Parallel between USA & Canada. Maginot line between France & Germany. 48. Micronesia includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Guam, the Republic of Palau, the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Micronesia lies to the north of Melanesia & to the North-West of Polynesia. 49. Melanesia's westernmost island is New Guinea. Stretching east and south of New Guinea are the countries of Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, the French territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies, and the nation of Fiji Islands (commonly known as Fiji). 35
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 50. Polynesia consists of American Samoa, the Cook Islands, Easter Island, French Polynesia, Hawaii, New Zealand, Niue, the Pitcairn Islands, Samoa (formerly Western Samoa), Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Wallis and Futuna Islands. Ocean N.uqu 2. OCEANIA 51. Apiculture refers to rearing of honey bees. Silviculture refers to growing & tending of trees as a branch of forestry. Connate water (also called fossil water) refers to water trapped in the interstices of rocks during their formation. Phenology is the study of seasonal changes upon animal & plant life. 52. Hall Herault process is used in the extraction of Aluminium from its ore. 53. South China sea is the largest sea. 1. Analysis of Mocks Cuestas or Homoclinal Ridge, physical feature that has a steep cliff or escarpment on one side and a gentle dip or back slope on the other. This landform occurs in areas of tilted strata and is caused by the differential weathering and erosion of the hard capping layer and the soft underlying cliff maker, which erodes more rapidly. Cuestas with dip slopes of 400—450 are usually called hogback ridges. A mesa is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs. 36
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A sandur (plural sandar) is a plain formed by meltwater from glaciers. Sandar are usually wider than their length, and consist of soft sediments, which are criss-crossed by braided streams of meltwater. Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. Peridotite, igneous rock composed of pyroxene, olivine, and hornblende. It is the rock that makes up the earth's mantle. Very sudden cooling of volcanic magma results in formation of volcanic glass called obsidian. The extrusive equivalent of granite is rhyolite & gabbro is the intrusive equivalent of basalt. Entrenched & intrenched meanders are one & the same & it is ingrown meanders which grow on assymetric valley. Tephra & pyroclastic material are the same & refer collectively to volcanic materials. A glacier with a negative budget is a receding glacier & that with positive budget is advancing. Rectangular inselbergs are called koppie or kopje. Gloup is a blow hole, where a chimney has developed behind the cliff face, often above a cave, and spray is blasted out during high seas. In a braided stream, the main channel divides into a number of smaller, interlocking or braided channels. Streams with high sediment loads that encounter a sudden reduction in flow velocity generally have a braided channel type. 10. Rise of land or fall of sea level is called negative movement & is connected with rejuvenation. 11. Jura mountains were formed during Mesozoic period. 12. Researchers now recognize five glaciations in the Quaternary period: Donau, Gunz, Mindel, Riss and Wurm (in that order from old to new). Their names derive from water courses in the North Slope of the Alps. These glaciations are included in the first period of the Quaternary: the Pleistocene. The second period of the Quaternary, the Holocene, starts at the end of the last glaciation (Wurm), about 10 thousand years ago. Mindel falls under middle Pleistocene. 13. Solifluction is the slow downslope flow of soil and sediment that is saturated with water 14. Both P waves & S waves (shear, transverse) are collectively called body waves. While Surface waves include Rayleigh waves (vertical and longitudinal) & Love waves (transverse horizontal). 15. A strike slip fault is also known as wrench fault. The scientific study of rivers is called Potamology. Colluvium is the loose deposits of rock, usually located at the foot of a slope or cliff, having been brought there under the influence of gravity (mass wasting). Talus includes angular fragments of rock below cliffs and steep slopes. Colluvium includes slope wash. 16. Evidences of earliest known life have been found to archaeozoic period. 37
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 17. Victoria fall is due to faulting. Livingstone fall is at the edge of a plateau. Yosemite fall is a hanging valley & Niagara fall is due to alternate bands of resistant & soft rocks. 18. Reg is a surface covering of coarse gravel, pebbles from which all sand and dust have been removed by wind and water. 19. Billow clouds are created when different layers of wind flow at different velocities resulting in unstable turbulence between the layers. The common name for this instability is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Billow clouds provide a visible signal to pilots of potentially dangerous turbulence. Essential Extra Reference 1. 2. 3. Koeppens & Thornthwaite classification of India (Geo Notes-Page 77,80 Vol-l) World Population Data (K. Siddhartha —Ensemble-Appendix —Geo of India-page 13) Isostasy, Map references. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Gonds Bhils Santhals Minas Oraons Mundas GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA Tribal Grou s of India Largest tribe found in M.P., Jharkhand, A.P., Orissa & Maharashtra. M.P, Gu•arat, Ra•asthan, A.P., Karnataka, Tri ura West Ben al, Bihar-Jharkhand & Orissa Rajasthan & MP. Account for 50% tribal population of Ra•asthan Bihar-Jharkhand, M.P.-Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal & Maharashtra. S eak Kurukh Lan ua e Jharkhand, Chattis arh, Orissa, West Ben al & Tri ura 38
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    Ghanshyam Thori 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Khonds Tharu Chenchu Todas Lahaula Adivasis Bada as Bai a Bakkarwals Bhotias Bhuia Birhors Gaddis Gu ars Irula Kanikar Katkari Kharia Khasa Lahualas Mo lahs Sabra Kol Kolam Kotas Murias Uralis Varlis Yurva Khasis Mikirs Kukis An ami A atani Chutra Garos Jaintia Sema Geography Notes Orissa is mainland. Also found in Bihar, AP, MP, West Ben al. Uttaranchal & MP Andhra Pradesh Nil iri Hills. Classic exam le of 01 andr . Himachal Pradesh Bastar district, Chattis arh Nil iri re ion, Tamil Nadu M.P. Uttaranchal, Sikkim & West Ben al M.P. M.P., Chattis arh, Jharkhand & Orissa Himachal Pradesh & Himachal Pradesh Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu M.P. M.P. Jaunsar re ion, Uttaranchal Lahual re ion, Himachal Pradesh Muslims of Malabar district, Kerala M.P. M.P. & Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Nil iri Hills Bastar District, Chattis arh Kerala Maharashtra, Gu•arat, Dadra & Na ar Haveli Tamil Nadu Tribes of the North East & Andaman Nicobar Me hala a & Tri ura Assam Mani ur, Assam, Na aland & Tri ura Na aland Na aland Arunachal Pradesh Assam Me hala a & Assam Me hala a & Assam Na aland 39
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Lushai Le chas Abors Chakma Chan Gallon Jarawas On es Shompens Sentinelese Great Andamanese Mizoram & Tri ura Ori inal Tribals of Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Tri ura A Na a tribe Tribe of Arunachal Pradesh Andaman & Nicobar. Ne rito Andaman & Nicobar. Ne ritos racial stock. Andaman & Nicobar. Belong to mongoloid stock like nicobarese & inhabit Great Nicobar. Andaman & Nicobar. Inhabit sentinel island. Ne rito Negrito Major Formations & their Periods 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic Pre-Cambrian Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oli ocene Eocene Paleocene Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian U er Siwalik Deccan Tra s Vindhyan, Cuddapah, Dharwar, Archean systems 1. 2. Siwaliks Lesser Himalayas 1m ortant Ran es of the Himala as Dafla, Miri, Abor, Mishmi (all in Arunachal), Dhang range, Dundwa ran e, Churia hat hills (Ne al), Jammu Hills Pir Panjal range, Dhaula Dhar range, Nag Tibba range, Mussorie ran e, Mahabharat ran e. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Himachal Uttaranchal Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Mountain Passes Burzil ass, Zozi La ass Bara Lacha ass, Shi ki La ass Tha la ass, Niti ass & Li u Lekh La ass, Jele La ass Bomdila Pass. 40
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    Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. S. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Archean System Dharwar S stem Cudda ah S stem Vindhyan System Gondwana S stem Deccan Tra s Tertiar S stems Quarternary Formations Tropical Evergreen Tropical Dry Ever reen Tropical Dry Deciduous Swam Forests Himala a Tem erate Geography Notes Major Rock S stems Primarily Gneiss & granites. Found in Peninsular India, M.P, Jharkhand & Ra• asthan. Named after cudda ah district of AP. Found & named after Vindhyas. Stand over Cuddapah rocks. Contains limestones, sandstones, shale & slate Formed in middle carboniferous eriod. Chhotana ur is main. Cretaceous eriod. Important formations of this period are Rajasthan desert, Indo Gangetic alluvium, Rann of Kachchh, Karewas of Kashmir (flat to ed mound). Forests & Their S ecies Teak, Rosewood, Ebony, Ironwood, Bamboo, Canes, Champa, Sal, Mahua, Sandal & Sheesham Khirni, Jamun, Khokko, Ritha, Tamarind, Neem, Toddy Palm, Cane. Teak, Tendu, Sal, Amaltas, Palas, Rose-wood, Axlewood, Bijsal, Khair, Satinwood, Ghant, Pe al & Semal Sundari tree, Ni a Friticans (a Palm), E i h tes. Oak, Deodar, Celtis, Ma le, Chestnut. Rhododendron, Birch, Fir, S ruce, Plum Various Revolutions in Indian Economy Al ine 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. River Indus Jhelum Chenab Ravi Beas Sutle Yellow Revolution White Revolution Blue Revolution Pink Revolution Brown Revolution Gre Revolution Golden Revolution Kms 2900 400 1180 725 470 1050 Origin Mansarovar Verina Bara-Lacha Rohtan Pass Beas Kund Rakas Lake Oil Seeds Milk Fish Shrim Masaale wool Horticulture Rivers: Ori in & Len th Characteristics Shyok, Dras, Gartang, Nubra, Hunza, Zanskar, Shi ar. Kabul, Kurram, Tochi, Viboa, San ar. Flows throu h Wular lake & alon Indo Pak border. Largest Indus tributary. Formed by Chandra & Bha a. Flows throu h Chamba valle Flows through Kullu valley & joins Satluj near Harike Passes throu h Shi kila. Govind Sa ar lake at 41
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    Ghanshyam Thori 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Ganga Yamuna Chambal Gandak Kosi Ram an a Sarda (Saryu) Mahananda Son Damodar Ghaghara Gomti Brahmaputra Tista Surma Mahanadi Godavari Krishna Cauveri N armada Sabarmati Brahmani Subarnarekha 2525 1300 960 730 600 540 1180 2900 900 850 1465 1400 800 1300 724 320 800 400 Gangotri Yamunotri Mhow Everest & Dhula iri Everest & Kanchen •un a Kumaon Hills Milam Glacier Darjeeliing Hills Amarkantak Mapchachungo lacier Pilibhit Distt Near Mansarovar Chitamu lake (Tibet) Sihawa (near Rai ur) Nashik Mahabaleshwar Brahmagiri Hills (Coor ) Amarkantak Betul Distt Mewar Hills S-W of Ranchi Geography Notes Bhakra Bhagirathi meets Alaknanda at Devprayag. It splits into Bhagirathi-Hugli & Padma below Farrakha in Malda distt. Tons, Giri, Asan, Hindan, Rind, Sengar, Enters Gan a lain at Paonta Sahib. Gandhisagar dam at Kota. Banas (left), Kali & Sind (ri ht) Joins Ganga at Sonpur near Patna Its main stream is Arun. Joined by Sun kosi from the west & Tamur Kosi from the east Joins Gan a near Kanau Along Indo Nepal border it is called Kali. Joins Gha hara. It is the last left bank tributary of the Ganga Joins Gan a at Patna Barakar is main tributa Meets Ganga at Chapra. . Joins Hu li Lucknow situated on its bank. Kathna & Sarayan tributaries. Receives Dibang & Lohit on left bank & then known as Brahmaputra. Burhi Dihing, Dhansari & Kalang (left) & Subansari, Kamang, Manas & Sankosh. Forms Sivok Gola Pass in Darjeeling. Meghna is the name of Brahmaputra after its confluence with Surma. Surma is distributary of river Barak. Tel, 1b, Seonath, Hasdeo, Mand, Jonking Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, Sabari, Idravati, Man •ra & Pranhita. Koyna, Yerla, Verna, Panchganga, Dudhgana, Musi, Tun abhadra, Bhima Amravati, Hemavati, Akravati, Herangi, Shimsa, Lakshmantirtha, Lok avani, Kabbani. Burhner, Banjar, Shar, Shakkar, Dudhi, Tawa, Hiran, Baran Parna, Ve har, Girna, Bori, Panhara, Betul Formed by confluence of Koel & Sankh. Baitrani oins later
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    Ghanshyam Thori 31. Luni 320 Arawallis Geography Notes Ends in Sahni marshes. Sarsuti, Bundi, Sukri, Jawai oin it. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Various Central Institutes in India Wildlife Institute of India Salim Ali centre for Ornitholo & Natural Histo Central Shee Breedin Farm Central Tobacco Research Institute National Shi Desi n & Research Centre Civil Aviation Trainin Colle e National Institute of Aviation Mana ement & Research Indira Gandhi Rashtri a Udan Academ National Remote Sensin A enc Postal Staff Colle e of India Central Poultr Trainin Institute Central Institute of Coastal En ineerin for fisheries Central Institute of Fisheries education Lal Bahadur shastri college of advanced maritime studies & research Hindustan Photo films Surve of India Dehradun Coimbatore Har ana Ra•amundhr , A.P. Vishakha atnam H derabad Delhi Fursat un• (U.P.) H derabad Ghaziabad Hessar hatta, Karnataka Ban alore. Mumbai Mumbai Oot . Dehradun Various Policies & Pro rammes in India 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Forest Polic 1894, 1952, 1988 (revised) Indian Board for wildlife formed 1952 Wildlife Protection Act Pro•ect Ti er O eration Crocodile National Wildlife Action Plan Environment Protection Act Rhinoceros ro•ect Pro•ect Ele hant 1972 1973 1975 1983, Revised 2002-2016 1986 1987 1992 35. 36. 37. 38. Coal Jharkhand Orissa M.P (Former) West Ben al Energy Resources of India Jharia, Bokaro, Giridh, karanpura, Ramgarh, Daltonganj, Auran abad, Hutar, Deo arh, Ra•mahal Talcher, Ram ur Central Indian Coalfields -Singrauli, Sohagpur, Johilla, Umaria Satupura Coalfields - Pench, Kanhan, Pathkhera North Chhattisgarh - Chirmiri-Kaurasia, Bisrampur, Jhillmili, Sonhat, Lakhanpur, Sendurgarh, lakhanpur-Ramkola South Chhattis arh-Hasdo-Arand, Korba, Mand-Rai arh Rani an•, Dar•eelin 43
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. Tetiary coal Petroleum Natural Gas Uranium Thorium Iron Ore Andhra Pr. Maharashtra Meghalaya Assam Arunachal Pr Ra asthan North-East Guj arat Mumbai Hi East Coast Other Mumbai Gu arat Assam Tamil Nadu Tri ura Ra•asthan h Arunachal Pr Himachal Pr West Ben al Sin areni, Koth undam, Tandur Chanda-Wardha, Kam tee, Bander Daranggiri, Cherpunji, Laitryngew, Mawlong, Langrin, Pendengru, Lon oi, Waimon Makum, Jai ur, Nazira Namchuk-Nam huk Kalakot, Moho ala, Palana (li nite) & Khari Digboi, Naharkatiya, Moran, Rudrasagar, Galeki, Hugrijan, Nigru, Borholla Ankeleshwar, Kalol, Nawagam, Kosamba, Kathana, Barkol,Mehsana, Sanand, Lune•, Aliabet island Bomba hi h, Bassein Narimanam, Kovilla al, Amla ur, Rawa Jaiselmer, Jwalamukhi Area (Pun •ab) Bomba hi h, Bassein Ja atia, Go ha Nahorkati a & Moran Ne altur, Man amadam, Avadi, Viru ambakam Baranura, Atharnure Barmer, Charaswala Non Chick, Mia-Pun , La tan un Jwalamukhi, Kan ra Medini ur Jaduguda (Jharkhand), Bhatin, Narwapahar under Uranium Cor ortation in India are the onl mines worked at resent Beach Sands (Kerala), Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pr, Orissa Mineral Resources of India Chhattis arh 24 % Goa (21%) Karnataka (20%) Jharkhand (17 070) Orissa (15 C/o) Maharashtra Andhra Pr. Dalli, Ra•hra (Dur ), Bailadila, Rao hat, Aridon ri San uelim, San uem, Que em, Satari, Ponda, Bicholim Bellar , Hos et, Sandur Noamund, Gua Gurumahisani, Sulaipat, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj), Kiriburu, Me hahataburu, Bonai (Sundar arh). Chandra ur, Ratna iri, Bhandara Karimnagar, Warangal, Kurnod, Cuddapah, Anantpur district 44
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    Ghanshyam Thori 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Co er Man anese Bauxite Chromite Lead Zinc Gold Silver Nickel Limestone Dolomite Phos hate Kaolin Mica G sum Steatite Ma esite Tamil Nadu M. P (46%) Ra•asthan (33%) Jharkhand (21070) Karnataka (38%) Orissa (17%) M.P. (10 070) Maharashtra (8%) Orissa (44 %) Jharkhand (18 C/o) Maharashtra (13%) Chhattis arh(11%) M.P. (11 070) Gu•arat (8 %) Tamil Nadu (4 070) Orissa (97 %) Karnataka (2.3 C/o) Maharashtra (%) Jharkhand (%) Andhra Pr (070) Ra•asthan (80 070) Orissa (11%) Andhra Pr (8 070) Ra•asthan (99 %) Sikkim Karnataka (67 070) Jharkhand (26 070) Andhra Pr (7 070) Andhra Pr (42 C/o) Bihar Jharkhand32 Ra•ashtan (25 70) Karnataka Orissa Geography Notes Tirthmalai, Y ada alli, Killimalai, kan •amalai, & Gondumalai Bal hat (Malan•khand) Khetri (Jhurfhunu & Alwar) Sin hbum Bellar , North Kanara, Shimo a Kendu•har, Sundar arh, Kora ut, Kalahandi, Bolan ir Bal hat Na ur & Bhandara Kora ut, Kalahandi, Sundar arh Gumla, Loharda a, Ranchi, Palamau Kolha ur, Ratna ir Bastar, Bilas ur, Sur district Mandla, Satna, Jabal ur, Shahdol Jamna ar, Kachchh, Juna arh Salem, Nil iri Sukinda, Kendu • har, Dhenkanal ditricts Hassan Chandra ur Purbi & Paschmi Sin hbum district Khammam Zawar re ion (Udai ur), Dariba, Ra•ura Zawar —a. Pi li khan to Barla khan b. Mochia, Ma ra, Balaria Kolar, Hutti old fields (Raichur), Gulbar a Subarnarekha, Sona, San •ai, South koel, Garra rivers Ram iri Gold Fields (Ananta ur district) Zawar Cuttack, K on •har, & Mai urbhan• Non Metallic Minerals M.P, Chattis arh, Andhra Pradesh, Ra•asthan Orissa (Birmitra ur in Sunder arh District-lar est in India), M.P & Chattis arh Ra•asthan (Udai ur) Uttaranchal (Dehradun), M.P. (Jhabua), U.P. (Lalit ur) Kerala is lar est roducer. Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand (Kodarma-Lar e) & Ra•asthan Ra•asthan & J & K. Ra•asthan. It is also called soa stone/ Potstone. Tamil Nadu 45
  • 46
    Ghanshyam Thori 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. P rite Gra hite Diamond Ber Ilium Salt (NaC1) Marble Zircon K anite Antimon Asbestos Ber Ilium Sul hur Tin Bihar is sole roducer Orissa, Ra•asthan M.P. (Panna) Ra•athan, Jharkhand Gu•arat (60%), Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra Ra•asthan Beach Sand of Kerala Sin hbum distict in Jharkhand-lar est. Used as refractor Pun ab Karnataka & Ra• asthan Ra•asthan Tamil Nadu Bihar, Jharkhand Geography Notes material Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India Pro •ect Damodar Valley Project Rihand Dam Nagarjunasagar Project Tun abhadra Pro •ect Gandak Pro•ect Kosi Pro•ect Beas Pro•ect Ma urkashi Pro •ect Indira Gandhi Canal Narmada Valley Project Pocham ad Pro •ect Tehri Dam Parambikulam Pro •ect Mata Tella Dam Kan sbati Pro•ect Rajasthan Canal Project Kadana Pro •ect Tata H droelectric Scheme Ko naH droelectic Dam Sivasamudram River Damodar Rihand Krishna Tun abhadra Gandak Kosi Beas Ma urkashi Godavari Bhagirathi State West Bengal & Jharkhand. It includes Maithon & Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar, Konar Dam (Konar river) & Panchet Dam (Damodar). Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh. Consists of two canals — Lal Bahadur Canal (Left) & Jawahar canal (Ri ht). JV of Andhra Pr & Karnataka. JV between UP, Bihar & Ne al JV of Bihar & Ne al Includes Pon Dam Ma urkashi is a tributar of Hu li. It consists of Rajastan Feeder Canal (taking off from Harike Barrage, 204 km long, fully lined masonry canal) & Rajasthan main canal (445 Km) Involves Sardar Sarovar dam in Gujarat & Narmada sa ar (or Indira Sa ar) dam in M.P. Andhra Pradesh. Uttaranchal. Implemented with Soviet Aid. Hi hest rock fall dam in the count JV between Tamil Nadu & Kerala. H dro-Electric Pro •ects Betwa Sutlej, Beas Mahi Indravati Near Jhansi in U.P. West Ben al JV of Punjab & Rajastan. Ravi water is also used. Gu arat Maharashtra. Called Bhiv uri dam. Maharashtra Cauver Falls Karnataka 46
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Nil iris) 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 43. 105. 106. P kara H Pro•ect Mettur Pro ect Pa ansam Scheme Sabar iri H del Pro•ect Idukki Pro •ect Shola ar Pro•ect Machkund Power Pro •ect Srisailam Power Pro •ect Balime1aH dro Pro•ect Umiam Pro•ect Salal H dro Pro•ect Thein Dam Pro•ect Banasa ar Pro•ect Ja akwadi Pro •ect Kakra ara Pro•ect Mahi Pro•ect Mal rabha Pro•ect Pallivasal ro•ect Poocham ad Ra• hat Dam Pro•ect Sarda Saha ak Hansdev Ban o Pro•ect Tawa Pro•ect Ukai Pro •ect Purna Pro •ect Rana Prata Sa ar Jawahar Sa ar Dam Gandhi Sa ar Dam Chibro Dool Hasti Nathpa Jhakri Panchet Dam P kara Cauver Tambra arni Pam a Peri ar Shola ar Machkund Krishna Sileru river Umiam Chenab Ravi Son Godavari Mahi Mal rabha Mudira u •ha Godavari Betwa Gha ara Hansdev Tawa Purna Chambal Chambal Chambal Tons Chenab Satluj Damodar Tamil Nadu (alon Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Kerala Kerala Kerala. JV between Kerala & Tamil Nadu Orissa. JV between A.P & Orissa Andhra Pradesh JV between A.P & Orissa Me hala a Pun ab JV between MP, UP & Bihar Maharashtra Gu arat Gu arat Karnataka Kerala Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh M.P. M.P. Tawa is tributar of Narmada Gu arat Maharashtra Ra•asthan (Rawatbhata) Ra•asthan (Kota) Churasi arh Fort at MP-Ra• asthan border Uttar Pradesh Himachal Pr. Biggest hydel power project in India West Ben al Thermal Power Projects in India 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Kotha undam Pro •ect Dhuraran Pro •ect Sat ura Power Station Korba Pro •ect Talcher Power Station Obra Power Station Bhusawal Power Station Hardau an • Power Station Sin areni Coalfields Kheda district Talcher Obra 47 Andhra Pradesh Gu arat M.P. Chhattis arh Orissa U.P. Maharashtra U.P.
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    Ghanshyam Thori 9. 10. 11. 12. Bandel Power Station Chandra ura Power Station Kola hat Power Station Bakreshwar (Birbhum) Station Soils & Their Properties Geography Notes West Ben al Bihar West Ben al West Ben al 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Alluvial Soils Regur/B1ack Soils Red & Yellow Soils Laterite Soils Arid Soils Saline Soils Peaty & Organic Forest Soils 22 30 28 2.62 6.13 1.29 2.17 7.94 Most fertile, Sandy loam in texture, Rich in Potash, Phosphoric Acid, Lime & Organic matter Deficient in Nitro en & Humus Also classified as Chernozem. Clay content 50% Rich in iron, lime & Aluminium Poor in Nitro en, Phos horus & or anic content Known as omnibus group. Rich in oxides of iron Poor in Nitro en, Phos horus & Humus Not very fertile. Typical of tropical region with heavy rainfall Rich in iron oxide & potash Poor in nitro en, hos hate & calcium Rich in phosphate Poor in Nitro en & humus Known as Usara, Reh or Kaliar Contain a large proportion of Sodium, Potassium & Magnesium Poor in Nitro en & Calcium Normally heavy & black in colour. Highly acidic. Rich in organic matter Poor in hos hate & otash Acidic with low humus content Poor in otash, hos horus & lime Sobriquets l. 2. 3. Bolton of the east Manchester of South India Granar of South India A ricultural Cro Crop Rice Wheat State W. Ben al UP Andhra Pr Pun ab UP Prod 15 14 13 11 35 Prod (Mil T) 87 74 Yield Kg/Ha 1900 2700 48 Ahmedabad Coimbatore Than avur s of India Rainfall cm 125-200 cm 80 cm Temp Deg C 10-25 c Soil Deep Fertile Clayey or loamy soil Li ht loam
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    Ghanshyam Thori Jowar Ba•ra Maize Barle Pulses Gram Tur/Arhar Su arcane Crop Cotton Jute Pun ab Har ana M.P. Maharashtra Karnataka M.P. Ra asthan UP Gu arat Maharashtra U.P. Karnataka Ra asthan Bihar/MP UP Ra asthan MP Karnataka TamilNadu U.P. M.P. U.P. Ra•asthan M.P. Ra asthan U.P. Maharashtra U.P. M.P./Gu•ar. U.P. Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Karnataka State Gu arat Maharashtra Andhra Pr Ha ana W. Ben al 20 172 11 47 20 10 33 18 16 14 15 15 11 10 44 30 7 60 13 8 25 20 17 40 31 12 22 20 15 43 14 13 10 7.7 7.1 12.1 1.7 2.3 14 3.5 2.3 300 770 720 1850 1750 1350 720 620 70 tonne 30-65 cm 40-50 cm 50-75 cm 70-90 cm 35-50 cm 40-80 cm 150 cm 27-32 c 25-30 c 21-27 c 10-18 c 20-25 c 20-25 c 20-25 c Geography Notes Sandy Loam Clay Loam Black clayey soil Light sandy Shallow black Red upland soil well drained alluvial or red loamy soil Light soil Drained loamy soil Range of soil Deep rich loamy Commercial & Plantation Cro s of India Prod 28 15 11 10 75 Prod Yield (Mil Kg/Ha T) 11.6 Million Bales 170 Kg 10 226 1960 49 Rainfall Cm 50-75 cm 125-200 cm Temp Deg C 21-30 c 25-35 c soil Soil Black Soil Li ht sand or
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    Ghanshyam Thori Tobacco Groundnut Sunflower So abeen Bihar Assam Orissa Andhra Pr. Gu arat U.P. Gu arat Andra Pr. Tamil Nadu Karnataka Maharashtra Andhra Pr. M.P. Maharashtra Ra•asthan Assam W. Ben al Tamil Nadu Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu Kerala Tamil Nadu 14 9 1 31 29 23 33 15 22 47 23 17 75 13 9 55 22 15 71 21 8 90 Million Bales 180 kg .65 9.2 1.3 5 0.78 0.3 0.6 1400 1220 620 1000 1900 960 1600 Oilseeds 50 cm 50-100 cm 50 cm 50 cm 150-250 cm 150-250 cm 300 cm 15-38 c 20-30 c 15-25 c 14-24 c 25-30 c 15-28 c 25-35 c Tea Coffee Rubber 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Geography Notes Clayey Loams well Drained Friable sandy loams Sandy loam, red, yellow, black soil Loamy soils Friable loamy Acidic Soil Well drained deep friable loams or Acidic Forest soil well drained friable forest loam Deep, well drained loams Ground Nut Rapeseed & Mustard Seasum Linseed Castorseed So abeen Sunflower Coconut 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Andhra Pradesh, Gu•arat, Tamil Nadu Rajasthan (45%), U.P, M.P. Gu•arat (28 0/0), W. Ben al U.P, Maharashtra Gu•arat (82%) Madh a Pradesh (75%), Maharashtra, Ra•asthan Karnataka (47%), Maharashtra (23%), Andhra Pradesh (17%) Kerala (45%), Tamil Nadu (28 070) Black Pe Chillies Turmeric Gin er Cardamom Arecanut er S ices Kerala (97 70) Andhra Pradesh (37%) Andhra Pradesh (56%) Kerala (22), Me hala a (20%) Karnataka (57%) Karnataka (41 C/o), Kerala (30%) Horticultural Crops 50
  • 51
    Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Man 0 Banana Cashew Oran e Grapes Guava Potato Onion Kharif Crops Rabi crops Zaid crops Geography Notes UP (32), Bihar (13) Andhra Pradesh. Accounts for 40 ercent of all fruits Maharashtra (28%), Gujarat (10%), Andhra Pradesh. Jalgaon district alone su lies more than 80 % of Maharashtra's Banana Kerala (31 %), Maharashtra (18%), Andhra Pradesh (14%). Cashew is a enus of Brazil. Lar est forei n exchan e earner Maharashtra, M.P, Karnataka. Genus from China Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra. Native plant of Armenia. Grapes are im orted in India. U.P., Bihar. Native lant of Tro ical America J & K, Himachal Pr, Uttaranchal U.P (35%), West Ben al (33%) Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh T es of Cro s Rice, Maize, Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Tur, Moong, Urad, Cotton, Jute, Seasum, Groundnut, So abeen, Wheat, Barley, Jowar, Rapeseed, Mustard, Linseed, Lentil, Gram, Peas Sown during march to June. E.g. Water Melon, Melon, Cucumber, Ve etables, Moon , Urad. Jowar is both a Kharif & Rabi Cro Wandur National Park Kaziran a National Park Manas National Park Palamau National Park Hazariba h National Park Dachi am National Park Hemis National Park Kishtwar National Park Silent Valle National Park Eravikulam National Park Bandhav arh National Park Kanha National Park Madhav National Park Pench National Park Shiv uri National Park Indravati National Park Keoladeo National Park Ranthambore National Park Desert National Park Sariska National Park Namda ha National Park Marine National Park Pin Valle National Park National Parks of India Andaman & Nicobar Assam Assam Jharkhand Jharkhand (Rhinoceros) J & K- Kashmir Sta (Han Ill) Kerala Kerala M.P. M.P. M.P. M.P. M.P. - Birds Chhattis arh Ra asthan Ra •asthan Ra asthan Ra •asthan Arunachal Pradesh Gu arat Himachal Pradesh 51
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    Ghanshyam Thori 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 1. 2. 3. 4. Bandi ur National Park Na arhole National Park Banner hatta National Park Tadoba National Park Boriveli National Park Bal akram National Park Nokrek National Park Nandan Kanan National Park Chandka Ele hant Reserve Simli al Ti er Reserve Corbett National Park National Park Valle of Flower N. Park Nandadevi National Park Dudhwa National Park Govind National Park Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Maharashtra Maharashtra (or San•a Me hala a Me hala a Orissa Orissa Orissa Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal U.P. U.P. Geography Notes Gandhi National Park) Wildlife Sanctuaries of India Pakhal Wildlife Sanctu Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuar Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuar Garam ani Wildlife Sanctua Kaimur wildlife Sanctuar Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuar Peri ar Wildlife sanctuar National Chambal Wildlife Sanctu Great Indian Bustard Sanctuar Gomardha Wildlife Sanctua Harike Headworks Jalda ara Wildlife sanctuar Sultan ur Bird Sanctuar Ra anathittu Wildlife Sanctuar Madumalai Sanctuar Pulicat Sanctuar Chandra rabha Wildlife Sanctuar Ran anthitoo Bird Sanctur Vedanthan al Bird Sanctua Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar (lar est) Karnataka Kerala M.P., U.P & Ra•asthan Maharashtra (Ahmedna ar) Chhattis arh Pun •ab West Ben al Har ana Karnataka Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh U.P (Varanasi) Karnataka Tamil Nadu Cow Buffalo Shee Goats Breeds of Cattle Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni (Andhra Pr.), Nagori, Rathi, Siri, Malvi, Th arkar. Exotic breeds — Holstein, Friesian, Jerse , Brown Swiss. Murrah, Bhadawari, Na uri, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Nali-Ravi. Jaisalmeri, Pu al, Bikaneri, Marwari, Kathiawari. Jamna uri, Barbari High Yielding Varieties of Seed 52
  • 53
    Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Wheat Rice Maize Jowar Cotton Geography Notes Kal an Sona, Sonalika, Ar•un, Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, WL series. Padma, Ja a, IR-8, Hamsa, Krishna, Cauve , Anna urna Gan a-101, H brid CSV-I to CSV-7 Sharda V -797, H brid 4,5, Di via , Varalaxmi, San•a Roads, Railwa s & Waterwa s in India 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. National Hi hwa State Hi hwa s District Roads Villa e Roads Border Roads Total Roads Total Waterwa National Waterwa National Waterwa S 1 67700 Km 137000 Km 12 Lakh Km 15 Lakh Km 30,000 Km 33 Lakh Km 14500 Km Broad Gua e Meter Gua e Narrow Gua e Total Railwa ua No of Trains No of Stations Electrified route Devira , Virnar. 46800 km 13000 km 3100 km 63200 km 13500 7100 s s-2 National Waterways-3 National Waterwa s Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Gan a-Bha irathi-Hoo I s stem Sadi a-Dhubri stretch of the Brahma utra s stem The west coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam along with the Ud o mandal & Cham akar canals (All in Kerala). Indian Railways, Head uarters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Nothern Raiwa Southern Railwa Eastern Raiwa Western Railwa North-Western Railwa North-Central Railwa North-Eastern Railwa North-East Frontier Railwa East Coast Railwa East Central Railwa West Central Railwa Central Railwa South-Central Railwa South Eastern Railwa South-Western Railwa South-East Central Railwa India Pi elines Delhi Chennai Kolkata Mumbai (Church ate) Jai ur Allahabad Gorakh ur Guwahati Bhubaneshwar Hazi ur Jabal ur Mumbai (V.T) Secundarabad Kolkata Ban alore Bilas ur Naharkati a Oilfield in Assam to Barauni refiner in Bihar via Noonmati Barauni-Kan ur i eline for trans ort of refined etroleum Haldia-Maur ram-Ra • bandh i eline Ankleshwar oilfield to Ko ali refiner in Gu•arat Mumbai Hi h Ko ali i eline - First i eline ur-Ja dish ur (HBJ) i eline (1750 km). Extended from ur to Dadri in U.P. 53
  • 54
    Ghanshyam Thori 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Kandia to Luni in U.P via Delhi for LPG trans ort (1250 Km) Mumbai Delhi Chennai Kolkata Ahmedabad Amritsar Ban alore Goa Guwahati H derabad Thiruvanantha Kochi Airwa s-lnternatioanal Air orts Chhatra ati Shiva •i International Ai ort (Sahar) Indira Gandhi International Ai ort Anna International Ai ort (Meenambakam) Subhash Chandra Bose International Ai ort Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Ai ort uram Ra•a Sansi Ai ort Needumbasse International Ai ort Dabolim International Ai ort Loka ri a Go inat Bardoli International Ai Ra•iv Gandhi International Air ort Trivandrum International Ai ort Nedumbasser International Ai ort. India's Forei n Trade ort Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants (POL) Pearls & Precious stones Gold & Silver Ca ital oods Electronic oods Chemicals Edible Oils Coke, Coal & bri uettes 27 % 8.5 % 9 0/10 7% 3% 2% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Geography Notes 8% 6% 13.5 % Fish & Fish roducts lead a ricultural ex orts accountin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Cit A ra Badrinath Cuttack Dibru arh Feroz ur India's major tradin USA UAE China UK Bel ium German Ja an Switzerland Hon kon Sin a ore Gems & Jeweller Read made Garments Chemicals Cotton Textile Machine & Trans ort A ricultural Ex orts for 3.1 % of the total value. artners 11.6 % 5.0 % 4.4 % 3.9 % 3.1 % 2.7 % 3.4 % 3.0 % Cities located on Rivers River Yamuna Alaknanda Mahanadi Brahma utra Sutle• 54 State UP Uttranchal Orissa Assam Pun ab
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    Ghanshyam Thori Guwahati H derabad Jabal ur Kan ur Kota Lucknow Ludhiana Nasik Pandh ur Patna Sambal ur Srina ar Surat Tiruchira alli Varanasi V fa wada Brahma utra Musi Narmada Gan a Chambal Gomti Sutle• Godavari Bhima Gan a Mahanadi Jhelum Cauve Gan a Krishna Industries of India Geography Notes Assam AP MP UP Ra•asthan UP Pun ab Maharashtra Maharashtra Bihar Orissa Gu arat Tamil Nadu UP AP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Iron & Steel Cotton Textile Su ar Indust Aluminum Industry Copper Smelting Jute Textile Silk Textile Woolen Textile Heavy Industry Machine Tools Automobiles Pesticides Cement Industry Leather Indust IISCO has 3 plants at Kulti, Hirapur & Burnpur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka. Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai, Dur a ur & Bokaro. 4% of GDP. 3.5 Crore o ulation em 10 ed. HINDALCO (Renukoot), INDAL (Alupuram, Hirakud, Belgaum), Madras Aluminium Company (MALCO, Mettur), BALCO (Korba), NALCO (Kora ut) HCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex, Indian copper complex (Ghatsila, Jharkhand), Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat, M.P.), Talo•aco er ro•ect (Rai ad, Maharashtra). Centers are Titagarh, budge-budge, Haora, Rishra, Serampore, Bhadreshware, Sh amna ar. Its varieties are Mulbe (88%), Eri (9%), Tassar (2%), Mu a (1%) Punjab, Maharashtra & U.P account for 75% production. Dhariwal is most im ortant centre. Others are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Kharar. Heavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi), Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd (Karnataka), Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam) Minin & allied machiner co oration (Dur a ur). HMT (Bangalore, Pinjore in Haryana, Kalamassery in Kerala, Hyderabad, Ajmer & Sri Nagar), Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi), Machine Tools Corp of India (A •mer), National Instruments Facto at Kolkata. TELCO in Mumbai, Ashok Leyland in Chennai, Bajaj Tempo (Pune). Defense vehicles are roduced at Jabal ur. Hindustan Insecticides Ltd (Delhi, Kerala & Rasayani, Maharashtra) Hindustan Or anic Chemicals Ltd (Rasa ani, Rai ad & Kochi) Top manufacturing states are M.P, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pr & Raj. Jamul is lar est lant of M.P. & Sawai Madho ur leads in Ra•asthan India is 3r lar est la er after Ital & U.S. 55
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    Ghanshyam Thori 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 4. 5. Glass Industry Paper Industry Li uor Industr Aircraft industry Railway Equipments Ship Building Pharmaceuticals Zinc & Lead Fertilizers Industry Heavy Electricals Geography Notes Bahjoi & Naini (Both in U.P.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad for ban les. Rajmundhry (Andhra Pr), Ballarpur (Maharshtra), Titagarh (Bengal) Bhadravati, Dandeli (Karnataka), Hoshan abad (M.P) U.P. has more than 50% installed ca acit . Maharashtra, A.P are others. Important centres are HAL-Bangalore, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Others are Kora ut (Orissa) & Nasik. Chittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) — West Bengal Diesel Locomotive works Integral Coach Factory Rail Coach Factory — Varanasi — Perambur, Tamil Nadu — Kapurthala, Punjab. Diesel Componets Works - Patiala Railwa wheels & Axels - Yalahanka (Banalore) & Dur a ur. Hindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam), Garden-Reach Shipbuilders (Kolkata), Maza aon Dock (Mumbai), Goa Shi ard (Vasco). IDPL — Rhishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzzafarpur Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd — Pimpri, Pune — first public sector undertaking in this industr Hindustan Zinc Ltd at Debari, Ra•asthan (both zinc & lead) FC1-Sindri National Fertilizers Limited — Nangal Hindustan Fertilizer Corp Ltd- Namrup (Assam), Durgapur. Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd — Trombay, Thal Gu•arat, Tamil Nadu, U.P & Maharashtra are the 4 lar est in order. BHEL (Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Ramchandrapuram in A.P, Jammu, Bangalore, Hardwar). Ms ABL at Durgapur. Hindustan Cables Factory (Rupnarainpur, Bengal), Indian Telephone industries (Bangalore), Bharat Electronics (Bangalore), Electronics co oration of India (H derabad) Mumbai-Pune rgion Hugli Industrial Belt Industrial Re ions of India Tata hydel stations at Khopali, Bhivpuri, Bhira & koyna Sola ur, Satara, San li & Ahmedna ar From Naihati to Budge-Budge along left bank & Tribeni to Nalpur along right bank. Other centres are Serampur, Rishra, Shibpur, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Bansbaria, Belgurriah, Triveni, Belur. 56
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    Ghanshyam Thori 6. 7. 8. 9. Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Ahmedabad-Vadodara Chhotanagpur Region Gur aon Delhi Meerut Geography Notes Pykara project supplies electricity. Salem, Madurai, Tiruchira alli, Mettur, M sore, Mand a. Dhuvaran Thermal power station, Uttaran gas power station, Ukai hydro project. Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar, Ra•kot, Surat, Valsad, Jamna ar Chaibasa, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Asansol, Durgapur, Dalmiana ar, Ranchi, Dalton an . Faridabad, Modina ar, Ambala, A ra, Mathura National Hi hwa NH 8 NH 17 NH-I NH-IA NH 22 NH 28 A NH 35 NH 39 NH 3 Six Largest National Highways Route Varanasi-Kan akumari Kolkata & Dhule via Rai ur, Na ur. Bahara ora-Chennai Delhi-Kolkata Delhi-Mumbai Panve1-Eda all (Karnataka) 1m ortant National Hi hwa s Delhi to Amritsar via Ambala & Jallandhar Jallandhar & Uri via Jammu, Srina ar & Baramula Ambala to Shi kila on Indo china border Pi ra to Ne al border Barasat-Bon ai aon-lndo Ban ladesh border Numali arh-lndo Burma border. A ra to Mumbai via Gwalior Chennai with Thane 1m ortant Industrial Centers of India Len h Km 2369 1932 1533 1490 1428 1270 456 460 68 61 436 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Ne ritos Proto-Australoid Mon oloids Mediterranean Ferozabad Mirza ur Jai ur Trivandrum Kadi Korba Bhatinda Glass Ban les Potte Gems Industr Wood Carvin Mineral Oil Aluminium Fertilizers Racial Profile of India Onl on Andamans & Nicobar Includes Tribal group of central & southern India. Veddahs, Maleveddahs, Irulas, Shol as considere true re resentative. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Li Chas, Chakmas, Murmis, Na a & Dafla Divided into: Palaeo-Mediterranean (or Dravidians) inhabitin 57
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    Ghanshyam Thori 5. 6. S. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Brachycephals Nordics/Indo-Aryans Parameter Population (1027 million) Population Density (324 per/Sq km) PO In Growth Geography Notes southern parts of India & True Mediterranean inhabiting northern & western art of the countr Characterized by broad heads. Coorgis & Parsis are representative. The are divided into Al inoids, Dinarics & Armenoids Inhabit parts of north India. They are mostly represented among the u er castes in northern India es in Pun •ab Growth Urban population Growth rural o ulation Proportion of Urban Populn Avera e size of Villa es sex Ratio (933) Death Rate Infant Mortalit Rate Literacy Demographic Profile of India To in Parameter U.P, Maharasthra, Bihar, W. Bengal & Andhra Pr. Delhi (UTS) West Bengal (904), Bihar (880), Kerala, U.P, Punjab. Delhi Na aland (64%), Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Dadra & Na ar haveli Na aland Goa (50%) Kerala (-15000 Kerala (1058) Pondicherry Orissa Orissa Kerala (91 C/o), Mizoram, Goa, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh Lakshadwee (UT) Miscellaneous Facts Bottom in Parameter Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Goa Lakshadwee (UT) Arunachal Pr (13), Mizoram, Sikkim Andaman & Nicobar. Kerala (9.4%) Kerala Tamil Nadu Arunachal Pradesh (5%) Dadra & Na Arunachal (—200) Haryana (861), Punjab & Sikkim Daman & Diu Kerala (6 er thousand) Kerala Bihar (47%), Jharkhand, J&K, Arunachal Pr, U.P. Dadra & Na (UT) A. Physiography: 1. India is the seventh largest country in the world. The north south extent is 3214km & E-W 2933 Km. The mainland coastline is 6100 km long & including islands it is 7516 km long. Its geographical area is around 58
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 33 lakh sq km (or 328.72 million hectares). The southernmost point (Indira Point) is 6 degree 30 minutes north latitude. Narcondam & Barren Island are volcanic islands of India. Most of the sandalwood of India comes from Karnataka. The northernmost Himalayan ranges are called central Himalayas or Himadri. Beyond this range lies the Tibetan or Tethys Himalayas beyond with lies the Indus Tsangpo suture zone. To the south of the central or the Inner Himalayas lies the lesser or lower Himalayas or Middle Himalayas & is separated from the Greater Himalayas by a structural zone called Main Central Thrust. In between the Lower Himalayas (Middle Himalayas) & the Shivaliks lies the Main Boundary Thrust. The Indus Suture Zone, ISZ (or Indus-Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone) defines the zone of collision between the Indian Plate and the Ladakh Batholith to the north. Between the Pir Panjal & the Zaskar range lies the valley of kashmir. Karakoram range, Ladakh range, Zaskar range from north to south. Important peaks of the Zaskar range are Kamet (highest), Nanda Devi & Gurla Mandhata. The peaks above 8000 m in the himalayas in descending order are Mt Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Dhaulagiri, Mansalu, Cho Oyu, Nanga Parbat, Annapurna. Raman Peak is situated in Arabian Sea The transhimalayas include the Karakoram & the Laddakh range. Karakoram range has its highest in peak K2 (or Qagir named after Chinese occupation). The highest peak of Kailash range is Mt. Kailash & that of Ladakh range is Mt. Rakaposhi. The purvanchal (NE Himalayas) are divided into Purvu-NEFA (composed of Mishmi Hills & Patkai Bum), Naga hills (Saramati is highest peak), Manipur Hills, North Cachar hills, Mizo hills (earlier known as Lushai hills) & the Tripura hills. The Garo, Khasi, Jaintia & the outlying Mikir & Rengma hills are structurally parts of peninsular plateau separated from the Indian peninsula by the Malda gap. Bhabhar (in Punjab or Duars in Assam) lies to the north of Terai & is a pebble studded region which causes many steams to get lost underneath which re-emerge in the Terai belt. Khadar is known as bet in punjab & Bhangar comprises of Kankars. The northern part of the punjab plains adjoinin the shivaliks have witnesses intense erosion throgh boulder clanned streams called "Chos". 10. In the pujab plain the area between rivers is called Doab & the river bluffs are called Dhayas. The thar desert has numerous features like dhrian (shifting sand dunes), sar (saline playa lakes), rohi (fertile tracts formed by rivers west of Aravallis) & dhands (alkaline lakes). 11. The east coast (or Coromandel coast) also known as Utkal ghat in orisssa & Payant ghat in Andhra & Tamil Nadu has two lagoon lakes (Pulicat lake north of Chennai & Chilka lake). The eastern ghats are 59
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes broader whant the western ghats. Western ghat is divided into kathiawar, konkan & Malabar coast. It consists of Kayals (lagoons & backwaters largest being Vembnad lake). In karnataka the ghats are known as Kanara plain. Physiographic divisions of the Peninsular Upland 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. North Central U lands South Cental Highlands Eastern Plateau Western lateau South Deccan Me hala a Western Ghats Eastern Ghats U lands Aravalli Ran e, Ra•asthan U lands, Madh a Bharat Pathar Malwa plateau, Vindhyan Scarplands, Vindhyan range, Narmada valle Chotanagpur Plateau, Baghelkand plateau, Mahanadi basin, Dandakaran a, Garlfat Hills Maharashtra lateau, Sat ura ran e Karnataka lateau, Telan ana lateau Me hala a lateau, Mikir Hills 12. Madhya Bharat pathar is made of ancient vindhyan sediments through which the Chambal river has formed badland. To the further east lies Bundelkhand upland. 13. North of Mahanadi lies the Baghelkhand plateau which is drained by tributaries of Son river. The Chotanagpur plateau composed of granites & gneisses forms Jharkhand & is drained by Damodar. It has three lava hills of the Dalma, Porahat & Rajmahal. South of Chattisgarh basin (also called Mahanadi basin) lies a region of rugged topography called Dandakaranya plateau. Garhjat hills are also called Orissa highlands & have their highest peak in Mehendragiri. 14. The Satpura range has three parts: Rajpipla hills in the western part, Mahadeo hills (highest peak Dhupgarh near Panchmarhi) in the central part & Maikala range (highest peak Amarkantak) in the eastern reaches. Dhupgarh is the highest peak in entire Satpuras. 15. The Telangana or Andhra plateau has two parts: the Telangana & Rayalseema upland. 16. The highest peak of Anaimudi is the central point from which the three ranges radiate: Cardamom hills to the south, the Anamalai to the north & the Palni to the northeast. Thalghat (Kasara to Igatpuri), Bhorghat (between kalian & Ionavala) & Palghat are the gaps in Sahyadris. Western ghats are block mountains formed by the downwarping of a part of the land into the Arabian sea & are steeper towards west. Cochin is connected to interior through the Palghat gap. 17. The Eastern Ghats are also known as Mehendragiri in Orissa. The Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu are the meeting point of the Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats & southern hills. Its highest peak is Dodabeta & it also includes Ooty hill station. Southwards of Nilgiri & separated from them by the Palghat gap are the Annamalail Hills. 60
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 18. The islands & passages from north to south are Coco Channel, North, middle & south Andamans, Duncan passage, little Andamans, Ten degree Channel, Car Nicobar, & Great Nicobar. In Lakshwadeep the sequence from north to south is Amindivi Island, Nine degree channel & Minicoy. B. Drainage: 19. Satluj, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, & Indus (Sri Ram called Jubiliant Indra) from south to north. Gomati, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi & Mahananda are from west to east. Chambal, Sind, Betwa, ken & Son are in that order from west to east. 20. Sanskrit names Indus (Sindu), Jhelum (Vitasta), Ravi (Parushini), Beas (Vipasa) & Satluj (Satadru). 21. In Bangladesh Tista joins Brahmaputra on the right bank from where it is known as Jamuna. 22. Subernarekha & Brahmani both arise in the Chhotanagpur plateau & lie to the north of Mahanadi. The Baitrani is another stream of this system & its source lies in the Keonjhar plateau. 23. Bharatuzha (or Ponnani) is the longest river of Kerala. Periyar is second largest & Pamba falls into the Vembanad Lake. The penner originates in Karnataka (Kolar) & flows through Andhra Pradesh. The Vaigai rises in kerala & receives diverted waters of the Periyar & ultimately joins Palk bay. 24. The dendritic pattern is best developed in the Indo Gangetic plains. Narmada flows between vidhyas & Satupura while Tapti lies to the south of Satpura. "Dhuandhar" falls (or marble falls) near Jabalpur on Narmada is famous. Pinnate pattern is found in Narmada & Tapti valleys. Naini Tal, Bhim Tal & Khewan Tal are Lakes of Kumaon. Kolleru lake is located in east Godavari district (A.P.). Loktak lake is in Manipur. Chitrakote falls is located on river Indravati in Bastar. 25. Cauveri is the least seasonal of all the rivers of the peninsular plateau. Karewas are lacustrine deposits of Kashmir. The Cardamom hills are part of Annamalai hills. 26. Lonar lake (Crater lake) is situated in Maharashtra. It is the largest crater in basaltic rock. Adams Bridge, is a narrow ridge of sand, mostly dry, which connects Mannar Island with Pamban Island C: Climate, Vegetation & Soil 27. Jet Steams are of two types: Westerly jet streams which blow from west to east at a height of 12 km & easterly jet steams which blow from east to west at 13 km above. The tropical easterly jet exists over India during summer & disintegrates during winter. 28. Kalbaisakhi in West Bengal, Bordoichilla in Assam & Mango Showers in Peninsula. Tropical Cyclones occur in India during monsoon period. The average annual rainfall in India is 125 cm & most of it is orographic in nature. 29. Tropic of Cancer passes through Mizoram, Tripura, W. Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, M.P. Rajasthan & Gujarat. Gulf of Mannar lies on the east coast of Tamil Nadu. 61
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 30. Other classifications of the climate of India were given by Subramanyam & Sivaramakrishnaiah (discomfortable to most comfortable), Kendrew & Stamp (18 C isotherm basis), BLC Johnson. 31. Jowar & Ragi are very popular on red soils. 32. Tropical Deciduous is the most widely distributed vegetation in India. Lakshwadeep has zero percent forest area & Andamans & Nicobar Islands have 87 percent. Mizoram, Arunachal & Nagaland have more than 80 percent forest cover. J & k has around one percent. Maximum Teak & Sal come from the forests of M.P & Chhattisgarh. 33. The term social forestry was first used by National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 & involves planting trees on farms among other things. 34. Kaziranga National Park, Keoladeo National Park, Nanda Devi Biosphere reserve, Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve are identified as having outstanding universal value. 35. The biosphere reserves of India in order of their establishment from oldest to recent are Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek (Meghalaya), Great Nicobar Islands, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, Sunderbans, Simlipal (Orissa), Dibru-Saikhowa (Assam), Dehang-Debang (Arunachal), Pachmarhi, Khangchendzonga, Agasthyamalai 36. Magnetite occurs at Daltonganj in palamau district (Jharkhand). 37. Net sown area is around 46 % of total land in area. In India net sown area is 142 million hectares & total cropped area is 187 million hectares. Ludhiana has highest yields of wheat & west Godavari is most important for rice cultivation in Andhra Pr. Pearl fishing is done at Tuticorin. 38. The contributors to petroleum production are Mumbai (65 %), Gujarat (18 %), Assam (16 %) & Tamil Nadu (1.37 %). Same trend of states is there in case of gas production with a little different %ages. 39. Petroleum Refining is done at Guwahati, Barauni, Koyali, Haldia, Mathura, Digboi, Panipat, Chennai, Narimanam, Bongaigaon, Mumbai (HPCL, BPCL), Vishakhapatnam, Kochi, Numaligarh (Assam) & Tatipaka (ONGC-Andhra Pr). Tertiary coal is better than Gondwana coal. 40. Jharia coalfield (Dhanbad district, Jharkhand) alone accounts for 35 % of Indian production. 41. Only a few non-metallic minerals are significant in the mining economy. Limestone accounts alone for two-thirds of the total value under the group. 42. Nuclear power plants in India are at Tarapur, Rawatbhata, Kalpakkam, Narora (UP), Kaiga (Karnataka) & Kakarapara (Gujarat). Requirements for these reactors are fulfilled by the Nuclear Fuel complex located at Hyderabad & Heavy water plant at Vadodara. Eight heavy water plants are operational in India at Vadodara, Thal, Nangal, Tuticorin, Kota, Talcher, Hazira, Manuguro. A number of research reactors have 62
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes been built to carry R&D in this field which include Apsara, Cirus, Zerlina, Purnima (I, Il, & Ill), Dhruva & Kamini. 43. India is fifth in wind energy after Germany, USA, Denmark & Spain. Asia's largest wind farm is located at Lamba in Gujarat. Tamil Nadu has highest installation of wind turbines. 44. Geothermal energy — Tattapani field (Chhattisgarh), Puga Valley (J & K), Manikaran Area (H.P.) 45. The farourable sites for ocean energy are Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kachchh & estuary of Hugli. India's first tidal power plant is at Kandla. The fist solar energy plant & solar plant both are at Bhuj. 46. Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline transports liquid gas from the South Bassein offshore field off Mumbai to Jagdishpur and Aonla, deep in the mainland in Uttar Pradesh. 47. Cropped area in a year under consideration is known as net sown area. The gross cultivated area includes the net sown area used more than once a year. Cropping intensity is given by total cropped area divided by net sown area. 48. West Bengal produces three crops of rice every year viz Aus, Aaman & Boro. Arabica coffee is grown at an altitude of around 750-1500 metres & Robusta around 300-600 metres. 49. The largest producing state for silk is Karnataka (60%), Andhra Pradesh (17%), Assam & Bihar. The fertilizer consumption is highest for Punjab (185 kg/ha), followed by Tamil Nadu & Andra Pradesh. Orissa has the lowest consumption. 50. Irrigation in India - wells & Tubewell (56%), Canal (32%), Tank (6%) , Others (6.5%). Uttar Pradesh leads in Canal irrigation as well as Tubewell irrigation. Andhra Pradesh leads in Tank Irrigation. Tamil Nadu has developed highest proportion of its irrigation potential (95%). 51. The fish production in India during 2004-05 was around 6.4 Million Tonnes. Inland fisheries account for around 50 % of the total fish cash. Kerala leads in marine fish catch. 52. India with 18.5 crore cattle and 10 crore buffaloes ranks first in cattle and buffalo population in the world. India accounts for 15 % of world's cattle & 57% of world's buffalo population. 53. Mulching (ploughing in of crops), retting (fresh water treatment of Jute) & ratooning (using the same root for crop growth as in sugarcane) are some of the practices of agriculture. 54. Eutrophication is a process where water bodies receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth choking weaker species & altering species composition. 55. The scientific name of Teak (Tectona Grandis) & Sal (Shorea Robusta). Sal is used for railway sleepers & Deodar for pencils 56. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides for the conservation and wise use of wetlands 63
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 57. During the second five year plan, Iron & Steel plants were set up at Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), Rourkela (Orisaa), & Durgapur (W. Bengal) & two aluminium plants were established at Hirakud (INDAL) & Renukoot (Hinalco). During the fourth plan a steel plant was set up at Bokaro (Jharkhand). The Vishakhapatnam steel project is the first on-shore steel project built during plan. The Bhilai & Bokaro steel plants were built with Russian collaboration & they are the two biggest in that order. 58. M/S Jessops, Kolkata & Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Bangalore also manufacture rail coaches & electrical multiple units. 59. India imports 40 % of its copper requirement from abroad. Most of the gold in India occurs in the form of veins in Dharwar schists. 60. Currency paper comed from Hoshangabad in M.P & defense vehicles from Jabalpur. Cochin shipyard is the largest in India & built with Japanese assistance. 61. The east-west corridor extends from Silcher in Assam to Porbander in Gujarat. Kerala has the highest density of roads & J&K has the least. Goa has the highest density of surfaced roads. Maharasthra is the state with highest road length followed by Tamil Nadu, M.P & U.P. 62. Konkan railway runs from Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka (760 Km long). It has Asia's longest rail tunnel. Rail route per unit area is highest in Punjab and least for J&K. Rail route per unit population is highest for Gujarat & lowest for Tripura. 63. Buckingham Canal in Andhra Pradesh & Cumberjua Canal in Goa were once very important. Grand Anicut canal is in Thanjuvar, Tamil Nadu. India has over two million square km of EEZ. Overall share of Indian Vessels in overseas trade is 32 % only. Maharashtra (53) has the maximum no of minor ports (184 in all), followed by Gujarat (40). 64. The ports are Kandla, Mumbai, Nhava Sheva, Mormugao, Mangalore, Kochi, Tuticorin, Chennai, Ennore (newest), Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Haldia, Kolkata. Jawaharlal Nehru port has been developed at Nhava Sheva off the Mumbai port. Haldia decongests Kolkata & Ennore (25 Km north of Chennai & newest port) helps Chennai (Artificial shallow port) tackling its cargo. Paradip (Orissa) has the deepest harbour. 65. The New Mangalore port is used to export iron ore from Kudremukh & iron ore from Bailadila (Chhattisgarh) is exported through Vishakhapatnam port. Marmagao port is situated at the entrance of the estuary of river Zuari in Goa. Dandakarnya is known for iron-ore deposits. 66. Prasar Bharati was created by merging Door-Darshan & All India radio in 1997. Indian postal system is the largest in the world with more than 1.5 lakh post offices. Rajdani channel (yellow boxes) for letters emanating from Delhi for state capitals. Metro Channel (light blue box). QMS was introduced in 1975 & works on the basis of PIN numbers. 64
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 67. India's imports stand at around 36000 crores & exports at 29300 crores. Trade deficit is around 6500 crores. Exports are around 10.7 % of GDP. It is just 0.6 % of world trade. Foreign Debt is around 18% of GDP. It is 8th largest debted country in the world. 68. India produces around 90 million tonnes of milk every year (Buffalo 50%, Cow 46%, Goats 4%). M.P has the largest number of cattle followed by U.P & Bihar & West Bengal. 69. India's Diesel power stations are located at Naharkatiya (Assam), Barauni (Bihar), Dhuvaran (Gujarat) & Trombay. The first Fertilizer-manufacturing unit was set up in 1906 at Ranipet near Chennai. 70. General Fertility ratio is the number of live births in a year per thousand of women of normal reproductive age group. Replacement or reproduction ratio is the number of female babies born per thousand of female population in the reproductive age group. The infant mortality rate is expressed as the number of deaths of children below one year per thousand of live births. Maternal mortality rate refers to the number of female deaths due to maternity causes per ten thousand of live births. 71. Primary, Secondary & Tertiary sex ratio refers to the sex ratio at conception, Birth & Enumeration respectively. There is no doubt that more males are born than the females in case of all mammals including humans all over the world. 72. Percentage of Urban population in India is 27.78% & rural 72.22 %. Surat has the distinction of experiencing the highest growth rate among the 35 metropolitan cities during 1991-2001. Madurai grew with the slowest pace. Haryana experienced an increase in the population growth rate during the period 1991-2001. 73. Tamil Nadu has the highest urbanization among the top ten populous states. 74. India's age composition is 0-15 years (36.5%), 15-59 years (56.7%) & above 60 (6.8 %). The dependency ratio is higher in rural areas than urban. 75. The sex ratio of the country is 933. Rural areas have more favourable sex ratio (946) compared to 901 of urban areas. Sex ratio registered sharpest decline during 1961-71. 76. In India the workers are: main workers (30.5 %), Marginal workers (8.7%) & non-workers (60.8%). Proportion of main workers (>183 days employment a year) is lowest in Kerala (26%) & highest in Arunachal Pradesh (38%). 77. Scheduled caste — highest population in U.P followed by West Bengal. Punjab has the highest proportion of scheduled caste. There is no scheduled caste population in Nagaland & Andamans. Among UTS highest SC population is in Delhi. Madhya Pradesh has the highest tribal population followed by Maharashtra & Orissa. Goa (376 people only) has the least ST population. Punjab, Haryana have no ST population. Mizoram (95%) & Lakshadweep (93%) have the highest percentage of tribal population. 65
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 78. The scheduled languages arranged in descending order of the number of speakers is Hindi, Bengali, Teulgu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Assamese, Sindhi, Nepali, Konkani, Manipuri, Kashmiri & Sanskrit. 79. North Indian languages including Gujrati, Marathi, Oriya, Bengali, & Assamese belong to Aryan group. Dravidian group includes Tamil, Kannada, Telugu & Malayalam. Austric languages are spoken by tribal groups of Meghalaya, Jharkhand & Western Satpura. Sino Tibetan languages prevalent in North eastern states: Tibeto Himalayan (Bhutia, Kinnauri), Arunachal (Aka, Dana, Miri & Abor) & Naga-Myanmari (Bodo, Naga & Kuku group). 80. According to 2001 census: Hindu (80.5%), Muslim (13.4%), Christian (2.3%) & Sikh (1.8%). Hindu population proportion is highest in Himachal, Muslim in J&K, Christians in Kerala, Buddhist & Jain in Maharashtra 81. Overall literacy of India is 65.38 %. Male literacy is 75.85 % & Female 54.16 %. Lowest literacy levels are 47.53 % in Bihar to 90.92 % in Kerala. The proportion of children of eligible age group enrolled in primary schools is lowest in Uttar Pradesh & highest in Sikkim. Literacy is 80 % in Urban areas & 60 % in rural areas. 82. Environmental Imact I = PAT (population * Affluence * Harmful technology used in production). Poverty is higher in rural areas. Urban Population Distribution in Different Cities & Towns 1 11 111 100,000 & More 20,000-49,999 61.48 12.3 15 Less than 5000 8.08 2.85 .29 83. For whole India, the average distance among villages is 2.52 km. Average density of villages is highest in West Bengal, Bihar & U.P in that order. The maximum proportion of no of villages fall in the 500-999 category (25%), followed by 200-499 (24.3%) & less than 200 (18%). However the maximum population percentage is in 2000-5000 (30%) & 1000-2000 (26%). 84. The 35 million cities of India support more around 38 % of the total urban population. Chhattisgarh & Orissa do not have million cities. 85. The proportion of slums population to total population is highest in Meghalaya (41 %) & lowest in Kerala (1.8%). Among the million plus cities highest proportion of slum population is in Mumbai & least in Patna. Maharashtra has highest slum population. 86. India grew at a rate of 1.93 % during the period 1991-2001. The population of the country rose by 21.34 % during 1991 - 2001. 66
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 87. Human activities are allowed in Sanctuary but not in National parks. Moreover sanctuaries are species specific while National parks are habitat oriented. 88. Badrinath is situated on the banks of river Alaknanda. 89. Rabaris are pastoralists in Gujarat. The highest Christian population is in Nagaland. Largest number of villages is in U.P. Essential Extra Reference List of National highways (page 15.82 Indian Geograhphy —TMH-Surendra Singh) Pratyogita Darpan page 287. Million cities of India (Geography Notes) Cities in India & their industry (E.g Firozabad glass), Cities situated on river banks. Refer TMH guide for tables to be pasted 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 12. 13. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 1m ortant Works of Geo liliad, Od sse 'Ges-Periodos" — Descri tion of the earth Ekumene Geo ra hica Almagest or Syntaxis (on astronomy) The outline of eo ra h (consisted of Graticule for Historia Naturalis De Choro ra hica A book of routes & realms Kitab-a1-Ashka1 ra hers lace location) "Kitab-Miraj-a1 Dhahab", "Kitab-a1-Tanbhwa1 Ishraf", "Kitab-Akhbar- al-Zaman" & "Kitab-al-Ausat" 11. "Kitab-a1-Hind", "Al-Qanum-a1-Masudi", "Tarik-u1-Hind", "Kitab-al- Jamakhir", "Aha1-a1-Ba i a", "Kitab-a1-Sa dna", "Rashikat-a1-Hind" Amusement for Him who desires to travel around the world Ro er's Book Rihlah 14. "Mu addimah" — Introduction to world histo Panch Siddhantika Siddhant Tatwavivek Introduction to Universal Geo ra h Geography delineated forth in two bookes Histoire naturelle .com endium about earth & livin Geo ra hia Generalis 'Descri tion re ni La aniate et Siam" 67 thin s) Homer Hecataeus Eratosthenes. Strabo Ptolemy Plin Pom onius Mela Ibn Huakal Al Balkhi Al-Masudi Al-Biruni Al-Idrisi Ibn Batuta Ibn-Kha1dun Varahmihira Kamiakar Cluvarius Nathaneal Car enter Comte de Buffon Varenius Varenius
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    Ghanshyam Thori 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. "Critique of Pure Reason", "Critique of Judgement" from ra matic oint of view" Ankundin un General Natural histo & theor of Heavens 'Kosmos" & "Relation Histori ue" & "Anthropology 'Erdkunde', 6 maps of Europe, Essays on Methodology Euro e: A Geo ra hical, Historical & Statistical Paintin 'Anthro o eo ra hie', 'Political Geo ra h 'Das Ausland' (editor) & 'Geschichte der Erdkunde'. 'Travel in the Columbian Andes' , 'Geography: Its history character & methods' , 'A eo ra h of man' , 'Trans ort eo ra h Foundations of Re ional Geo ra h 'Princi les de Geo ra hie Humaine' Geo ra hie Humaine: Essai de classification La Terra Les Sciences Geo ra hi ues Problems de Geo ra hie Humaine 'Economic Geo ositive ra h 'American history & its geographical conditions', 'Influences of Geo ra hical Environment'. The pulse of Asia', 'Civilization & Climate', Geo ra h The eo ra h of the central Andes MO holo of the landsca e Ph Sio ra h Heartland Theory ',' Britain & the British Seas' & Realit The eo ra hical ivot of histor Americas strategy in world's politics Geo ra h of the eace. Geo ra hic ers ective on Urban s stems The uantitative revolution & theoretical eo ra The makers of modern eo ra h 'Models in human geography', 'Locational Geo ra h ' & 'Frontiers of eo ra hical teachin 'Principles of Human 'Democratic Ideals h Geo ra h : A modern s nthesis Handbook of commercial eo ra h Cities in Evolution Histo of Civilization of En land Geo ra hical introduction to histo Tableau de la eo ra hie de la France A Handbook of Physical Geography, Political Geo ra h 'Traite de Geo ra hi ue Ph si ue'. Guiding Analysis principles in of Human General Atlas de France 'Geo ra h made eas Geography Notes Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant Humboldt Carl Ritter Friedrich Ratzel Oscar Peschel Alfred Hettner Hettner Vidal Blache Jean Brunhes Elisee Reclus Camille Vallaux Albert Deman eon Ellen C. Semple Huntington. Isaiah Bowman Carl O' Sauer. Rollin D. Salisbu Mackinder Mackinder Nicholas Spykman B.J.L. Berr Ian Burton R.E. Dickinson Hagget & Chorley Chisholm Partrick Geddes Buckle Lucien Febvre Blache A. Supan (German) De Martonne Margarie & De Martonne Jedidiah Morse "American Universal Geo ra h 68
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    Ghanshyam Thori 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1. 2. 3. The American Geo ra h Nature of Geo ra h Pers ectives on the nature of eo ra h The decision rocess in s atial context Re ional eo ra h of India The eo ra h of Puranas The nature of Cities Ex lanations in Geo ra h (b) Social •ustice & the cit All ossible worlds The structure of scientific revolution The economics of location Limits to rowth The cit in histo S atial Or anization of societ (A) Some as ects of Medical Geo ra The develo ment of social h sics Intervenin O urtunities The isolated state S ace & Place in human eo ra h The s irit& u ose of eo ra h h (B) Asia Famous uotations 'Geography is concerned to provide accurate, orderly & rational descri tion & inte retation of the variable character of earth suface'. 'Man is the roduct of the earth's surface'. 'Man isa eo ra hical a ent & not the least.' 'There are no necessities but eve where ossibilities'. 'Mutuall coordinated & not subordinated in s ace' — on Possibilism Climatic influences are ersistent, often obdurate in their control Routes through which people have migrated have impressed upon their social characteristics Su reme achievements of civilization were bounded b climate Ever where man contributes in invertin the h Sio nom of earth Geo ra h is the mirror & reveals essence of human existence & strivin Humanism is a conviction that men & women can best improve their lives by thinking & acting for themselves & especially by excercising their ca acit for reason. We should study the earth as if we were sitting in a balloon & looking Geography Notes Hartshorne Hartshorne Julian wol ert R.L. Sin h S. M. Ali Harris & Ullman David Harve Preston .E James Thomas Kuhn Au ust Losch Dennis Meadows Lewis Mumford R. Morill L.D. Stam John Q. Stewart S. Stouffer Von Thunen Yi-Fu Tuan S. Woolrid e Hartshorne Ellen Sem le Lucien Febvre Lucien Febvre. Hettner Sem le Demolins. Huntin ton. Brunhes Yi Fu Tuan Ralph Brunhes down u on it. Homer Thales (624-548 B.C.) Anaximander Contributions of Greeks "Father of Geography" in Greek period. Wrote Illiad & Odyssey. Believed earth to be a circular floor surrounded by oceans on all sides. Boreas (N), Eurus(E), Notus ze h rus (W) winds Six Geometric Theorems. Earth disc floating in water. Water essence of all matter. Re orted ma netism of a loadstone. Disciple of Thales. Introduction of 'Gnomon' — today called sundial. First to draw a ma of the world to scale with Greece at center. Thales 69
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ll. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1. 2. 3. Democritus P tha oras Hecataeus Herodotus Plato (428-348 BC) Aristotle (384-322 BC) Alexander Theo hrastus Eratosthenes (276-194 BC) POI bius Hipparachus Posidonius Strabo (64 BC-20 AD) Ptolemy (90-168 AD) Pom onius Mela & Anaximander founded mathematical eo a h Introduced a theor of ori in of universe based on atoms in the void. Rotation of earth on its axis. Originated literary tradition in geography. First writer in Greek prose. Wrote "Ges-Periodos". Laid the foundation of re ional eo ra h Opposed Hecataeus. First great historian. Nile mud causes delta & winds blow from colder places to warmer places. Regarded Caspian sea as an inland sea. Considered earth as circular plate in water. First to draw a meridian on the world map. First to divide the world into three land masses- Euro e, Asia & Lib a Master of deductive reasoning. First to announce the concept of round earth located in the centre of the universe with celestial bodies revolvin around it. Master of inductive thought. Accepted Plato's concept of spherical earth & sought explanation for it (eclipse, pole star). Interested in mathematical eo ra h Studied with Aristotle for onl 3 ears. S ecial interest was in meteorolo Father of Geography & coined the term "Geography". Calculation of the circumference of the earth. Wrote Ekumene in which he accepted two torrid zone, two temperate & two frizid zones. He improved on Aristotle b ivin mathematical boundaries to these zones. Interested mainl in h sical eo ra h Succeeded Eratosthenes as chief Librarian. First to divide a circle into 360 degrees. Defined grid of latitude & longitude. Pointed equator as a great circle & longitude too. Wrested with the problem of showing curved surface area on a flat surface. Designed orthographic & stereographic projections. Invented Astrolabe to determine latitude usin ole star. Discovered the recision of the e uinoxes. Refuted the idea that equator region was uninhabitable. Wrote a book 'the Ocean' & was considered an authorit on oceano ra h Roman Geo ra hers Most of the earlier scholar's works disappeared. Defended Homer' s work & discarded Herodotus. First correct explanation of Nile' s flood. 8 books on Europe, 6 books on Asia & one on Africa. Considered earth as oblong. Interested in political geography. He divided geography into — physical, mathematical, political & historical. He was basicall a re ional eo ra her. Mathematical geographer & Astronomer. Earth was a sphere that remained stationery in the center while the celestial bodies moved around it (remained accepted till century-Copernicus). Far ahead in map projections & map improvements. Considered India ocean to be enclosed on the south by unknown land (Terra Incognita). First to draw Bay of Bengal & Volga (Rha) on his map. E uatorial land was considered uninhabitable. Peri lus of Sc lax-shores of Mediterranean & Peri lus of Arrian- 70
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    Ghanshyam Thori 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Marcus Tarantius Varro Plin Solinus Ibn Haukal (943-978 AD) Al Balkhi Al-Masudi Al-Maqdisi Al- Biruni (973-1039 AD) Ibn Sina or Avicenna Al Idrisi at Palermo Ibn-Batuta Ibn-Kha1dun Geography Notes Black Sea (guidelines to ship captains). Widely quoted in works of Plin the elder. Compedium of geography that dealt with a theory of culture. Food form vir in earth-Pastralism-A riculture-Contem orar culture. Wrote "Historia Naturalis" General eo ra hical account of the world. Contribution of Arabs Traveled extensively in last 30 years. Noted people in considerable numbers in equatorial regions. "A book of routes & realms". Said that the Cas ian is not connected to the Northern Sea b channel. First climatic Atlas of the world. "Kitab-al-Ashkal" Monsoon description. Described evaporation & condensation. Kitab-Miraj-a1 Dhahab, Kitab-a1-Tanbhwa1 Ishraf, Kitab-Akhbar-a1- Zaman & Kitab-al-Ausat. Divided the world into 7 regions based on Ian u es. Division of world into 14 climatic regions. Noticed that meridians also affect climate. Southern hemis here was o en ocean "Kitab-al-Hind"- Geography of India in which he described significance of rounded stone. Tides caused by moons. Towards the south ole ni ht ceases to exist. Himala as source of erennial river Knowledge of Landforms — Mountain streams cutting down the valley in Central Asia. Mountains are raised & immediately exposed to erosional process. 'Fossils'- Nature efforts to create life endin in Failure Extensive correction of erroneous ideas handed down from Ptolemy Corrects idea of enclosed Indian ocean & Caspian sea as gulf. Position of Danube, Ni er-Correction of several mountain ran es Confirmed Ibn Haukal that equatorial region was habitable. Served Mongol emperor at Delhi. Visited China, Ceylon, Sumatra, Maldives. Covered 75000 miles — a world record. Descried the houset es & buildin materials in deserts. Emphasized & wrote on man-environment relationship. Repeated the mistake of uninhabitable e uatorial zone. Contribution of Indian Geographers 1. 2. The first reference to Bhogol in Indian Literature is found in Suryasiddhanta & in the Padma Puranas a distinction has been made between Bhogol (Geography), Khogol (the space science) & Jyotishastra. The ancient Indian literature has a reference of seven dwipas or continents. The southern dwipa was named Jambu. The Meru (Pamir knot) lying in the center of the Jambu was heaven. River Sita (Hwang Ho) lies on the eastern side of Meru. Other dwipas were kusu dwipa (Iran, Arabia), Plaska dwipa (Mediterranean), Puskara dwipa (Russia-east of Urals), Kraunca dwipa (area above black sea), Saka dwipa (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia) & Salmali dwipa. 71
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 3. 4. The spherical shape of the earth was visualized by the Aitareya Brahmana who stated that the sun neither sets nor rises. Akshansa (latitudes) & Deshantara (longitude) were known. Vasanta (spring), prourit (rainy season), sarad (autumn) & hemanta (severe winter). The chapters of geography in Puranas have been called Bhuvankosh. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cluvarius Varenius or Bernhard V aren (1622-1650) J.R. Forster & J. G. Forster Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Alexander Von Humboldt (1769-1859 AD) Carl Ritter (1779-1859 AD) Pre-Modern Period German geographer of 17 century. Wrote introduction to universal eo ra h . Em hasized & wrote on re ional eo German. Wrote Geographia Generalis. Laid down the foundation of the dichotomy of "Systematic Vs Regional Geography. Divided general or systematic geography into Absolute (terrestrial), Relative (Planetary-earth relationship with other parts) & the Comparative (location, navigation) parts. Advocated highest temperatures in tropics rather than equator. Believed in heliocentric conce t of Co ernicus, Ke ler & Galileo. Father & son in that order. Accompanied Captain Cook on his voyage. Visited Volga steppe on invitation of the Russian government. There method of workin has been often named .com arative method'. German. Professor of Geography at the university of Konigsberg. Gave philosophical dimension to geography. Gave logical classification (similar origin) & physical classification (same time). Physical classification gives the basis for geography & history. Identified physical geography as including not only natural features but also man. World as perceived by inner senses is soul & by outer senses is nature. Laid down the foundation of "Exceptionalism" in Geography i.e. geography & history are methodologically distinct from other sciences. Said that generalization in the form of laws is useless in geography & regarded it as as "Idio ra hic". Geo ra h was chorolo ical & histor — chronolo iCal. "Father of Modern Geography". Coined the term "Cosmography" & divided it into Uranography (astronomy), geography (physical feature) & Concept of whole (visualized earth as inseparable whole). Affect of altitude, Temperature variation at same latitude with distance from sun, Map showing isotherms (invention), concept of Continentality, Coined the term "Permafrost" Extensive studies of Ecuadorian volcanoes, Concluded that graphite, gneiss are of volcanic origin, description of vertical zones of Andes, Humboldt or Peruvian current. Exact longitude calculation for Lima, established correlation between forest & rainfall. Lake Valenica in Venezuela was shrinking due to deforestation. Explored Orinoco & established its connection with Amazon. Explored virgin lands of Siberia. In his 'Relation Historique' he laid down the foundation of plant geography. Divided regions of Latin America into botanical provinces. His "Kosmos" talked about universe & geographical thought since Egyptians. Believed in em irical, com arative & inductive method. Was a teleologist. Gave the concept of "Unity in Diversity". Stressed on land & water hemis heres, distinction between the rates of coolin of land & 72
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    Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904 AD) Oscar Peschel Ferdinand Von Richthofen Alfred Hettner Otto Schluter Albrecht Penck Geography Notes water. Defined geography as empirical science rather than deductive. Was a professor at university of Frankfurt & Berlin & founded the "Berlin Geographical Society". He rejected the idea of 'Pure Geography' (Reine Geography) & said that history & geography must always remain inseparable. Chiefly concerned with the studies of human geography. Identified each continent with a different race. He was an armchair geographer. Wrote "Erdkunde" meaning science of the earth. Asia & Africa covered but not Euro e. German School of Thou ht Worked at university of Munich & Leipzig. Application of Darwin's concept to human species called 'Social Darwinism'. Studied modes of life of Germans outside Germany. Published two books on N. America. 'Anthropogeographie' talked about the effects of different physical features on the life of people. Coined the term "Anthropogeography" Protagonist of Determinism. Wrote 'Political Geography' where he compared state to an organism & persuaded Germany to expand. It was his policy of 'Lebensraum' or living space that urged to expand-Organic theory of State. It earned him the title of 'founder of political geography'. He also ave the sta es throu h which human societ asses. First professor at university of Leipzig after Ritters death. Editor of 'Das Ausland' & wrote 'Geschichte der Erdkunde'. Contributed very much to the develo ment of eomo holo throu h a stud of relief t es. First to identify "Loess" in China. His studies of China were published in five volumes. Disciple of Ratzel & Richthofen. Revived the concept of geography as chorology. Published 'Geography: Its history character & methods'. Supported Possibilism. Geography as "Landshatskunde" (landscape science) became o ular durin his eriod. Hettner-Schluter controversy. It was Schluter who applied the term 'Landshaftskunde' to describe the concept of geography. He objected to chorolo ical definition of eo ra h First use of the term ' eomo holo '. Penck's ideas ins ired Ko en. Other German geographers were Obst, Waibel, Sapper, Gustav Brown, Andree, Karl Haushofer & Walther Christaller. 1. 2. 3. 4. Vidal de la Blache (1848-1918 AD) Jean Brunhes Elise Reclus De Martonne French School of Thought Founder of Human Geography. 'Pays' as basic homogenous region to study as opposed to drainage basins. He developed the idea of 'Terrestrial Unity'. Wrote, 'Principles de Geographie Humaine'. Founded a journal called, 'Annals de Geo ra hie'. Gave the concept of "Terrestrial Harmonies' — Man & his environment. Wrote 'Geographie Humaine: Essai de classification positive'. He divided human geography into unproductive occupation of the soil, Plants & animal con uest & destructive ex loitation. Disci le of Carl Ritter & a determinist. Wrote 'La Terra'. Ma•or work in h sical eo ra h . Son in law of Blache. Wrote 'Traite 73
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    Ghanshyam Thori de Geo ra hi ue Ph si ue'. 5. Camille Vallaux Wrote 'Les Sciences Geo ra hi ues'. Geography Notes 6. Albert Demangeon Devoted most of the time to editing 'Annals'. Wrote 'Problems de Geo ra hie Humaine". Interested in rural settlements. Other geographers were Gallois, Blanchard, Bauling, Jean Gottmann, A. Siegfried, J. Ancel 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Jedidiah Morse W. Morris Davis (1850-1934 AD) Mark Jefferson Ellen Churchill Semple (1863-1932) Ellsworth Huntington Isaiah Bowman Albert Parry Birmin ham Rollin D. Salisbury Carl O Sauer American School of Thou ht Father of American Geo ra h One of the founders of the 'Association of American Geographers' estd in 1904. Jefferson, Bowman, Huntington, Semple & Birmingham were some of his students. Coined the term 'Ontography' to denote the organic half of geography. He added subsequent, obsequent & resequent to Powell's 3 t es of rivers. Advocate of Darwinism Professor at the Michigan State normal college in Ypsilanti for 38 years. Never accepted the concept of determinism. Concept of 'central place', rimate cit ' & 'civilizin rails'. Disciple of Ratzel at Leipzig. Her first book was, 'American history & its geographical conditions'. Her version of Ratzel's Anthropogeographie was, 'Influences of Geographical Environment' Worked on Mediterranean re ion for about 20 ears. Published, 'The pulse of Asia'. Wrote, 'Civilization & Climate' in which he said that man's civilization could develop only in regions of stimulating climate. His book, 'Principles of Human Geography' was a colle e textbook. Determinist ina roach. Thesis on 'The geography of central Andes'. Pioneered boundary studies — 'Guatemala-Honduras dis ute'. Earlier determinist later ossibilist. Wrote 'Geographic influences on American history'. He was critical of eo le makin eneralizations about climatic influences on humans. Recognized as best teacher in the university. He published his ideas in 'Ph Sio ra h Activist of the possibilistic movement. Protagonist of 'Chorological Theme'. Published, 'The morphology of the landscape' in which he ex lained the conce t of 'Landschaft'. Did not den 'determinism'. British School of Thou ht 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Malford Mackinder 'Heartland Theory ',' Britain & the British Seas' & 'Democratic Ideals P. Hagget & Richard Chorle Patrick Geddes J. Herbertson Chisholm Robert Mill Determinists & Realit They have authored 'Models in human geography', 'Locational Analysis in Human Geo ra h ' & 'Frontiers of eo ra hical teachin Founder of Le Play society. Wrote 'City in Evolution'. Gave the concept of 'urban conurbation. ' Assistant of Geddes at Oxford Wrote, 'Handbook of commercial eo ra h Wrote, 'General Geo ra h Determinists & Possibilists Hi ocrates, Aristotle, Strabo, Al Masudi, Ibn Haukal, Al-Idrisi, 74
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    Ghanshyam Thori (Ancient eriod) (Pre-Modern Period) Modern Period Geography Notes Ibn-Kha1dun, J. Biodim, Motes uieu, Humboldt, Ritter, Haeckel, Buckle, Demolins Ratzel, Sem le, Elise Reclus, Darwin, Huntin on, Ta lor Lucien Febvre, Durkheim, Blache, Jean Brunhes, Hettner, Mark Jefferson Carl O' Sauer, Isaiah Bowman, Barrow, Fleure (genre de vie). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Possibilists Quantitative Revolution Radicalism Behaviorism Humanism Positivism Pragmatism Various Paradi m Shifts & A roaches in Geo ra h 1950' s-1960's. Make precise statements about locational order. Use mathematical language (Cwg). No place for normative questions. Great em hasis on locational anal sis. Developed as a reaction to quantitative revolution & positivism. Concerned with issues of social relevance like racism, poverty, inequality etc. In 1969 "Antipode", a journal of radical geography was launched at Clark university. Marxism provided a firm theoretical base for the radical movement. Fall of USSR ave radicalism a blow. Cognition is the key. It treats man as a responder to stimuli. It has maintained strong positive ties with the positivist tradition & is still widely accepted within the positivist orientation. Julian Wolpert in 'Decision process in spatial context' — landuse in Sweden Pred devised a behavioral matrix on the basis of information availability & skill Huff developed the idea of understanding the consumer spatial behaviour. Haggerstand developed the idea of spatial diffusion of innovation. Lowenthal tried to study the goal motivations of a person & how he acts. K.R. Cox was the first to introduce behavioral concept in political geography. Peter Gould gave the concept of mental maps. W. Tobbler (Geometry of mind). Conceptual framework was given by downs (See fig) A conventional model of man-environment relationship was give by boulding. Sonnenfield proposed 4 levels at which the environment should be studied viz Geographical, Operational, Perceptual & Behavioural from outside to inside. Poteus recognized existence of (a) phenomenal environment (physical objects) (b) the personal environment (perceived images of real environment) (c) the contextual environment (culture, reli ion, beliefs). Developed as dissatisfaction from models of spatial science. The important proponents were Kirk, Tuan, Sauer, Vidal, Lowenthal, Wright. Woolridge claimed that historical geography must see countryside through the eyes of the farmer. Later John Wright introduced the term 'Geosophy' as a part of his contention that geographical knowledge is part of mental stock of all humans. Lowenthal tried to study goal motivations of a person & how he acts. Kirk became popular later. However the term 'Humanistic geography' was coined by Yi Fu Tuan in 1976. Tuan explored 5 themes of general interest to geographers viz (a) Geographical knowledge (b) Territory & place (c) Crowding & Privacy (d) Livelihood & Economics (e) Reli ion. Also called Empericism. It is anti-idealism. It excludes normative questions. It has been criticized by realists, Marxists, existentialists, behaviouralists. Pro onents: Au uste comte , BJL Be , David Harve , William Bun e. It is an action oriented approach & led to the development of applied eo ra h . It is modified form of Positivism. 75
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    Ghanshyam Thori 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1. 2. 3. 4. Functionalism Existentialism Idealism Realism Probabilism Marxism Historicism Post Modernism Welfare A roach Areal Differentiation Locational Analysis Regional Synthesis System Anal sis Geography Notes Pro onents: Pierce Used by Jean Brunhes. Very popular these days e.g. Mumbai, Tatanagar can be ex lained on the basis of the functions the erform Emphasizes that man is responsible for making his own nature. It emerges to challenge & even abandon purely objective, quantitative & deterministic anal sis. It is the stud of bio ra h of landsca e. It is in opposition to naturalism & materialism. According to this, it is possible to reconstruct logical sequence of thought of another person. Pro onent: Leonard Guelke It says reality exists independent of the mind. It is opposite to idealism. Close to positivism but different methodology. Positivists ask 'how' & realists - 'why'. Proponent: Gibson, Cook Wilson (Naive Realism), T.P. Nunn (New/Critica1 realism). Postulated by Spate. It said that although physical environment does not determine human actions, it does make some res onses more likel than others. Developed against capitalism. Main concern is social issues. Pro onent: David Harve Chronolo ical descri tion. I nores s atialit Recent movement in humanities, philosophy, arts & social sciences. It developed in reaction to historicism in modern geographical thought. Its distinguishing characteristics are: Skepticism towards the grand claims & grand theor of the modern era & their claim to intellectual su eriorit . Issue like poverty, regional imbalances, slums etc are its focus Pro onents: David Harve , D. M. Smith. Other Geo ra hical Paradi ms Coined by Hartshorne in his Nature of Geography. It is concerned with areal variation of human & physical phenomena. It helped in the reconstruction of "re ional eo ra h ". It is also known as "Chorolo or "Choro ra h Focuses on spatial arrangement of phenomena. Its purpose is to build accurate generalizations, models & theories. It is based on positivism. Pro onents: Bun e, Mc Cart , Ha et, Morril, Chorle , Cox, Harve , Johnston The whittlesey committee on regional geography which drafted the document on regional geography published in James & Jones (1954) defined region as 'Any segment or portion of the earth's surface which is homogeneous in terms of such an areal rou in Framework for investigating the structure & function of a system. Environmental Perception & Behaviour (After Downs) 76
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    Ghanshyam Thori Value System Perceptual Filters Image Decision Perceptual Receptors Geography Notes Information Real World Behaviour Conventional Model of Man-Environment Relationship (Boulding) Environment Image Miscellaneous Facts Behaviour 1. 2. 3. 4. Ritter & Humboldt both died in the year 1859, the same year in which Darwin published his "Origin of Species". Greeks are often given credit for their monopoly in speculation. Mathematical geography attracted most of the Arab geographers. Ibn Batuta described Morocco as having best climate. Busching belonged to the Political Statistical School. Leyer suggested the natural boundaries for regional studies. The idea of German-centered Europe was given by Nauman. Kjellen was one the most famous Swedish political geographer. The use of natural geography rather than political boundaries for the description of regional geography is known as Reine Geography. Bauche initiated this approach, Getterer divided the whole world into natural 77
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. regions. Hommeyer implemented this approach & Zeune brought more sophistication in it in that he delimited regions even on the basis of climate, vegetation, etc. Peter Kropotkin & V.V. Dokuchaiev were important geographers of the Russian school of thought. The Cultural or social determinism popular among American geographers. Edward Ullman is a strong proponent of this theory. Schaefer (1953) in his paper titled, "Exceptionalism in Geography" in which he criticized exceptionalists & asked geographers to adopt methodology of scientific positivism. Hartshorne met this criticism by writing, 'Perspectives on the nature of Geography' in which he stuck to his chorological concept of Geography. The result was adoption of nomothetic approach in geography. Areal Differentiation is also known as "Chorology" or "Chorography". Voluntarism is one of the latest approaches in geography which states that human mode of life depends upon his interaction with his environment. It considers man as a modifier of nature. 10. The heartland (or Pivot Area) theory was given by Mackinder. Heartland referred to Eastern Europe. Mackinder considered the eastern & western side of the Atlantic to be complimentary to each other. 11. The Rimland theory was given by Nicholas Spykman. Rimland referred to the rimland of Eurasia. This theory considered that the key to the supremacy of the world lies in a combination of land power & sea power. 12. Froebel was a staunch opponent of the Comparative method. He said that no one place or mountain can be compared with others as they are not alike. He also rejected teleological view. 13. Marco Polo was an Italian. Bartholomew Diaz, was a Portuguese navigator who discovered Cape of good hope. Columbus was Italian & Vasco de Gama was Portuguese. Balboa (Spanish) crossed the Isthmus of Panama & became the first European to see the Pacific. James Cook (England) made three Pacific Voyages: First to Tahiti, second to New Zealand & third to Hawaii. Francis Champlain established Quebec City as the first French colony in Canada. Magellan & Francis Drake took the journey of the whole world. 14. The term 'Compage' was use by Whittlesey means a total region is distinguished by a community of feeling among its inhabitants as well as by all features of the physical & biotic environment. 15. L.D. Stamp carried out the land utilization survey in Great Britain. Torsten Haggerstand developed the stochastic model apart from spatial diffusion of innovation & migration studies (Sweden). 16. Genre de vie means genre of living i.e. same pattern of living. Regional synthesis is associated with B.J.L. Berry who wrote 'Approaches to regional analysis: A synthesis'. Teleology is opposite to causal explanation. 78
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 17. Topophilia was coined by Yi-Fu Tuan to denote all the effective ties & love of a human being for his material environment. 18. Edward Ackerman was an American geographer who encouraged his students to take up quantitative approach wrote, 'Where is the research frontier'. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Chorochromatic Choroschematic Isopleth Choropleth Dot Ma s Flow Ma Various Types of Maps Ma s in which different colours are used to show distribution Maps where pictures of various phenomena or commodities are used. E.g. a car de icts automobile roduction. Also called isarithmic maps. Used for representing rainfall, temperature & ressure data. Technique of representing quantitative data by means of varying densities of shades in single colour. In it administrative area gets primary importance unlike isopleth where distribution is primary. Used for o ulation densit distribution, cro in intensit etc. Re resentin absolute numbers on ma Flow line used to re resent mi ration, trade, traffic etc. Accurac Accurac Accurac Accurac Accurac of Size of Sha e of Direction of Distance/ Scale of Area Ma Pro •ections E ual area or ortho ra hic ro•ection Orthomo hic or true sha e ro•ection Azimuthal or Zenithal ro•ection E uidistant Homolo ra hic On the basis of nature of develo able surface Zenithal Pro •ections Conical Pro •ections C lindrical Pro•ections Conventional Pro •ections Obtained with the hel of a lain develo able surface Obtained with the hel of a conical develo able surface Obtained with the hel of a c lindrical develo able surface Obtained without develo able surface — mathematicall On the basis of oint of tan ent E uatorial Case Polar Case Oblique Case Gnomonic Stereographic Ortho ra hic Develo able surface touches the lobe at e uator Develo able surface touches the lobe at oles Developable surface touches the globe anywhere between the poles & the e uator. On the basis of source of li ht When the source of li ht is at the center of the lobe Source of light at the antipode to the point of contact of develo able surface Source of li ht at infinit Azimuthal or Zenithal Projections 79
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    Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Zenithal Gnomonic Polar case Stereographic or Azimuthal orhomorphic Projection (polar case) Zenithal orthographic Projection (polar case) Zenithal Equidistant Projection Zenithal Equal Area projection (polar case) Geography Notes Plain developable surface acting as tangent at the poles when source of light. The distance between parallels increases away from the poles. Equator cannot be shown. A lication: small areas around the oles Source light at antipode. Distance between parallels of latitude increase away from the centre but the increase is less in comparison to gnomonic projection. Hence exaggeration away from pole is lesser. Entire hemisphere can be shown. The scale away from the center increases along both parallels & meridians but the proportion of increase in case of both is almost equal & this results in maintaining correct shape (orthomorphic) A lication: Navi ational& olitical ma s of hi h latitudes Light at infinity. Distance between parallels decrease away from the pole. Directions from centre are correct as in all azimuthal projections. Scale along parallels is correct in Zenithal orthomorphic projection but along the meridians it is distorted. Both shape & size distorted away from centre. A lication: Distribution Ma in hi h latitude, Astronomical ma s Non Perspective projection. Parallels are equispaced. Areas away from centre are exaggerated A lication: Ma s between 50 & 90 de ree latitude. Also known as Lamberts Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. Distances between parallels decrease away from the equator. Distance along the parallels increases rapidly moving away from the centre but the exaggeration is compensated by shortening of distance along the meridians. The area therefore remains correct. A plication: Distribution ma s. Conical Pro •ections The circle along which the cone touches the globe is known as the standard parallel. The source of li ht is su osed to be at the centre of the lobe. In all the ole is re resented b an arc of circle. 1. 2. 3. Simple conical with one standard parallel Conical with two standard parallels or Lamberts conformal conical projection Bonne's Projection or Conical Equal Area Projection The standard parallel is divided to draw the lines of meridian. Scale is true only along the standard parallel the other parallels being incorrect along their length. Scale is true along central meridian by construction & other meridians by being radii of same concentric curves. Area is true in a narrow zone on both sides of the standard parallel. Pole is different from centre of parallels. A lication: bounda between USA & Canada. It is not a perspective projection as a cone can touch a globe only along one standard parallel. Parallels are equispaced. Scale is true along meridians. Between the standard parallels the distances are represented shorter than the actual distances & outside greater. Application: Trans-Siberian railway, area with great east to west but relativel smaller latitudinal distance In this all parallels are standard parallels as all are true to scale but for the purpose of construction, one standard parallel is selected (usually centre). The central meridian is a straight line while others are smooth curves. The scale is correct onl alon the central 80
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    Ghanshyam Thori 4. 5. Polyconic Projection Conical Equal Area with one standard parallel Geography Notes meridian & along others it is exaggerated. The degree of exaggeration increases from the central meridian. It is an equal area projection but it is not orthomorphic. Application: Europe, North America, Australia. Not good for Asia because of lar e east west extent. Not used for Africa. Assumption of a number of cones, placed over the globe in such a manner that each one of these cones is tangent at a different parallel All parallels are drawn as standard parallels & representation is correct along them. The parallels are arcs of non-concentric circles & each of the parallels is drawn from a different centre. All meridians except for central are smooth curves. Application: Basis of International projection (World Toposheets) Countries with lar e north south but small east west extent Also called Lamberts conical equal-area projection. It is similar to simple conical with one standard parallel but the scale along the meridians in this projection is not correct. The exaggeration of the scale along the scale along the meridians is made good by proportional minimization of scale along the meridians. The parallels are all concentric circles but unequally spaced from each other. Meridians are all straight lines. Scale is correct along the standard parallel but exaggerated along the rest. Application: Distribution Maps in middle latitudes (as Equal Area). Can be used for a relativel lar e countr like India. C lindrical Pro •ections While both conical & Azimuthal projections can be drawn for a single hemisphere, the cylindrical ro•ections are drawn for both the hemis heres. 1. 2. 3. Simple Cylindrical or Cylindrical Equidistant Cylindrical Equal Area Projection Mercators projection or cylindrical orthomorphic projection Non perspective. Meridians are drawn true to scale. All the meridians are straight lines & their length is equal to half that of the equator. Both parallels & meridians are equally spaced. The equator & the meridians are true to scale. Scale along the parallels is increasingly exaggerated going away from equator A lication: Narrow stri alon the e uator Non Perspective. Orthographic projection. Equator is true to scale but none of the parallels & meridians is true to scale. It is based on the principle of reduction of scale along the meridians in proportion to the exaggeration along the parallels. Meridians are equispaced but the distance between parallels decreases away from the equator. The scale obviously increases more & more along the parallels away from equator. A lication: Distribution ma s because of e ual area. Developed by Gerhard Kramer or Mercator. Meridians are equispaced. The distance between parallels increases towards the poles. It is based on the principle of exaggerating the scale along the meridians in the same proportion as it increases along the parallels. It maintains the accuracy of shape of areas. Poles lie at infinite distance from the equator & so cannot be shown. A lication: shows Euro ean countries lar er than their actual 81
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes size & hence popular among British cartographers. Making charts of sailin routes b use of reat circle & loxodrome. A loxodrome is a line of constant bearing that intersects all meridians at the same angle. A loxodrome is also called a rhumb line. Such a line is represented by a straight line on Mercator's projection. Therefore the great circles are represented by straight line on mercators projection. Transverse Mercator ro•ection is also known as Gauss Conformal Pro•ection. 1. 2. 3. 4. Sinusoidal or Mercator Samson-Flamsteed projection Mollweide' s Projection or Babinets Equal surface projection Gall's Projection Globular Projection Conventional Pro •ections The projection is an equal area one. It might be considered as a special case of Bonne's projection with equator as the standard parallel. Equator & parallels are shown as straight lines. The central meridian is a straight line while others are sine curves. Parallels are equispaced. The scale is true along the equator & the parallels but in case of other meridians there is an increasing exaggeration away from the central meridian. Application: Showing continents extending in the equatorial re ions & also in middle lat. Not suited much for whole world. Equal area projection. Parallels are straight lines & meridians are elliptical in shape. Parallels are not equidistant & the distance between them decreases towards the poles. The meridians 90 degree E or W of the central meridian form a circle. The scale is not true along the equator. The maximum distortion of scale occurs at equator & polar areas. Application: Distribution map, Whole world represented better than sinusoidal ro•ection. It is a stereographic cylindrical projection quite akin to Mercators but it is different in that it is not orthomorphic. The distance between the parallels is reduced to avoid too much exaggeration of areas towards the poles. The cylinder is thought to cut the sphere along the 45 degree N & S. Therefore 45 N & S are true to scale. So from these two latitudes, scale along the parallels decreases towards the equator & increases towards the poles. A lication: General u ose world ma s on sin le sheet. Meridians are drawn at equal distance along the equator. One degree of longitude along the equator & one degree of latitude along the central meridian are the same. It just depicts one hemisphere i.e. 90 E or W & not complete globe. The area of the central art is sli htl lesser than real & vice versa. 82
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Miscellaneous Facts Maps are more accurate than plans. Comparative scale has two scales with different units with their zeros aligned. Diagonal scale facilitates reading fractional distance. Maps drawn with a scale smaller than 1: 1,000,000 are small scale maps & with greater scale large scale maps. Most of the wall maps & atlas maps are small scale maps. Topographical maps of India are published by the f, Dehradun at scales like 1:50,000 & 1:25,000. The topographical maps are based on International Sheets (4 degree lat. x 4 degree long.) that are prepared at a scale 1:1,000,000. Cadastral maps have a scale around 1:5000. Maps can be enlarged or reduced using grid method, triangle method (for linear feature) or using Pantograph (works on the principle of parallelogram). The most accurate is photographic method. A thematic map shows the spatial distribution of one or more specific data themes for standard geographic areas. The map may be qualitative in nature (e.g., predominant farm types) or quantitative (e.g., percentage population change). In case of an overhanging cliff contour lines intersect. In case of a waterfall or vertical cliff the contour of different values might meet. Contours drawn on the basis of estimation are shown in the form of broken lines called form lines. Hachures are broken lines drawn in the direction of slope & they are less accurate than contours. Higher the intensity higher the slope & vice versa. Hythergraph is a type of climograph showing mean monthly wet bulb temperature & relative humidity. Developed by G. Taylor. NE (scorching-low humidity & high temperature), NW (Muggy -temperature & humidity both high), S.W (Raw-low temperature & high humidity) SE (Keen — humidity & Temperature both high). Hythergraph 83
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    Ghanshyam Thori Raw Geography Notes Keen Humidity 8. 9. Wind rose is a diagram to show the frequency & direction of wind where frequency is proportional to radii. Block piling refers to piling of cubes to represent desired numbers. Pictographs represent the data by drawing symbolic pictures (e.g. drawing car for automobile production). 10. If a portion of the ground is cut vertically along a certain straight line, the side view of the cut forms a profile. When a number of profiles are drawn separately & arranged in a column representing a series from one end of the map to other, it is known as serial profiles. If all the profiles of a series of profile can be traced to a single frame it is called superimposed profile. In projected profile, the superimposed profile is modified in such a way that the portion of each profile which comes below the succeeding one is omitted (or rubbed off), Projected profiles thus show only those features which are not obstructed by higher intervening forms. Composite profiles only depict the ruggedness of the skyline. It is constructed to represent the surface as viewed in the horizontal plane of the summit-levels from an infinite distance. (Refer P-22 ensemble for diagram). The areas obstructed in a profile are known as dead ground. 11. In triangulation once the base line is determined, its end are used to measure the angle to a distant point using theodolite. Then using trigonometry the lengths of the two unknown sides can be determined as length of baseline & angles are known. 12. The bearing is the angular distance of an object from the magnetic north measured in a clockwise direction. The prismatic compass is used for measuring the bearing. 13. Spherical surface is undevolopable while cylindrical, conical, & a plane surface are developable. 14. Molleweid's projection is based on the principle that a circle drawn with the minor radius of an ellipse occupies half the area of the ellipse with the same minor radius & the major radius twice the size of the minor radius. Aerial Photography, Remote Sensing & GIS 84
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Gaspard Felix Tournachon took the first aerial photograph. Wilbur Wright took the first aerial motion pictures over Centocelli, Italy. Radar is an example of active remote sensing sensor. Passive remote sensing sensors include photographic camera, Return Beam Vidicon, Electro-optical scanner, Imaging spectrometer. A photographic film can record over wavelength range about twice as broad as that of human eye (.3 to .9 microns). The diaphragm determines the size of the opening for exposure & shutter determines the exposure time. In most of the aerial cameras the distance between their film plane (v) & the lens is precisely equal to the focal length (f) of the camera as l/u in the lens formula becomes almost negligible because of large distance between the lens & the object on the ground. The factors affecting the exposure measurements (extraneous effects) are divided into two types, geometric & atmospheric. Exposure falloff is an effect due to which a ground scene of spatially uniform reflectance does not produce spatially uniform exposure in the focal plane. Instead exposure is maximum at the centre & decreases towards the edges. Vignetting refers to internal shadowing resulting from the lens mounts & other aperture surfaces within the camera. Relief displacement is directly proportional to the height of the object & inversely proportional to the flying height above the ground. A fast film requires lesser exposure time but it consists of large film grains which limit spatial resolution. Radiometric resolution refers to the smallest difference in exposure that can be detected on a given film analysis. Radiometric resolution is inversely proportional to contrast in an image. Due to this a higher contrast film is capable of resolving smaller differences in exposure. The term remote sensing originated at the Willow Run laboratories of the University of Michigan, USA. TIROS (Television infra-red observation satellite) from which the first satellite TV image was taken. Cosmic rays, Gamma rays & X rays cannot be registered with remote sensing methods. Most of the remote sensing methods work with visible, infra-red & micro-wave region. The non-blocked spectral regions are called atmospheric windows (.4 — 3.0 micron, 3 — 5 micron, 8 — 14 micron). Specular Diffuse or Lambertian Most of the earth's features are neither perfectly specular nor diffuse. The specular reflections do not contain spectral information, while spectral information is obtained in case of diffuse reflections. Hence in remote sensing diffuse reflectance properties are more important. 85
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 9. The reference data is called ground truth. GPS system consists of 24 satellites each of which revisit the same track & configuration at an interval of approximately 24 hours. Master control facility is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. 10. Spectral reflectance is a measure of the portion of the incident energy that is reflected. A graph of spectral reflectance of an object as a function of the wavelength is known as spectral reflectance curve. S ectral Reflectance Curve Dry bare soil {Gray-brown) 60 40 Vegetation {Green} Water (Clear} 0.6 0.8 1-2 2ro 2.2 2.4 2.6 Wavelength {gm) 11. Aerial photographs give 3D view. Photogrammetry refers to the art & science of obtaining reliable measurements from photographs. Aerial photographs are of following types: Vertical (less than ±3 degree tilt), Oblique ( > ±3 tilt — in low oblique horizon does not appear & vice versa), Convergent (low oblique photograph taken from two cameras such that they form stereopair), Trimetragon (3 cameras — one vertical & other two at 60 degree from vertical). 12. The point of intersection of the optical axis of the camera with the photo plane & the ground plane are photo principal point (p) & ground principal point (P) respectively. Point vertically below the perspective centre (camera lens) on the ground is called the ground nadir point or plumb point (N). The point of intersection of the bisector of the angle between the camera axis & the vertical with the photoplane is called as the photo isocentre (i). In case of vertical photograph all these points coincide. 13. Fiducial or collimating marks are located at the corner or in the middle of the edges of a photograph so that by joining them one can't locate the principal point. The scale of a photograph is given by the relationship f/H (f is focal length & H is flying height). Aerial photographs are small scale (< 1: 50,000), medium scale to & large scale 86
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 14. Parallax is the apparent change in the positions of stationary objects solely due to change in the point of observation. 15. Indian Air Force, Air Survey Co of India Ltd., Kolkata, NRSA, Hyderabad are the only authorized organizations to carry out aerial photography. Normally vertical aerial photography is carried out with 60- 80 % forward overlap & 25-40 % lateral overlap. 16. The first GIS was built by Canada. Most GISs use either a raster (grid cell) or vector (polygon) format to represent location. A coarse cell size needs less data storage space but is less accurate & vice versa. The raster data provides a greater computational efficiency particularly in overlay analysis. But the spatial resolution is limited to the size of the cells comprising the raster. Most commercial programs allow introversion. Vector data formats have relatively small data volumes. Most of the digital remote sensing data is collected in raster format. 17. A geostationary satellite remains stationary with respect to earth (36000 km altitude). A sun synchronous or polar orbit is such that the satellite passes over the same ground track at the same local time each day. A near polar retrograde orbit with altitude between 300 & 1000 km satisfies this condition. The advantage is global coverage but disadvantage is missing of diurnal effects. Most of the remote sensing satellites are sun synchronous. 18. The first Indian satellite Aryabhatta was launched in 1975. Bhaskara I & Bhaskara Il in 1979 & 1981 respectively. APPLE was also launched in 1981. S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Year 1988 1991 1995 1997 1999 2003 2005 Indian Remote Sensing Satellites Satellite Launched IRS-IA launched. LISS-linear ima in self scannin device. IRS-IB launched. Carried into space by SLV-3 an Indian rocket IRS-IC. WiFS - wide field sensor. IRS-ID using Indian rocket PSLV-CI. Oceansat (IRS-P4). Carries Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) & a multi-frequency scanning microwave radiometer (MSMR) used to measure chloro h Il concentration, turbid water. Resourcesat-l Cartosat-l (IRS-P5). It has stereo-imagery which can be used for di ital terrain model (DEM) & di ital elevation model. Sensor LISS 1 & LISS 11 LISS 1 & LISS 11 LISS 111, PAN, WiFS LISS 111, PAN, WiFS OCM MSMR LISS IV, AWiFS PAN-F, PAN-A 19. NRSA is the only agency which acquires & archives data for sale & distribution. Management of Indian resources is under National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS). 20. APPLE was India's first geostationary satellite used for conducting communication experiments. 87
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 21. LANDSAT-I was launched in 1972. LANDSAT series have orbits between 705 km & 920 km. The sensors used are MSS (multispectral scanner), RBV (return beam vidicon), and ET M (Enhanced thematic mapper). 22. SPOT (France) has HR V (high resolution visible) & V MI (vegetation monitoring instrument) sensor 23. ERS (European remote sensing satellite), JERS (Japanese earth observation satellite), Radarsat (Canadian remote sensing satellite) are other programmes. 24. Multispectral imaging means simultaneous imaging using more than one wavelength. Light waves are scattered by particles in the atmosphere whose sizes are similar to the wavelength of light. 25. Theodolite uses a vernier scale for measurement. Geodetic surveys measure large regions of the earth's surface & therefore take into consideration the curvature of the earth. They are used for establishing lines of latitude & longitude. 26. Ergograph shows temperature, humidity, rainfall, acreage of crops & their growing season. 27. Contrast ratio is the ratio between the brightest & the darkest parts of the image. 28. Digital image processing consists of image restoration (removal of data errors, noise etc), enhancement (alter the visual impact) & information extraction image Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelen th in centimeters Fre uenc in Hz Re ion Gamma Ra X-Ra s Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Microwave Radio s -9 < 10 107-109 -5 0.01 -7 x 105 10 - 0.01 > 10 88 > 3 x 1019 3 x 1017-3 x 1019 7.5 x 1014-3 x 1017 4.3 x 1014 - 7.5 x 1014 3 x 1012 - 4.3 x 1014 3 x 109 -3 x 1012 < 3 x 109
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    Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Cape York Peninsula Kanto/Kwant0 Plain Un ava Peninsula Odessa Far East Indo-China South East Asia Middle East Dee est Lake Lar est manmade lake Irrawad river Mekon river Red River Salween River Macao Isle of Man (U.K.) Harbin Bandun Sa oro Kra Isthmus Larut Plain Bangka 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Geography Notes Miscellaneous Geo ra hical Features Northern Australia to the east of Gulf of Carpentra. Weipa (Bauxite) also lies in the same eninsula on the Ca en The lar est area of flat land in Ja an com risin Tok o & other cities. Canada — East of Hudson Ba & south of Baffin Island. Leadin ort of Ukraine in North Black Sea Ja an, Korea, China & Taiwan India, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam & Laos Myanmar, Malaysia, Thialand, Singapore, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Indonesia, Phili innes. South west Asia & North Eastern E t. Lake Baikal Lake vol a Flows into ba of Ben al Drains into South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Gulf of Martaban. Administrative re ion of China, on China's southeastern coast Midwa between the coasts of Northern Ireland and En land Ca ital of Heilon • ian rovince Java (Indonesia). Hokkaido Narrowest oint on the Mala Peninsula, in Thailand Maia sia Island lying east of Sumatra, Indonesia. Famous for Tin mining & se arated from Sumatra b Ban ka strait. PO ulation b Continents (in millions) Asia Africa Euro e North America South America Australia World Po .5 billion 1 billion 2 billion 3 billion 4 billion 5 billion 6 billion 3879 877 727 501 379 32 ulation Milestones 1650 1820 1927 1960 1974 1987 1999 89
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Yorubas Taure s Karen Hmon Arawaks Lumbabshi Wankee Kasia Rustenber Mt. Tom Price I swich Hubei Kansu (or Gansu) Da in Dakan Chauk Aswan Dam Kariba Dam Kain•i Dam Bo oma Dam Tribes Ni eria Sahara M anmar Known in China as Miao and in Southeast Asia as Meo. Native eo le of the Greater Antilles. Famous Minin Re ions Co er Coal Diamond Platinum Iron Ore Coal & Li Coal Bauxite Crude Oil Crude Oil Crude Oil nite Zaire Zimbabwe Zaire S.Africa Australia (Hamersle Ran es) Australia (Near Brisbane) China China China (Heilon •ian rovince) China B urma Aksombo Dam (Volta Dam) Victoria Falls Owen Falls Stanle Falls 1m Famous Dams/Falls Nile Zambezi Zaire Volta Zambezi Lake Alberta (White Nile) Zaire ortant Industrial Centres Zambia & Zimbabwe Ni eria Con o Ghana Zambia & Zimbabwe U anda Con o 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Muroran Birmin ham Houston Windsor West halia Shen an K oto Milan Turin Lei zi Sarnia Akron Chelyabinsk Iron & Steel Iron & Steel Oil Refine Automobile Iron & Steel Iron & Steel Handicrafts & To s Textile Automobile O tical Insruments Oil Refine S nthetic Rubber Iron & Steel 90 Hokaido, Ja an U.K. USA Canada (on Detroit river) German China (Pittsbur of China) Ital Ital German Canada (East of Michi an) South of Lake Erie (Ohio) North of Magnitogorsk
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    Ghanshyam Thori 14. Na 0 a 15. Multan Shi Buildin Potter 1m ortant Lakes Geography Notes Pakistan (E of Gan ana ar) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Denmark Estonia Finland France German Greece Ital Norwa Portu al S ain Sweden Lake Tana Lake Alberta Lake Assal Lake Biwa Lake Za san Lake Tonie Sab Lake Toba Pindhos Mountains Dinaric Al s C athians Balkan Mountains Rhodo i Mountains Mato 0 Hills Ethio ia. Source of Blue Nile. Not formed b rift valle Border of U anda, DRC Sudan Ethio ia border. Lowest oint of Africa Ja an's Lar est lake near Na o a Kazhakstan Cambodia Sumatra (Crater) Mountain Chains Greece Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia Herz., Serbia & Montene ro Slovakia & Romania North of Rhodo i Mountains in Bul aria Bul aria South western Zimbabwe United Kingdom Nelson Kol ma Olenek Don Pechora Liao Fraser Loire Dau ava Neman River Islands & the Controllin Nation Bornholm, Faeroe Islands, Greenland Hiiuma, Saarema Aland Islands Corsica, Martini ue, Reunion, Ker uelen (North of Antactica) Hel oland Crete, Sardinia, Sicil Svalbard Azores, Madeira Balearic Islands, Cana islands Gotland Isle of Man, Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands, Western Isles, South Sandwich , Falkland Island, Ascension Island, Bermuda. Rivers & Countries Issuin from NE of Lake Winni e & flowin to Hudson Ba N-E Siberia Nothern Siberian re ion Fourth lar est in Euro e. Rises near Tula & flows to Sea of Azov Rises in Urals & flows into Arctic Liaonin rovince of China British Columbia (Canada). The Ion est river in France Rises in Russia, Belarus, Latvia & then into Gulf of Ri a S ain Belarus & flows into Baltic Sea 91
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    Ghanshyam Thori Ebro Garonne James River Waikato Merrimack Geography Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. Bass Strait Torres Strait Cook Strait Dardanelles Strait Davis Strait Juan de Fuca Strait Kerch Strait Mackinac Strait Ma ellan Strait Makassar Strait Messina Strait Sunda Strait Bonifacio Strait Dover strait So a Strait Tsushima Strait Tsu aru Strait Kii Strait Strait of Otranto Strait of Hormuz Strait of Tiran Tsu aru Strait Johor Strait Gulf of C entera Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Lion Gulf of Martaban Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Tonkin Gulf of Mannar S encer Gulf Gulf of Bo Hai S ain S ain Vir inia, United States New Zealands Ion est river N. E. United States. Some 1m ortant Straits & Gulfs Australia & Tasmania Australia & New Guinea North Island & South Island in New Zealand Ae ean Sea & Sea of Marmara North Atlantic Ocean and Baffin Ba , NE Canada Washin ton and southern Vancouver, Canada Sea of Azov & Black Sea Lake Michi an & Lake Huron South American mainland & island of Tierra del Fue o Borneo & Sulawesi. Ital & Sicil Java & Sumatra Corsica Island (France) & Italian island of Sardinia (south). En land & France. Connectin En lish Channel & North Sea. Sakhalin to the North & Hokkaido to the south. Korea & K ushu Hokkaido & Honshu Honshu & Shikoku Connectin the Adriatic with the Ionian Sea. Ital Persian Gulf & Gulf of Oman Gulf of A aba to the Red Sea. Between Hokkaido & Honshu. Sin a ore & Mala Peninsula Ca e York Peninsula & Arnhem Land Arm of Baltic Sea between Finland & Sweden. Arm of Mediterranean Sea in Southern France South of M anmar. Salween flows into it. North of Lib a. Inlet of Mediterranean. South of China & East of Vietnam & Greece. India & Srilanka. Tambraparni from India & Aruvi Aru from Srilanka flows into it. East of Adeilade. West of Korea. Tropic of Cancer Equator Imaginary Lines & the countries through which they ass Hawaii, Mexico, Bahamas, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Libya, Chad (northern most point), Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Taiwan Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Congo, DR of Con o, U anda, Ken a, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia, and Kiribati. 92
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    Ghanshyam Thori Tropic of Capricorn Strait of Gibraltar Senegal River Geography Notes Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, French Polynesia, Australia, Mada ascar, Mozambi ue, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia Niger River Volta River Atlantic Ocean Rivers of Africa Mediterranean Sea aenue River Congo River a River VVhite Suez Canal Gulf of Aden Nil Victori Lake Tanganyika Zambezi River irnpap River Orange River Nyasa Indian Ocean @EnchantedLearning.corn Chan ed Geo ra hical Names Aur an abad Dutch East Indies East Timor Quilon Sai on Sandwich Islands Tan •ore Greenland Sambha•i Na ar Indonesia Loro Sae Koliam Ho Chi Minh Cit Hawaii Islands Than avur Kalaallit Nanaat 93
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Sorbi uets 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Britain of the South Cit of Eternal S rin Great White wa Island of Fire Land of Marble s Land of Mornin Calm Land of Pe etual Greene Never Never Land Pearl of the Orient Power Ke of Euro e Quaker Cit Queen of the Adriatic Queen of the Arabian Sea Venice of the East Venice of the North White Cit White Man's Grave World's Loneliest Island S ice Garden of India The Sea of Mountains The S ice Island of the West Geor e Cross Island Pillars of Hercules Garden Province of South Africa New Zealand Quito Broadwa , New York Iceland Ital Korea Natal Prairies of North America Hon Kon Balkans Philadel hia, USA Venice Kochi Ala uzha, India Stockholm Bel rade, Yu oslavia Guinea Coast Tristan da Cunha Kerala British Columbia Grenada Malta Gibraltar Natal Miscellaneous Facts: 1. 2. 3. 4. Congo River is also known as River Zaire. Altai Mountains extend from the headwaters of the 0b' and Irtysh rivers in southern Siberia in Russia, into Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and into Mongolia. The mountain range extending from northern California to British Columbia is called Cascades. Mt. Rainier near Seattle is its highest point. The loftiest mountain range in USA is Sierra Nevada. The Cambrian mountains are located in Wales. Giants Causeway is located on the coast of northern Ireland. It is thought by geologists to have formed when an ancient lava flow cooled and solidified. The major peninsulas of Russia starting from west to east are Kola peninsula, Kanin peninsula, Y amal peninsula, Gyda peninsula & Taymyr peninsula. 94
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Buryat Republic lies north of central Monglia. It is the homeland of buryats. The deserts of Western Australia from North to South are Tanami Desert, Great Sandy desert, Gibson desert & Great Victoria desert. Simpson desert lies in the central region north of L. Eyre. San Diego city lies in the extreme southwest corner of California just above Mexico. Las Vegas lies in Nevada state & near Mojave Desert. Wellington, Capital of New Zealand comes under West European type of climate. In New Zealand the southern island is more developed compared to the northern. In china type of climate precipitation is around 100 cm & well distributed throughout the year. Marine west European climate experiences rainier winters than summers. The climate of steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 30 cm of rain every year. The world's largest zone of steppes is found in central Russia and neighbouring republics of Central Asia Langley is a unit equal to one gram calorie per square centimeter of irradiated surface, used to measure solar radiation 10. Baotou is in inner Mongolia, China & is known for iron & steel complex. Caracas, Capital of Venezuela comes under monsoon type of climate. Sao Paulo has China type of Climate. Adelaide has Mediterranean type of climate. 11. Khyber pass in Pakistan is located in the Hindu Kush range. It links Peshawar in Pakistan with Jalalabad in Afghanistan, where it connects to a route leading to the Afghan capital of Kabul. The route of the Bolan Pass links Quetta in Baluchistan Province with Kandahar in Afghanistan. Peshawar, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Gujranwala & Lahore are from north to south in N. Pakistan. 12. Peurto Rico Trench is the deepest in Atlantic. 13. Liechtenstein, independent principality in central Europe; bounded on the east by Austria, and on the south, west, and north by Switzerland. Malta is an independent republic, south of Sicily. San Marino, republic in southern Europe, an enclave in northern Italy 14. Irtish River is the longest in the world & has its source in Altai Mountains Russia. 15. Montego Bay is in Jamaica where the Sea Law Treaty was signed. 16. Rio de la Plata is the estuary formed from the combination of Uruguay River & the Parana River. 17. Andesite line marks the boundary between continental shelf & continental slope. Indian Ocean was known to the Greeks as Erythraean sea. 18. Zambia is an important producer of Copper & Zimbabwe is known for gold. Qeshm is the only island of Iran & lies in the strait of Hormuz. It is the biggest island in the Persian Gulf. 95
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 19. A person born in Puerto Rico is a US citizen. Atlantic Ocean is the roughest of all oceans. Its coastline is larger than those of Pacific & Indian Ocean put together. It receives more fresh water than any other ocean. 20. Prague is situated on the bank of river Vltava. Madrid (Manzarenes), Dublin (Liffey) & Rotterdam (Rhine, Maas & Scheldt). 21. Tuaregs are the tribal people of the Sahara. They speak a Berber language called Tamarshak. 22. California (Sunkist), Spain (Seviue), Tangier (Tangerine), China & Japan (Mandarin) are the various varieties of oranges. 23. Pustaz are temperate grasslands of Hungary. The cattle kept by the Masai are the 'zebu' cattle. 24. Big Inch (Gulf of Mexico to NE US), Tap Line (Gulf & Arabian Peninsula to Mediterranean) & COMECOM (Urals & Volga to East Europe) are some of the important pipelines. 25. Birmingham is the second largest city in Britain. Aztecs & Mayas were flourished both in Mexico & surrounding regions. Incas were in Peru & the Andes. Polygon of Drought in Brazil is the NE region. 26. Oil is found in Venezuela (Lake Marcaibo), Iraq (kirkuk, Mosul, Basra), S. Arabia (Ghawar, Dharan, Abaqaiq), Chechnya (Grozny), Russia (Sakhalin), Nigeria (Port Harcourt). Yadavaran is the largest is Iran's largest on shore oilfield. 27. Mt. Logan is the highest peak of Canada. Mt. Toubkal is the highest peak of Atlas mountains. 28. Antwerp is the chief port and second largest city of Belgium. Kaohsiung (Southern Taiwan) is among the top five busiest sea ports of the world. 29. Mexico is the leading producer of silver, sulphur & fluorite. Denver is the capital of Colorado. Hudson Bay is the world's largest inland sea. 30. Brazil shares its boundary with all except Chile & Ecuador. The highest active volcano in the world Mt. Ojas del Salado (Argentina Chile is in the Andes). 31. Trans Andean Railways connect Buenos Aires & Valpariso. European transcontinental railway runs from Paris to Warsaw. Orient express runs from Paris to Istanbul. The Canadian Pacific railway runs from Saint John in New Brunswick to Vancouver on the pacific coast. Canadian National Railway runs from Vancouver to Halifax 32. Blue Nile originates from Lake Tana in Ethiopian Island & White Nile From Lake Victoria. White Nile & Blue Nile meet at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. 33. Port Said (Mediterranean) is towards North & Port Suez towards south (Red Sea). 34. The northwest countries of Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia are together called the 'Maghreb' which in Arabic means west. Oil Palm is an important agricultural product of Nigeria. 96
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 35. Botswana is the worlds largest producer of gem quality diamonds (jewellery diamonds). 36. Liberia is the largest producer of coffee & rubber in Africa. 37. Scandinavia applies to Norway, Sweden, Denmark & sometimes Iceland. Baltic states include Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. Mont Blanc is situated on the French-Italian border. 38. Bavaria is the largest state of Germany & Munich is its capital. Kalinangrad is a part of Russia but separated from it by Lithuania. 39. The Baltic is connected with the North Sea by the Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (the Kiel or Kaiser Wilhelm Canal). Murmansk is the only ice free port along the arctic ocean route to Vladivostok. 40. Two important varieties of Eucalyptus in Australia are Jarrah & Karri. 41. New Zeland generates 7 % of its energy from geysers. The highest peak of the country is Mt. Cook. 42. Amu Darya forms a part of the border between Afghanistan & Turkmenistan. The enormous desert that covers Turkmenistan is Karakum. 43. The Euphrates originates in Turkey & flows past Syria & Iraq before meeting the Tigris. The joint waters of Tigris & Euphrates are called Shat-al-Arab. The Tigris also originates from Turkey. 44. Hokkaido is connected to Honshu across Tsugaru strait by an under sea tunnel. Kurile Islands lie to the NE of Hokkaido & separate the sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific. 45. The top 5 countries in terms of Hydro power potential are China, Brazil, CIS, Canada & India. While the top 5 in installed capacity are USA, Canada, China, Brazil & Norway. 46. Chimborazo is the highest extinct volcano & lies in Ecuador. 47. Botswana has the highest prevalence rate of AIDs while South Africa has highest absolute number of AIDS patients followed by India. 48. The great channel separates the Andaman & Nicobar Island from Sumatra. 49. Hammerfest, town in Northern Norway is the northernmost town of Europe. Stromboli is known as "the light house of the Mediterranean". Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. 50. Granite rock is metamorphosed into schist rock. 51. Grand Coulee dam (USA) is on Columbia river & Cobora Basa Dam (Mozambique) is on Oragnbe river. Hoover Dam (USA) is on Colorado river. 52. Mixed farming refers to sowing two or more crops in mixture in the same field. Multiple cropping means the planting of two or more different crops on the same acreage for harvest within the same crop year. 53. Liverpool, city in northwestern England, on the Mersey River, near its mouth on the Irish Sea. 97
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 54. The following features are arranged in increasing geological age East African rift, Gulf of Aden, Atlantic Sea & Mediterranean sea. 55. The Pantanal is the world's largest freshwater wetland in Brazil. Pripet marshes are large wetlands along Pripet river in Belarus. The Great Okefenokee Swamp is the largest swamp found in all of North America. 56. The Bie Plateau occupies most of central Angola & the Okavango river rises here. Huila plateau lies to its south. 57. The top 5 wind power generating countries are Germany, Spain, USA, India & Denmark. 58. A geyser erupts intermittently. Hot springs are more common than geysers & the former are not explosive in general. 59. Tibet is enclosed between Kunlun to the North & Himalayas to the south. Takla Makan desert, Tarim basin & Turfan basin all lie between Tien Shan range to the north & Kunlun to the south. 60. Strato Cones (Cotopaxi), Dormant Volcano (Vesuvius), Shield Volcano (Mt. Kilavea, Mt. Etna), Composite cone. Examples of composite volcanoes include Mount Fuji (Japan), Mount St Helens (USA) and Mount Pinatubo (Philippines). 61. Cayman Trench, also called Bartlett Deep is a spreading ridge on the floor of the western Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and the Cayman Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. 62. The Russian cities from NW to SE are St. Petersburg, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky near Kazan), Magnitogorsk. Later from west to east Omsk, Novosibirsk, Novokuznetsk, Irkutsk, & Vladivostok. 63. Rostov (Gateway to Caucasus), St. Petersburg (largest port of Russia), Ivanovo (Machester of Russia) & Nizhny Novgorod (Detroit of Russia). 64. Mt. Rainier, Mt. Hood, Mt. Shasta are from North to South in NW USA. Polland is the world most polluted country. 65. The Cocos plate lies to the west of Panama in the Pacific north of Nazca plate. Caribbean plate lies east of Panama in the Carribean region. Scotia plate lies to the south of South America. 66. Dead Sea, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Nyasa are all rift valley lakes but Lake Victoria is not. Mangala dam is in Pakistan over river Jhelum. Tarelad Dam, the earth's larges earthern dam is in Pakistan. Columbia plateau is volcanic in origin. Ozark plateau is domed. Tibetan plateau is intermontane. The Finger Lakes are glacially formed lakes in upstate New York. Cayuga is the longest of the finger lakes. 67. Azores, Bermuda, Canary Island & Cape Verde Island is the sequence from North to South. 68. White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian sea lie in that order from west to east. 69. In Bangladesh when Tista joins Brahmaputra it is known as Jamuna. When later Ganga joins the combined river is called Padma first & Meghna further downstream. 98
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 70. The mountain peaks in the Himalayas of Nepal going from west to east is Mt Api (W. Nepal), Mt Dhaulagiri, Mt Annapurna, Mt Manaslu (Central Nepal) & Mt Gaurishankar, Mt Everest, Mt Makalu & Mt Kanchenjunga (E. Nepal). Mt Pidurutalagala, the highest point in Sri Lanka. 71. Albania, Macedonia & Bulgaria lie to the North of Greece. Biskra depression is in Algeria. 72. Fremantle Doctor is a cooling afternoon sea breeze which occurs during summer months in coastal areas of Western Australia. The Guba wind occurs along the Papua coast (South of Papua New Guinea). 73. Forests cover 64 percent of Japan's land area & it is one of the world's largest importers of wood. The most densely populated province of Canada is Prince Edward Island. Klamath mountains are in California. 74. The lakes in Canada from North to south are Great Bear, Great Slave, Athabasca, Wollaston, Reindeer & Winnipeg. The cities of Canada along the St. Lawrence from North to South are Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton & Windsor. Sudbury lies to the north of Lake Huron. 75. Halifax (Nova Scotia), St. John (New Foundland) & Saint John (New Brunswick) are in Canada. The centre for steel industry in Canada is Hamilton. The city of Toronto is the largest in Canada followed by Montreal & Vancouver. 76. Basque people live along the Pyrenees in Spain. The Gap between the Pyrenees & the Central Massif is called the Belfort gap. The physical feature of France from North to south are Ardennes, Vosges, Jura & the Alps. Bohemian Forest is a highland region, rising mainly along the border between the Czech Republic and Germany, and also in Austria. 77. The southernmost of Japanese islands is Ryuku which lies to the south of Kyushu & North of Taiwan. Nagoya is the Detroit of Japan. Kitakyushu (Northern tip of Kyushu) is a conurbation of five cities. The most populous province of China is Sichuan. 78. Fushun, Shenyang (Formerly Mukden — Main industrial cluster of Manchuria) & Anshan are in that order from North to South all in Liaoning province. Lop Nor is famous for nuclear activity. Qaidam basin is to the north of Tibet plateau & to the south of Kunlun Mountains. 79. The Sea of Galilee is Israel's largest freshwater lake & lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second- lowest lake in the world after the Dead Sea. It is to the north of Dead Sea. 80. Ahaggar Mountains, also Hoggar Mountains, plateau region, southern Algeria, in the center of the Sahara. The major basin of Africa is El Djouf, now occupied by the Niger River Basin in West Africa. Karoo is a semidesert plateau regions in southern South Africa. Adamawa Plateau region, west central Africa, is in central Cameroon, extending into southeastern Nigeria and western Central African Republic. Futa Jallon, highland region in west central Guinea. Tibesti mountainous region of the central Sahara, in northern Chad, extending into northeastern Niger and southern Libya. 99
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    Ghanshyam Thori Landsca Ahazgar mateaa Djouf Bas im e of Africa TIE es Platea-l Futa J Ada.mnra Platea-l Great Kanto Saudi Arabia Medina RIYADH Geography Notes Ocean 0M idd Mecca UDAN Rivers of South America 100
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    Ghanshyam Thori Magdal Paraguay linoco Amazm Geography Notes Pæana Uruguay de la Plata Natural Landscape of South America Ori.mea Basin Llanos Mata Gn:ssa Gram C B asin China Provinces 101
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    Ghanshyam Thori XINJIANG Geography Notes HEILONGJIANG NEIMENGGU HEBE SHANGO G HAN XIZANG HENAN HIEEI SICHUAN HUNAN GUIZHO JIP, SU NGHAI NHI-I 2HEJl G ONG KONG GUANGXI United States Provinces North Nebrasb Kansas Oklahoma New NewYork Virønia lutnoås Missori -Tenræssee Missis$pi islana Iraq 102 Maqsa&u Rho& Isand NeN jersey Color-ado
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    Ghanshyam Thori TURK Masul IRAN SAUDI ARABIA S amarra BAGHDAD Karbala Al K.ut An Naiaf An Nasiriyah Al Basra XLJWÅ 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Physical Geography Various Geo ra hical Institutes H dro ra hic Biolo ical Commission Marine Biolo ical Association Research Institute of Marine Fisheries Coast & Geodetic Surve Geo ra hers & Contribution Tetrahedral H othesis Pear Sha ed earth deformation Conce t of succession, climatic climax, mono climax Conce t of POI climax Marine Sediments Geography Notes Scandinavia United Kin dom Canada United States Lowthian Green Jeans & Sollas Clements Whittaker s 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Zone of Ocean Continental Shelf Continental Slo es Continental Rises Dee Ocean Floor Percenta Oceanic Zones & T es of De e of Total Marine De osits 41 C/O osits Continental Mar ins Shallow Sea Bath 1 Re ion Ab ssal Plain Or anic Matter Sands, Silts Blue mud, Green mud Ooze 103
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 1. 2. 3. De osits & Percentage Area Occu ied Littoral & Shallow water De osit Dee Sea (Terri enous) de osits Pela ic ooze & Red Cia Terms used for Deserts Hamada Serir Debba Playa Salina Chott Bare rock or rock with a thin veneer of ebble (Arabic) Desert avement of loose stones (N. Africa) Desert avement of loose stones, coarser and older than re (N. Africa) Extensive sand lain (N. Africa) Vast re ion dee I covered with sand and to ed b sand dunes (N. Africa) Extremely flat, vegetation free area of silt or clay in the lowest part of a closed basin Pla a with saline water or ke t moist b risin roundwater Closed basin containin a dr lake or la a (N. African) Cirro Cumulus Cirrus Cumulus Altostratus Me atherms Mesotherms Microtherms Heskitotherms First order Second order Third order Fourth order Fifth order Sixth order Miscellaneous Facts: Clouds & Characteristics Mackerel Sk Mare's Tail (As the resemble horse's tail) Cauliflower Heads Water Look Terms E uatorial and tro iCal, tro ical rain forests Tro ical and sub tro iCal, tro ical deciduous forests Tem erate and hi h altitude Arctic and al ine re ions Landforms Classification Oceans, continents Mountain s stems, h Sio ra hic. Provinces Mountain ran es, ma•or valle s Volcanoes, fault blocks, valle s Cinder cones, deltas, la a lakes Sand dunes, terraces 1. 2. 3. The eastern regions of humid subtropical areas receive rainfall throughout the year like equatorial regions. Isotherms are irregular but closely spaced in Northern Hemishpere. Alpha centauri is also known as Proxima Centauri. Asthenosphere lies above mesosphere. Ox Bow lake is a characteristic of the river in its old age. Steam fog occurs when cold air blows over warmer waters & Advection fog occurs when moist air blows over cold surface. The only gas, not uniformly distributed over the entire atmosphere is ozone. 104
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    Ghanshyam Thori 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 17. Geography Notes One nautical mile is equal to 1.85 kilometers & one mile is equal to 1.6 kms. Albatross Cordillera is in Pacific ocean. Prince Edward Crozet ridge & Amsterdam — St. Paul Plateau are located in the Indian ocean. Lakshadweep-Chagos ridge, St. Paul ridge, Amsterdam-St. Paul plateau divide the Indian ocean into almost two basins. Emperor Seamount chain is in the Pacific Ocean. The maximum width of the continental shelf is off the arctic coast of Siberia. The deepest continental shelves surround Antarctica. In most of the areas the continental shelf is formed by constructive ocean. The evolution of mid-Atlantic ridge can be dated back to Pliocene age. Continental shelf has maximum depth of 200m. Continental slope has a depth of about 3600 m. Abyssal hills have height of 1000 m & guyots are 1100 m high. Zaire canyon is riverine, Canyons of south California are dendritic, Canyons of Bering Sea are the largest & Oceanographer canyon is small gorge. 10. Atlantic Ocean has the maximum percentage of continental shelf area followed by Pacific & Indian. 11. Red clay deposit is widely found in Pacific Ocean. Pteropod is found mainly only in the Atlantic ocean. Radiolarian & Diatom ooze can be found at greater depth than Pteropod & globigerina ooze because siliceous ooze are less soluble while calcareous oozes are easily soluble. 12. A zone in which the density of water increase with increasing depth is called Pycnocline zone. 13. Silt is smaller in size than sand but larger than clay. Pebble is smaller than cobble. 14. Salinity of ocean is a function of latitude. Gulf of Bothnia records the lowest salinity of less than 2 %. 15. Lower the salinity higher is the freezing point. 16. Kiel Canal shortens the distance between London & Kaliningrad. C horizon is not a part of mineral horizon. The dominant species of an ecosystem are more prone to climatic changes. Trasnfromation process of pedogenic regime includes humification & mineralization. Entisols are also highly productive in some regions. Chelating agents are associated with the process of podzolization. 18. Climate & biotic factors are active soil forming factors whereas time, topography & parent rock are passive. The transition zone between two ecosystems is called ecotone. Allelopathy is a phenomenon in which toxins produced by one species inhibit the growth of other. 19. USDA soils & their zonal equivalents are: Vertisols (grumusols), Mollisols (Chernozem), Spodosols (Podzols) & Alfisols (Degraded chernozems). The loess serves as an ideal parent material for chernozem soils. 105
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 20. Soils & the vegetation supported are: brown earths (deciduous forests), podzol (heath forest), chernozem (steppe grasses), grumusol (savanna grasses). Tropical heath forest, also known as Kerangas forest, is a type of forest found on the island of Borneo, especially in Brunei. 21. The types of humus in terrestrial environment are: mor, moder & mull. Mor is a type of humus, which occur largely in coniferous forest soils and the moorlands soils. This humus arise under conditions of low- biological activity in soil. Moder is a transitional form of humus between mull and moder, characteristic for sod-podzolic soils, loesses and mountain grassland soils. Mull is a type of humus characteristic for chestnut soils & arises under grassland conditions. Mull is well humified organic matter. The favourable pH for the growth of cereal crops is 6.5. 22. Climax (community) which is the hypothetical optimal community that would eventually develop under ideal conditions and without human interference. If climate dictates the nature of this community we describe this as a climactic climax whereas if the soil conditions limit the type of climax that develops we speak of an edaphic climax (E.g. Savannah). Where there has been some interference that degrades the climax we say that secondary succession has occurred and if we now view this secondary community as on its way back to the climax we can refer to this as a sub-climax. 23. Aestivation refers to the state of inactivity adopted by desert animals during the hottest & driest season. The oldest animal fossil has been found in Zambia. 24. Devonian period is the age of fishes. Ambhibians & reptiles evolved during carboniferous period. 25. Sun Spots are cooler areas of the sun. The dark lines in corona are called 'Fraunhofer lines'. 26. For an earthquake at a particular spot the shadow zone of P-waves invariably exist between 103 & 143 degree form the earthquake focus. 27. The variation of wind with elevation through the friction layer is represented by an equi angular spiral known as the Ekman spiral. Beaufort scale ranges from 0 to 12. 28. Saturn is known as Jewel Planet & Venus as veiled planet. 29. Primary waves can change into secondary waves under certain conditions due to refraction. Surface waves or long period waves cover the longest distance of all seismic waves. Focus is also known as hypo centre. Essential Extra Reference: How to Calculate the sun's latitude at solstice for various latitudes. World Population Data (K. Siddhartha —Ensemble-Appendix —Geo of India-page 13) Isostasy, Map references. 106
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    Ghanshyam Thori S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Geography Notes Geography of India To States b Area & PO ulation Area Ra•asthan Madh a Pradesh Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Gu arat Karnataka Orissa Chattis arh PO ulation Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar West Ben al Andhra Pradesh Goa is the smallest state by area & Sikkim is the smallest in Population. Andamans & Nicobar is the biggest UT by area & Delhi by population. Lakshwadee is the smallest UT both in o ulation & area India's World Rank in Various Commodities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ll. 12. 13. 14. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I rank Banana Buffalo Milk Castor Beans Fresh Fruit Gin er Goat Milk Jute Lentils Man oes Tea S ices Pulses Seaseme Seed Pi eon Peas Kudremukh Aliabet Bailadila Gurumahisani Bal hat Kora ut Kolihan Kodarma Il rank Oil Seeds Garlic Cauliflower Cashew Nuts Lemons & Lime Rice Wheat cow Milk Fresh ve etables Su ar Cane Dr Onions Groundnuts in shell Famous Ores of India Iron Ore Offshore oil field Iron Ore Iron Ore Co er, Man anese Bauxite Co er Mica 107 Ill rank Coconuts Tobacco Leaves Potatoes Cotton seed Ra e Seed Sor hum Karnataka Gulf of Kambhat Chattis arh Ma ubhan•, Orissa M.P (Malankhand) Orissa Ra• asthan Jharkhand
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    Ghanshyam Thori 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Loharda a Gumla New Moore Kacchativu Mandav Hills Rarh Plains Bauxite Bauxite Various Geo ra hical Features Geography Notes Jharkhand Jharkhand Mikir & Ren ma Hills Dudma Falls Thekkadi Sanctuar Cambar•ua Canal Sirhind Canal U Doab Canal Ham i Keibul Lam •ao Pulicat Lake Gohana Lake Wular & Dai Lake Harike Ashtamudi Deltaic Island & disputed site between Bangladesh & India Fishin area leased to Sri Lanka arat. North of Gir Hills. West Ben al. Assam Machkund river, Orissa. Kerala Goa Sutle• Ravi Karnataka Onl floatin national ark in Mani ur Loktak lake. Barred b Ion sand it — Sri Harikota Island. Situated near Dev ra a in Garhwal Formed b tectonic forces of faultin Wetlands of India Bho• Kabar Kan•i Koileru Nalsarovar Pichola Renuka Sasthamkotta Pun ab Kerala Madh a Pradesh Bihar Pun •ab Andhra Pradesh Gu arat Ra• as than Himachal Pradesh Kerala Chandi arh Maharashtra Sukhana I-rni Sind Sa ar Doab Jech/Che• Doab Bari Doab Rachna Doab Jalandhar/Bist Doab Doabs of India Indus & Jhelum Chenab & Jhelum Beas, Ravi & Satiu• Ravi & Chenab Sutle• & Beas Famous Beaches of India 1. 2. 3. 4. Go al ur & Chandi ur beach Bheemuni atnam beach An •una, Calan ute & Ba a beach Ahmed ur Mandvi Beach 108 Orissa Andhra Pradesh Goa Gu arat
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    Ghanshyam Thori 5. Karwar, Ma le beach 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. A ri-lm orts ve etables Oil Pulses Cashew Nuts Fruits & Other Nuts Milk & Cream Batura lacier His ar lacier Skamri lacier Biafo lacier Baltora lacier Siachen lacier Sona ani lacier Gan otri lacier Milam lacier Pindari lacier Ramban lacier Khumbu lacier Zemu lacier 72 % 14 c/o 9 070 Glaciers Karakoram ran Karakoram ran Karakoram ran Karakoram ran Karakoram ran Karakoram ran Karnataka A ri Ex orts Marine Product Rice Wheat Fruits & Ve etables Tea Geography Notes 7% 6% 5% e (Extreme J & K now in POK) e (Extreme J & K now in POK) e (Extreme J & K now in POK) e (Extreme J & K now in POK) e (Extreme J & K now in POK) e (Extreme J & K now in POK) Pi an•al re ion Kumaon-Garhwal re ion (Uttaranchal) Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Kanchen •un a-Everst re ion Mt. Everest re ion Kanchen •un a-Everest re ion (Sikkim) Forestr Research Institutions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Institute of Rain & Moist Deciduous Forests Institute of wood science & Technolo Tro ical Forestr Research Institute Institute of Forest Genetics & Tree Breedin Tem erate Forest Research Institute Centre for Forest Productivit Centre for Social Forestr & Environment CAZRI Natural Gas Based Projects Jorhat Ban alore Jabal ur Coimbatore Shimla Ranchi Allahabad Jodhpur 1. 2. 3. 4. Dahe• Power Pro•ect Pata Petrochemical Pro •ect UsarLPG ro•ect Lakwa LPG ro•ect Gu arat U.P. Maharashtra Assam 1. Miscellaneous Facts: Largest SC community is chamar. The rainiest period for Tamil Nadu is October-November & not December-January. Shola is a type of high-altitude stunted evergreen forest found in southern India mainly in Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu. India has monopoly in the production of Lac. 109
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    Ghanshyam Thori 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Geography Notes Rama's Bridge, Nala's Bridge or Adam's Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. The Pamban Bridge also called Indira Gandhi Bridge lies on the Indian end of the Palk Strait that connects Rameswaram island to mainland India. Banbasa wild life sanctuary is in U.P. The largest tiger reserve in India is Nagarjuna Sagar — Sri Sailam tiger reserve. Rivers of East India from North to south are Damodar, Subarnarekha, Brahmani-Baitrani & Mahanadi. The rivers of Peninsular India from North to south are Krishna, Penneru, Palar, Cauvery & Vaigai. The major tribes who inhabit the mountains of Kerala are Kanis, Uralis, Kadar, Kanikkar, Paniyar etc.. They are considered to be the descendants of the Negrito race. Even the Angami Nagas & the Badgis of the Rajmahal Hills in Bihar belong to the Negrito race. The largest permanent migration of the Indian outside the country in the last century was associated with the sugarcane plantations. Vishakhapatnam is the deepest port. Kolkata is riverine port. Kandla is tidal port. Mumbai is biggest port. Nava-Sheva (JLNP) is the busiest port. Kadam project is in Andhra Pradesh & Gurusoppa project in Karnataka. 10. Bheraghat falls (Narmada), Sivasamudram falls (Cauvery) & Hundru falls (Subarnarekha) 11. Tungabhadra water dispute (A.P. & Karnataka), Krishna Water dispute (Maharashtra, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh). 12. The major fishing harbours of India are Cochin, Madras & Vishakhapatnam 13. The following steel plants are in order of decreasing capacity: Bhilai, Durgapur & Burnpur. 14. Kerala coast is an example of emergent coast. Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh; Sasthamkotta Lake in Kerala are important. 15. In 2001 census, the proportion of children population to total population was the least among jains & the sex ratio was the least among sikhs. 16. The correct sequence of ranges/hills in peninsular plateau region from north to south is Garhjat Hills, Balaghat range, Palkonda range, Cardamom hills. 17. Valmiki Tiger reserve & Kabar Lake bird sanctary are in Bihar. Ujni wetlands is in Maharashtra & Deeper Beel wetlands in Assam. Shahpur Kandi irrigation project is in Punjab & Teesta Barrage in West Bengal. Kanheri National Park (Maharashtra) & Chandaka National Park (Orissa) 18. India is divided into five seismic zones. Zone I is most secure & Zone V being most vulenerable. Aluminium plants are located near source of power & not near raw material. 110
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 19. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under ravines. Aliabet is the largest island in the estuary of the Narmada. 20. Kanthi coastal plain is in West Bengal & Nadhra plain is in Eastern Ghat. 21. Saddle Peak (North Andaman), Mount Thuiller (Great Nicobar), Mount Diavolo (Little Nicobar) & Mount Ford (Rutland Island). 22. Amarkantak plateau has radial drainage pattern. Garland canal project connects the rivers of east & west India. 23. Assam shares its boundary with seven other Indian states, Mizoram with three states & Tripura with 2 states. Both M.P touches 5 states & Chattisgarh touches 6 states. UP touches 8 states. 24. Total number of India states that form international border with the neighbouring countries is 17. Five Indian states have common border with Bangladesh. 25. In India the international boundary shared with different countries is Bangladesh (4096 km), Pakistan (3310 km), Myanmar (1458 Km). 26. Tso-morari is a huge mountain lake in Southeast Ladakh. Kolleru Lake is a large freshwater lake in India's Andhra Pradesh state. Ashtamudi Lake (Ashtamudi Kayal) is in Kollam district of Kerala state in south India. Ashtamudi Lake is designated a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention. 27. Highest point is Singapore is Timah Hill. Lake Wular is the largest freshwater lake of India. Loktak lake is formed due to faulting. Vembanad Lake due to offshore bar formation in backwaters of Kerala. 28. Brahmaputra River has maximum surface run off while Ganga has maximum catchment area. 29. The name of Pench National Park, M.P. was changed to "Indira Priyadarshini Pench National Park". Orissa coast is mainly depositional in character. 30. Zojila pass is from Srinagar to Ladakh. Western ghats were uplifted in the Cenozoic period. 31. Tropic of Cancer passes through the following 8 states - Gujarat, Rajasthan, M.P, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura & Mizoram. It does not pass through Orissa. 32. The most prominent India-Bangladesh border issues are the Tin Bigha Corridor, Muhuri Char and New Moore ( or South Talpatty/ Purbasha island). 33. Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) comprised 16.2 percent and 8.1 percent respectively of the total population, according to Census of India 2001. 34. Indian board of wildlife is headed by Prime Minister of India. Gulf of Kutchh is a coral reef area. 35. Ragi, Bajra & Jowar are the three most important millets produced in India. Groundnut, rapeseed & mustard are the most important oil seeds produced in India. India imports 40 % of its oilseeds needed. 111
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 36. U.P, Punjab & Rajasthan are the top 3 milk producing states in India. In terms of sheep population Rajasthan ranks number one. 37. India is divided into 35 meterological sub divisions. IMD defines normal monsoon year as the rainfall between june-september is within plus/minus 10 per cent of the normal figure of 88 cm for the whole country. 38. The Pangong Tso (largest in Himalayas) & Tso Moriri lakes are in J & K region. Gurudogmar in Northern Sikkim is the highest lake. 39. Port Blair is located on South Andaman. Biggest island on Andaman & Nicobar island is Middel Andaman. Highest point in the whole island is Saddle Peak on North Andaman Island. Narcondam island lies to the north of Barren Island, both being to the east of Andamans. Mallamalai hills, Palakonda range (both in A.P), Javadi Hills & Shevaroy Hills, Panchamalai hills, Sirumalai hills, Varushnad Hills in the eastern ghats (all 5 in Tamil Nadu) are in that order from north to south. Nilgiris (Extreme west TN), Annamalai hills & Cardamom hills from north to south in western ghats. 40. Moran river drains into Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar in Uttar Pradesh. Chandor Hills lie to the west of Ajanta range in Maharasthra. To the south of Ajanta range lies Balaghat. Rajmahal Hills lie in NE Jharkhand, forming the NE edge of Chhotanagpur plateu. Ramgarh hills lie in North Chhattisgarh & Bastar plateau in south Chhattisgarh. Dandakranya overlaps Bastar plateau. To the south of Satpura range lies Mahadeo hills & Gawilgarh hills. Rayalseema uplands lie to the south of Telangana plateau. 41. Pondicherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Pondicherry, Karaikal (Tamil Nadu) and Y anam (A.P) on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé (Kerala) on the Arabian Sea. 42. zoji La (J&K) Bara Lacha, Shipki La (H.P) Thag La, Niti & Lipu lekh (Uttaranchal) in that order form NW to SE. 43. Mountains (11 %), Hilly region (18.6 %), Plateau (27 %) & Plain area (43 %) of total india's area. Sectoral Consumption of electricity is Industrial (35%), Agriculture (31%), Domestic (21%) & Commercial (6%) 44. The east coastal plain is known as Northern Circars between Mahanadi & Krishna & Carnatic between Krishna & the Cauvery rivers. 45. Rectangular drainage pattern (Kosi & its tributaries), Superimposed pattern (Damodar & Chambal), Radial pattern (Amarkantak & Kathiawar region). 46. The maximum number of National Parks is in M.P & maximum sanctuaries in Andaman & Nicobar 47. Peaty & organic soils are found in Kottayam & Alappuzha districts of Kerala where they are called Kari. Tidal or Littoral forests occur around the deltas, estuaries. 112
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 48. Bananas, Mango & Citrus are the top three fruits by production. Potato, tomato, onion & cabbage top in vegetable production. 49. Tamil Nadu & Gujarat (Lamba, Okha, Mandvi) lead in the production of wind power. A tidal power plant is located at Durgaduani creek in Sundarbans, West Bengal. 50. The Isobar of 1018 millibars runs through the Indo-Gangetic plains during January & it becomes 1000 millibars in July. Dharwar (Archaean), Cuddapah (Proterozoic) & Vindhyan (Paleozoic) rocks are in that order from old to new. 51. Some important minor ports of India are: Okha, Porbander, Veraval (from north to south in Gujarat), Talasseri (Kerala), Naganipattnam (Tamil Nadu), Kakinada & Machilipatnam (N to S in A.P.). 52. In religious communities, Christians have the highest sex ratio (1009) & Sikh the least (893). Sex ratio in Muslims is (936) higher than that of Hindu (931). 53. Talpatty Island and Purbasha Island is disputed territory between Bangladesh and India. Kalipani region between India & Nepal. Quatern Island is disputed among India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Sir Creek between Pakistan & India. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Essential Extra Reference: Million Cities of India, 2001 Greater Mumbai 19 Kolkata Delhi Chennai Ban alore H derabad Ahmadabad Pune Surat Kan ur Jai ur Lucknow Patna Indore Vadodara Bho al Coimbatore 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Ludhiana Kochi Visakha atnam A ra Varanasi Madurai Meerut Nashik Jabal ur Jamshed ur Asansol Dhanbad Faridabad Allahabad Amritsar V fa awada Ra•kot 1. Map of India for various important cities location important. Just refer political & physical map given at the beginning of oxford atlas. See Mineral Maps of India too. 113
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    Ghanshyam Thori 2. Cities in India & their industry (E.g Firozabad glass), Cities situated on river banks. River Basins of India Geography Notes AFGHANIST PAKISTAN Luni_Basvn Arabiån Others Indus Basin S9iTLij G.aihga B Bas Godavan Basin Krishna Basin NEPAL Sågar ahanaciiBas Ch'fi DRAINAGE & RIVER BASINS TIBET ahmapvfra Basip BHVTAN_/ an' ut B in al gay af Legends Basin Boundary Sub-gazin Basin MYANMAR (BURMA) Easin- Palar Portriäi Cauvery Easi Easi Vembana GUT FulÆ-ut SRI Map not lc scale Copyright 0 2006 Oompare Infobase Pvt. Ltd. OCEAN 114
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    Ghanshyam Thori Cenozoic Tertia Period Mesozoic Paleozoic Pre-Cambrian Geography Notes Physical Geography Geolo ical Period Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian 10,000 1.6 million 5 million 24 million 38 million 55 million 65 million 138 million 205 million 240 million 290 million 360 million 410 million 435 million 500 million 570 million Cultivated lants Human beings. Indo-Gangetic plain, Thar desert, Rann o Kachchh, Karewas o Kashmir Horses, A e like man, U er Siwaliks A es develo ed Early horses, first Apes & Monkeys. Uplift of Central Himalayan Axis (First Phase) Grasses Small Mamals Flowerin lants increased, Deccan Tra s Birds (Archaeopteryx), flowering plant-angiosperms first a eared. Named after Jura Mountains Dinosaurs Seed Plants, Hercynian Oro eny Re tiles, Am hibians, Fish (in order) Corals, First fish, Caledonian Oro en First fish with Jaws, First Terrestrial Insects. Gra tolites Tribolites Vindhyan, Cuddapah, Dharwar, Archean systems, Aravallis Rocks Intrusive I neous rocks Extrusive I neous rocks Felsic rocks Metamorphic rocks Foliated Metamo hic Diorite, Granite, Gabbro (intrusive basalt) Pe matite & Periodotite. Andesite, Rh olite (extrusive ranite), Basalt Quartz, Felds ar Hornfels, Greenstone, Greenschist, Amphibolite, Granulite, And Eclogite Facies, Marble, Quartzite, Schist, Slate, Gneiss Slate, h Ilite, schist, and neiss (Formed b Re ional Metamo hism) Non Foliated Metamo hic Marble, Quartzite, Hornfel (Formed b Contact Metamo hism) Sedimentary rocks Oolite (type of limestone) Shale, Sandstone, Conglomerate, Ironstone, Travertine (light-coloured concretionary limestone), Evaporite, Coal 1- Pegmatite has composition of granite & has very large crystals indicating very slow cooling. 2- The most common metamo hic rocks are neiss & schist. Metamor hic rocks Ori inal rock Limestone Sandstone Shales Shales or Cla Granites or con lomerates Metamor hic rock Marble Quartzite Schist Slate Gneiss 115
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    Ghanshyam Thori Shale Gabro Geography Notes Ph Ilite Se entine Volcanic Cones Cinder/Ash Cones Com osite Cones Parasite Cone Basalt Cone Effusive Eru tion Ex losive Volcano Mt. Jorullo & Mt. Paricutin (both in Mexico), Mt. Izalco (San Salvador) Most of famous volcanoes. E Vesuvius, Coto axi, Mt. Ma on (S.E Luzon Is.) Mt. Etna (Sicil ) Ran itoto Kilauea (most active volcanic crater, Hawaii) Mt. Pinatubo (Central Luzon, Phili ines) Nue Ardentes is a characteristic feature of Mt. Pelee & Mt. Katmai (valle of ten thousand smokes) Westerly Polar Jet Stream Westerly Sub-Tropical Jet Easterly Tropical Jet Jet Streams Located above the polar fronts between latitudes 300 & 700 N with core between 6 to 9 Km. Not continuous but found in both hemispheres. Present throu hout the ear Located above subtropical highs between 20 & 50 N with core between 9 & 12 Km. Located above the Asiatic summer monsoon between the equator & the 200 N with core between 14 & 16 Km. Found only in Northern hemisphere & confined to the Indian Ocean. Softwoods/Hardwoods Softwood/Conifers (G mnos erms) Pines, cedars, s ruces, larches, and firs Hardwood/Broad Leaved (Angiospersm) Oak, maple, beech, walnut, mahogany, teak, and balsa. Oceans Av. De th Dee est oint Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean 4280 m 3600 m 3900 m 1300 m Mariana trench (11000 m) Puerto Rico Trench (8600 m) Java trench (7700 m) Relief of the Ocean Basins Width % area S ecific % Area Feature Continental Shelf Continental Slope Dee Sea Plains De th ran e 100 fathoms Or 180m 200-2000 m 3000-6000 m 65 Km 8.6% 8.5 % Atlantic Ocean (13%), Pacific Ocean (6%) Indian Ocean (4%) Atlantic Ocean (12%), Pacific Ocean (7%) Indian Ocean (6.5%) Pacific (80.3%) Indian (80.1%) Atlantic (55%) • The Arctic continental shelf is widest. The avera e slo e of the continental slo e is about 40. Clint Grike Fetch Ph sical Geo ra h Terms An of the masses of rock left standin between fissures ( rikes) in a limestone re ion A fissure enlar ed b rainwater dissolution between limestone clints. Continuous distance that winds blow over a water surface 116
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes lacier Coulee Bolson Calvin Butte Stee sided valle carved b water from the meltin Term used for Pla as mainl in Mexico & SW USA. The formation of iceber s from a lacier. Isolated hill with stee sides and flat to , similar to but narrower than a mesa. Various Mediterranean Vegetation/Shrub-Lands Cha arral Tomillares Macchia Ph ana Bri alow shrub & Mallee Caatin a Ma uis Matorral Garri ue California S ain Mediterranean countries and South Africa Balkans Australia Brazil Euro e Chile France Desert Climate Mid latitude broad leaf Tem erate rain forest Conifers Tro ical Monsoon Tro ical Savannah Mediterranean Vienna Convention Montreal Protocol Basel Convention K oto Protocol Rio de Janeiro Stockholm Convention Rotterdam Convention Carta ena Protocol Forests/Biomes & their S ecies Sa uaro (s ectacular cactus tree - Arizona) Elm Redwood (or Se uoia) Arborvitae; Cedar; Cypress; Douglas Fir; Fir; Hemlock; Juniper; Larch; Pine; Se uoia; S ruce; Yew Teak, Sal Trees with flattened crowns. E. . Baobab Cork, Various Protocols Ozone La er Ozone De letin Substances Trans bounda movement of Hazardous Wastes Global Warmin Convention on climate chan e & biolo ical diversit Persistent Or anic Pollutants Prior Informed Consent rocedure for certain hazardous material Bio Safet Mean Elevation of Continents Antarctica Asia North America Africa South America Euro e Australia 1830 m 910 m 610 m 580 m 550 m 300 m 300 m 117
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    Ghanshyam Thori Miscellaneous Facts Geography Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Astronomers estimate that about half of all stars in the sky belong to either a binary or multiple star system. The planet Mars has a conspicuous river valley. The earth gets heavier each year because it picks up some dust from space. Longitudes unlike latitudes are not used for measuring distance because the latitudes are almost equally spaced. Slight flattening at the poles causes the length of a degree of latitude to vary from 110.57 km at the equator to 111.70 km at the poles. At equator, meridians of longitude 1 degree apart are separated by a distance of 111.32 km but at the poles, meridians converge reducing the distance drastically. The percentage of land surface in the northern hemisphere is maximum between 40 & 50 degree North. In the Earth the divisions are Crust (30-100 km thick), Upper mantle (100-700 km deep), Lower mantle (700-2900 km), Outer Core (2900-5150 km) & inner core (5150-6400 Km) The temperature at various depths is 11000 C (100 km), 19000 C (700 km), 37000 C (2900 km) & 43000 C (5100 Km). The Earths mantle comprises 66 % of its mass & 83% of its volume. The core forms 33 % of the mass & 16 % volume. The asthenosphere is made up of peridotite. The pre Cambrian shields are composed of granites & gneisses. The Ethiopian plateau is volcanic in origin & is largely composed of basalt. Patagonian Plateau (Piedmont plateau), South African Plateau (Continental plateau) & Bolivian plateau (Intermontane plateau). Shields are convex in shape. Lake Victoria Basin, Great Basin of Nevada & Tarim Basin are all rimmed by mountains. Feldspars are the most abundant of all minerals and account for nearly half of the volume of the earth's crust. Soapstone is also known as Steatite & is a massive variety of talc. Clay is porous but is impermeable. The capacity to transmit water is permeability & not porosity. 10. Gondwanaland, ancient landmass that consisted of the present continents of South America, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica as well as the Indian subcontinent. Bentley Subglacial Trench is the deepest point in Antarctic. 11. .Earthquakes with negative Richter scale magnitudes occur every day, but are so small that they are difficult to detect. The energy released by an earthquake increases 32 fold & the ground motion increases by 10 times for each increase of one magnitude on the Richter scale. It is estimated that a magnitude 12 118
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes earthquake would release enough energy to split the earth in half. The qualitative assessment of the damage done by an earthquake is expressed by intensity. 12. Folding cannot occur due to tension. However, faulting though primarily a result of tension may also occur due to compression. 13. Magnetic materials made of iron compounds lose their magnetic properties if heated beyond a certain temperature called Curie point. Submarine fans constitute a large part of the continental rises. Outgassing is the process which probably accounted for the surface waters. 14. An area of vegetation having uniformity of life form is called a biochore. Evergreen trees shed their leaves but not simultaneously. The succession may begin in an area where some natural disaster has caused removal of existing vegetation. Such a succession is called secondary succession. Where the succession starts in an area where the physical conditions required for plant growth are already present is called allogenic succession. When the succession starts in highly unfavourable conditions & the plants themselves have to create a suitable physical environment for themselves it is called autogenic succession. 15. Before the climatic climax vegetation evolves there are some stages of short term equilibrium between plants & the environment called Edaphic Climax. The profile of podzol soils is best developed. 16. An aquiclude is a body of relatively impermeable rock. An aquifer is called confined when it is bounded above and below by aquicludes or unconfined when there is no aquiclude above it. 17. The blue mud occupies the greatest area among the various types of mud. Green colour of green mud is because of mineral gluconite. Deep Sea regions are supposed to be more stable than tropical rainforests. 18. Conifers are named after cone shaped fruit bearing seeds. 19. When a succession starts at a dry place it is known as Xerosere; in case of wet place (Hydrosere). Vegetation succession resulting from man's interference is called Plagioseres. 20. Trees & their uses: Kapok (or Silk cotton tree — Pillows, Mattresses), Abaca/Manila hemp (ropes), Toquilla (Hats) & Balata (Marine cables). 21. Earth is a geoid. The period of twilight (diffused light that occurs before sunrise & sunset) increases as one goes towards the poles. The concept of primordial matter was given by Kant & the concept of intruding star was given by James & Jeans. 22. Lithosphere is around 65-100 Km thick. The granitic continental curst is lighter than the basaltic oceanic crust. P waves do reach the antipode & can pass through gas. S waves travel faster than surface waves. Basalt is one of the finest grained extrusive rocks. Basaltic magma is hotter than silicate magma. 23. Igneous rocks generally do not show layers. Among Igneous rocks crystals in intrusive rocks are larger than those in extrusive rocks. In some cases, the magma cools so rapidly that crystals have no time to 119
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes form, and the magma hardens in an amorphous glass, such as obsidian. Felsic rocks (more viscous) are light in colour & mafic rocks are usually dark. 24. In addition to lava flows, basalt is also found in the form of dikes and sills. Columnar jointing, as exhibited by Devils Tower in Wyoming and the Giant's Causeway in Ireland, is a common feature of these shallow intrusive bodies. 25. Surface currents in the Oceans are primarily caused by wind action. 26. Deposits of high-grade chromite ore found along the Great Dyke (largest dyke in the world) contribute significantly to Zimbabwe's reserves of the minerals. Stock is an intrusive mass of plutonic rock with an outcrop. 27. Anthracite is formed by metamorphism of bituminous coal. Marble is least affected by variations in temperature. Exfoliation is more pronounced in granite. The process of oxidation is most effective in hot & humid regions. The main cause of mass movement is gravity. 28. The term cataract, usually designating a series of rapids in a large river, is often applied to waterfalls of large volume. The term 'coulee lake' is associated with glaciers. A lake in the course of a river is termed as a transient lake. The part of the pediplain reduced in height due to erosion is called pediment. 29. The maximum load of a river moves in suspension. A river erodes its convex slope more than its concave slope. The presence of salt in the sea plays a vital role in delta formaton. The deposition of silt & sand in the course of a river is called diaras. 30. A dendritic drainage pattern tends to develop where a whole drainage basin is made up of the same type of rock (uniform lithology). Annular drainage pattern (Henry mountain), Parallel drainage (Norway coast), Trellis drainage (Appalachian) & deranged drainage (Canadian shield). 31. Yardangs have been called 'cockscombe' by Holmes. The Scottish lands are very close to the stage of peneplain. The largest number of lakes are in the Scandinavian region. 32. Metamorphic rocks are more compact than the original rocks & are more resistant to weathering. Lithification is the process of formation of sedimentary rocks through compression & cementation. 33. The largest division of geologic time is called an eon. Eons are divided into eras, which are divided into periods. An epoch, the next division, is further divided into stages. 34. The degree of inclination of a stream is known as its gradient. A stream gradient usually forms a convex shaped slope. The study of meteors helped in ascertaining the existence of ionosphere. The value of solar constant is 2 calories/cm /minute. The equatorial forests have one of the lowest albedo. 35. The warmest month in the northern hemisphere is july & the highest temperature is recorded at 200 N. The position of thermal equator is normally at 50 N. The highest annual range of temperature is recorded in the 120
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes Taiga region & the highest diurnal range of temperature is found in hot deserts (hot during day & cold during night). Strong centrifugal force contributes to the low pressure at equator. 36. The percentage cloud cover at any time in the world is around 50%. The standard air pressure at the sea level is 1013.25 mb which is equivalent to 760 mm of Hg. 37. The effect of Coriolis force is proportion to the speed of the moving object. Coriolis force causes the maximum deflection at the poles & decrease toward the equator where there is zero deflection. The wind blowing parallel to the isobars generally at a height of 600 m is known as geostrophic winds. Carribean sea experiences one of the strongest land & sea breeze. Stratus clouds create more problems for aeroplanes. 38. The southern oscillation index (SOI) is the difference in pressure between Tahiti in French Polynesia representing the pacific ocean & port Darwin in North Australia representing Indian Ocean. Positive SOI means higher Tahiti's pressure than Port Darwin pressure. It signifies good monsoon for India. 39. Saffir—Simpson Scale is used to measure hurricane intensity based on wind speed. Tropical cyclones do not occur in South Atlantic because during the summer season (January) its temperature is always below 250 C between 100 & 200 S. The ideal conditions for the development of tropical cyclone are western margins of tropical oceans. The correct sequence of clouds in a temperate cyclone would be cirrus, cirro- stratus, altostratus, altocumulus & nimbostratus. 40. The Atlantic Ocean has an average depth of 3,600 m (11,810 ft). At its deepest point, in the Puerto Rico Trench, the bottom is 8,605 m (28,231 ft) below the surface. The average depth of the Indian Ocean is 3,900 m (12,800 ft), or slightly greater than that of the Atlantic, and the deepest known point is 7,725 m (25,344 ft), off the southern coast of the Indonesian island of Java. Its average depth is 4,280 m 41. The passage of the cold front is often accompanied by the heaviest precipitation and the strongest and gustiest winds. Occasionally, however, a line of thunderstorms may develop, out ahead of a cold front. This line is called a squall line and it produces heavy rain and strong, gusty winds. Squall refers to a violent gusty wind which lasts a few minutes usually accompanied by rain or hail & then subsides. 42. Cold front is marked with triangular spikes & warm front by semi-circles. The isobars of a temperate cyclone are broad, shallow & weak. 43. Territorial waters extend up to 12 miles from shore. The EEZ extends offshore upto a distance of 200 nautical miles. The ocean outside EEZ is called high sea which is about 60 % of total oceans. 44.. Ninety-nine percent of the water in the oceans has a salinity of between 33 and 37 g/kg (Average is 35 gm/Kg). The halocline is the depth at which the salinity changes rapidly; it forms the boundary between the two layers. From 100 m to approximately 1,000 m the temperature drops rapidly to about 50 C, and 121
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes below this it drops gradually about another 40 to barely above freezing. The region of rapid change is known as the thermocline or Pycnocline. The highest temperature of oceans is recorded in the West Pacific ocean north of equator. 45. Spring tides occur twice a month (every 14.6 days) at New Moon & Full Moon when moon & sun are in conjunction & opposition respectively. Gibbous moon is one when 75 % of the moon is illuminated. 46. The series of moon cycle is New Moon, Crescent, First Quarter, Gibbous, Full Moon, Gibbous, Last Quarter, Crescent. 47. Seamount, is an undersea volcanic mountain that is at least 1000 m tall. Flat topped seamounts are called guyots. The Telegraph plateau extends from Ireland to Labrador. 48. The proportion of gases dissolved in water is Nitrogen (46%), Oxygen (36%) & Carbon dioxide (15%). The primary source of ocean's dissolved oxygen is its photosynthetic plants. Oxygen & Nitrogen are abundant near the surface & there is more carbon dioxide in deep water. 49. Quartz is a dominant mineral in ocean deposits. The sea water is slightly alkaline with it pH being 7.8. 50. Prop roots are associated with mangrove forests. The largest & longest algae (Kelps) is found along the Peru coast. Herbs do not have woody stem but shrubs have woody stem. 51. Corals are found mainly in the tropical oceans (temp around 20-210 C). They do not live in deeper waters (more than 80 m deep). Both sediment water & fresh water is injurious to them. Hence they are not found near river mouth. Salinity between 27-30 gm/Kg is suitable. Ocean currents & waves are suitable as they bring food supply for the polyps. El Nino is associated with coral bleaching (coral death). The south Atlantic has least coral formations. 52. The upper part of a soil profile, in which the soil-forming processes (illuviation & eluviation) mainly occur is called Solum. The arrangement of soil particles is called soil structure. The size & organization of particles in the soil in known as soil texture. The cohesion in soil is known as soil consistency. 53. As weathering forms soil in the humid tropics, iron and aluminum oxides filter downward, often resulting in a well-defined, cementlike layer of ferricrete or plinthite meters below the Earth's surface. When overlying sediments are eroded away, these layers form a rock-hard crust. 54.. The northern needle leaf forest is known as boreal forest. Temperate forests have one of the least number of species (lesser than Mediterranean & Monsoon forests). 55. Almost all known geysers are located in three countries of the world—New Zealand, Iceland, and the United States. The cause of Iceland having geysers is its situation on mid Atlantic ridge. 56. The number of tributaries decrease downstream & the river widens here. The size of the valley increases downstream. Ox bow lakes are more in the lower course than the middle course. A Barchan has an 122
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes asymmetrical profile concave on the leeward side & convex on the side of the wind. A Parabolic dune is opposite with concave side facing the wind. 57. Most of the jet steams blow parallel to latitudes & isobar as they are geostrophic. The wet adiabatic lapse rate is lower than dry adiabatic rate as condensation releases latent heat. In cirrus clouds water vapour is in solid form. Africa has the largest Savannah biome. Lateritic soils are porous in structure. Coniferous forests are evergreen. 58. Bajada is the Spanish world for slope of alluvial material at the foot of the escarpment. Scleractinian corals are the main contributors to a reef, but other organisms also add to it, such as hydrozoan corals, calcareous algae, mollusks, and sponges. Hence Corals are not the only participants in coral formation. 59. Over 80 percent of the world's fisheries are located in the coastal and ocean environment, and nearly 20 percent are found in inland freshwater fisheries. The largest fisheries group is made up of small, pelagic (open ocean) fishes such as herring, sardine, anchovy, and related species 60. In Fisheries, Japan is the largest importer & Thailand is the largest exporter. USA is both the second largest importer & exporter as it prefers certain varieties over others. 61. The 0 to 10 degree north receives more rainfall than corresponding southern latitudes due to ITCZ being more extensive in north. The temperate latitudes of southern hemisphere receive more rainfall than that of the northern hemisphere due to preponderance of Oceans in the former & deserts in the latter. Hails are opaque due to trapped air bubbles. Lower pressure on open surface of water leads to higher rate of evaporation. 62. Point bars develop where stream flow is locally reduced because of friction and reduced water depth. It is a depositional feature. Deposits of braided stream mainly consists of sand & gravel 63. A cone shaped depression is formed when water is withdrawn faster than it can be replaced. Ozark Upland (between Missouri & Arkansas) in United States is full of Karst features. Karst landscape is well developed in Yucatan peninsula. 64. The coastal features are formed in the following order Headland, Cave, Arch & Stack. Carlberg ridge divides the Arabian Sea into two parts. In northern Pacific Icebergs are rare. 65. Crevasses extend down in glaciers to the zone of plastic flow. Ice scoured plain is the subdued landscape resulting from erosion by continental glacier. If a glacier has a balanced budget it remains stationary. 66. Longitudinal dunes (called seifs in Egypt) generally occur in areas of limited sand supply. The angle of repose of dry sand controls the slope of the leeward side of the sand dune. 67. Dixie Alley & Tornado Alley refers to the high frequency areas of tornadoes in USA. Bog burst is term used in Ireland for flowing of soil downslope. 123
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 68. Lopoliths are saucer-shaped concordant intrusions. Well-known examples are the Bushveld complex in South Africa and the Muskox intrusion in the Northwest Territories, Canada. 69. Laccoliths have a flat base and a domed ceiling, and are concordant with the neighboring rocks; they are usually small. The classic area from which they were first described is the Henry Mountains in the state of Utah. 70. Deep batholiths are often concordant, while shallow batholiths are usually discordant. Deep batholiths can be extremely large; the Coast Range batholith of North America is 100 to 200 km wide and extends 600 km through Alaska and British Columbia, Canada. 71. The seismograph records first P waves followed by S waves, L waves & R waves in that order because of differential speeds of these waves. Shallow focus earthquakes are usually the most damaging. 72. Rejuvenation can take place during any stage of river development. The correct sequence of deserts of Australia in descending order is Great Victoria, Great Sandy, Gibson & Simpson. 73. The longest day at 66.5 degree N/S can be of 24 hours beyond which there is a sharp increase. For eg the longest day is of 1 month at 67.4 degree & 2 months at 69.8 degree. 74. Tropical cyclones have a warm core. Over polar areas temperature inversion is normal throughout the year. Wave refraction is the phenomenon of waves bending so that they move nearly parallel to the shoreline. 75. Two second order stream meet to form a third order stream. The principle of Catastrophism fits the vastness of the Earth's age & the complexity of its rocks in a shortened time span (Eg. biblical flood). The premise that present day processes have operated throughout geological time is called uniformitarianism. 76. The oldest surface rock yet discovered called Acasta Gneiss lies in Northwestern Canada. Barysphere is the term used for the core of the earth. 77. Marshall Islands, Bermuda & Lakshwadeep are coral in origin. 78. Sounds usually occur along submerged coast. The grasses of temperate grasslands are shorter but more nutritious than those of tropical grasslands. 79. In Maldives the most populous atolls are Male, the capital and principal commercial center; Suvadiva; and Tiladummati. Belize has the biggest barrier reef in the Northern Hemisphere. 80. Highest life expectancy is for Andorra (83.5 years) followed by Japan (83.5). 81. The water hemisphere accounts for as much as 80 % of southern hemisphere. The average height of land on the earth is approximately 900 m. The average depth of all the oceans is about 3800 m. 82. In Newfoundland the chief fish caught is Cod. St. John is the capital of Newfoundland & is the headquarter of the Grand Banks fishing industry. 124
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 83. In Karstic region the only mineral of importance is Lead. The thin warm layer on the ocean surface is called Epilimnion. The lower cooler layer of water, below the thermocline is called hypolimnion. 84. Metamorphic facies are formed according to one of three processes: contact metamorphism, subduction- zone metamorphism, and regional metamorphism. Metamorphic rocks are considered generally as more resistant to erosion than sedimentary & igneous rocks. 85. Regional metamorphism often produces a fabric quality called foliation. Slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss are foliated rocks. Rocks formed by contact metamorphism are generally nonfoliated. Quartzite, hornfels & marble are non foliated. 86. Exfoliation (peeling off) is caused by the release of confining pressure. The point at which the sea wave breaks is called the plunge line. It is where the depth of water & height of the wave are actually the same. 87. Terra Rossa are formed mainly in Mediterranean region. Lithosol is an azonal soil. Muskegs are bogs & swamps which have leathery bushes & stunted trees in the Norhtern Coniferous biome. 88. C.F. Marbut's first level of division of all middle latitude soils is into: Pedocals & Pedalfers. An epipedon is a horizon that forms the sub soil portion. 89. V.V. Dokuchaiev is considered the pioneer of soil genesis & soil classification. Nuciform soil structure refers to formless ped. The smalledst distinctive division of the soil of a given are to which the unique single set of properties apply is called polypedon. 90. An iron pan is a common feature of the Gley type of soil formed in the water logged areas of tundra region. Gleization is the process of formation of a gley soil by waterlogging and chemical reduction of iron. 91. In Australia where reg (desert pavement of loose stones) are widespread, they are called Gibber plains. 92. Isotherms on the globe are more tightly packed in winter. Commensalism is an association between two species in which one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited. 93. The correct sequence of distribution of fresh water on earth from maximum to minimum is Glaciers, Ground water, Inland Seas & Atmosphere. 94. Acid rain is the major problem in Norway & Sweden. Ecologists often call the few common species the ecological dominants & the rare species as incidentals. 95. Guano forms a significant player of phosphate cycle. A sciophilous plant (called sciophyte) is shade loving. Thermoperiodism is the rhythmic response of plants to fluctuations in temperature. 96. One of the reasons behind choosing 0 degree meridian at Greenwhich is that the IDL at 180 degree mostly passes through water thereby least disrupting the timezones in a country. The world is divided into 24 time zones each with a longitudinal extent of 15 degrees or one hour duration. 125
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 97. Russia has 11 time zones, USA has 7 time zones (including 2 time zones in territorial water), Canada has 5 time zones, Australia has 3 & China has a single time zone. 98. Horizontal movement of air is wind & vertical movement is currents. 99. Factors affecting ocean currents: As a rule water on the Ocean surface would tend to move form low salinity to high salinity area. The earth's rotation also affects ocean currents as its rotation form west to east leads to the current being generated from east to west. Temperature also affects ocean currents as warm water rises & cold water sinks. Water also moves from low atmospheric pressure areas to high pressure areas. Miscellaneous Facts Il 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A polished and frequently striated surface that results from friction along a fault or bedding plane is called slickensides. Shallow focus earthquakes (
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 10. Subsolar point is that point on the earth's surface where the sun is directly overhead. Sun's declination is the latitude of the sub solar point. 11. Peridotite makes up the earth's mantle. Epeirogentic movements cause Emergence & subsidence. Orogenetic movements cause folding, mountain building, faulting. 12. The west wind drift is the greatest ocean current of the world. Nappe is a French word meaning table cover. Competent rocks are those which are very rigid compared to the layers of rock above or below this layer. They tend to crack rather than distort as they fold. Harmonic folding occurs when the rocks have the same degree of competence & disharmonic vice versa. 13. On 21 st June what is going to be the sun's rays at a place along Altitude of Sun at a place = 900 — (distance in latitude of the place from the overhead sun 's place) a. ION: b. 23.5 S: c. 80 N: 90 - (23.5 - 10) = 76.5 degrees 90 - (23.5 + 23.5) = 43 degrees 90 - (80 - 23.5) = 33.5 14. To find the antipode in case of latitude just reverse the N/S symbol & in case of Longitude (180 — given longitude & change sign from E to W or W to E). 15. In general normal faults are steeper than reverse faults. A tear or wrench fault is one in which the blocks of rocks slip sideways past each other. Bigger wrench faults are called transcurrent faults. A wrench fault is also called strike-slip fault. 127
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    Ghanshyam Thori Liberia Sierra Leone Mali East Timor Yamaiia Sao Paulo Green Ba Dallas Austin San Die 0 Houston Texas Minnesota James Ba Waikiki Beach Geography Notes Badwater Seville Kh ber Pass Bolan Pass Golden Trian Socotra Adana Aceh Khar Island Kalimantan Mt. Coto axi le Mt. Chimborazo River Thames Ordos desert Mt. Goldsworth Sudd Sicili Flanders Uluru Blue Mountains World & Human Geography Assorted Miscellaneous Facts Fastest rowth of o ulation Least educated countr Poorest countr b GDP Lowest rank in HDI Autonomous area in northwestern Siberia, Russia, south of Kara Sea. Is not a coastal cit . Santos (main ort) is ver close. An extension of Lake Michin an. Cit in Texas (8 lar in US) Ca ital of Texas Cit in South west corner of California (7t lar est). Harbor & Shi buildin Petroleum Hub of USA. Cit in southeastern Texas (4 lar est cit ) Hi hest roducer of oil & natural as in USA Lar est su lier of iron-ore in USA Southern extension of Hudson ba Honolulu, Hawaii Death Valle , lowest oint in western hemis here Hottest lace of Euro e (S ain). Located in the Safed Koh ran e. Located in Brahui ran e (which lies between Sulaiman (N) & Kirthar ran e (S) Area where Burma, Laos & Thailand meet. 2/3 of world's heroin roduction Island, southeastern Yemen (belon s to Yemen) Cit in Turke on Mediterranean Coast Special region of Indonesia, located on the northwestern tip of the island of Sumatra. Ca ital is Banda Aceh. Small island of southwestern Iran, in the Persian Gulf (Petroleum reserves) Region of the Republic of Indonesia, occupying the southern portion of the island of Borneo Rich in oil & Gas. Ecuador (one of the hi hest active volcanoes) Ecaudor (Inactive Volcano) Makes London a ort. Eastern extension of Gobi desert in China throu h which Hwan Ho flows. Iron ore mine in NW Australia in Pilbara re ion (near Hamersle ran es) Swam lands of river White Nile in Sudan. Lar est Island in Mediterranean Sea. Plains of western Bel ium Or A ers rock is an inselber & a sacred lace of Abori inals Rugged plateau region on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range, in the 128
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    Ghanshyam Thori Mount St. Helens Cairo Koum Teff Pearl Harbour Kwa• alein Bikni Atoll Funafuti atoll Quebracho Balata Naval Stores Chickle Carnuaba Palm Dou las Fir Sucre Yerba Mate Madeira K •olen Mountains Brooks Ran e Alaska Ran e Favela Ranchos Kavettits Tahiti Gold Coast Cit Brest Ber en Anchora e Arnhem Land La os dos Patos Pico da Neblina Mount Kinabalu Puerto Montt Easter Islands O aden O orto Betsiboka river Tanezroufts Geography Notes state of New South Wales, Australia Active volcano, southwestern Washin ton, in the Cascade Ran e Lar est cit in Africa & ca ital of E t. Term for sand desert in Turkmenistan. A hi hl nutritious cro of Ethio ian Hi hlands Located in Honolulu, the ca ital of Hawaii. Lar est atoll in the world (Marshall Island) Ma•or atoll in Marshall Island. In Ellice Island (Tuvalu) Axe-breaker. Found in Gran Chaco. It ields tannin Produces latex. Abundant in Amazon forest Trade name of tu entine & rosin. Yields um. Abundant in Central American forest. Yeilds wax. Leadin timber of North America. Le al Ca ital of Bolivia Tea like bevera e extensivel used in South America es Lar est tributar of Amazon Run alon the Norwa Atlantic Coast. Northern Bounda of Alaska (Continuation of Rockies) Southern Boundar of Alaska (Mt. McKinle lies here) Slums in Brazil Slums in Venezuela Slums in M anmar. Lar est island of French POI nesia. . in Brazil Cit in southeastern Queensland. Second lar est in Queensland after Brisbane One of the ma •or fishin ort of France Cit & Sea ort in Norwa Cit & Sea ort in Southern Alaska Historical region and Aboriginal reserve in Australia, in the northeastern part of the Northern Territo Lar est La oon in the world in South-East Brazil Hi hest eak of Brazil in Guiana Hi hlands Hi hest eak of Mala sia. One of the rinci al orts in Chile. Lie in Pacific & is the farthest South American (Chile) Arid U land desert re ion in South eastern Ethio ia. A leadin ort of Portu al & a chief economic centre Ma•or river of Mada ascar. ossession (3700 km) Ver d areas in Sahara where no form of life is ossible. Re ional Terms for Shifting Cultivation Konuko Ladan Cain in Humah Shiftin cultivation in Venezuela Maia sia Phili ines Indonesia 129
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    Ghanshyam Thori Butte Itabira Potosi Mina-el-Ahmadi Bur an Dhahran Tam ico & Tux am Mas • id-e-Sulaiman Maiko Hassi R'Me1 Groote Eylandt Cerro Bolivar Bor Cerro de Pasco Morococha Fort Worth Hamilton Toledo Saar Coventr Limo es Lei zi Munich Arkan elsk Welland Canal Soo Canal Trent Canal Rideau Canal Ludwi Canal Mittelland Canal Geography Notes Chena Mil a Taun a Masole Roka Podu Penda De a Ray Sri Lanka Central America & Mexico M anmar Con o Brazil Orissa Chhattis arh M.P. Laos, Vietnam Minin Centers Co er minin centre in Montana (USA). Iron ore re ion of Brazil Minin Centre of Bolivia (Tin — ma •or, co Petrochemical com lex in Kuwait Oil filed of Kuwait Oil filed of Saudi Arabia Oil filed of Mexico Oil filed of Iran Oil field of Russia World's lar est natural as field in Al eria er & lead) Mineral rich Island near Arnhem Land in Australia' s Northern territory. Su lies 20 ercent of the world's hi h- rade man anese ore. Iron ore re ion in Venezuela Co Co Co er minin re ion of Yu oslavia er minin re ion of Peru er ore area of Peru Miscellaneous Industrial Centres Aircraft & Aeros ace Industr (Texas) Canada's Lar est roducer of steel. Known as 'Birmin ham of Canada'. Centre of Glass Industr in USA (Ohio) 1m orant Industrial centre of German on Saar river. Automobile centre of En land. First automobile manufactured here. Potter centre in France Musical & recision Instruments in German O tical Instruments & Lenses (German ) Timber centre & sea ort near white sea & Lake One a in Russia 1m ortant Canals in the Great Lakes Re ion, USA Connects Erie & Ontario Connect Lake Su erior & Lake Huron. Also called Sault Sainte Marie Canal Links Lake Huron with Ontario lake. Links lake Ontario with river Ottawa Connects the Danube and Main rivers in German Joins Ems, Wiser & Elbe Types of Languages 130
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    Ghanshyam Thori Monosyllabic Agglutinative Inflexional Africa Asia Europe South America Geography Notes Words have various meanings depending on the position in sentence Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai & Tibetan Words altered by prefixes & suffixes Mala , Ja anese, Swahili & most of the African Ian ua es. Flexible, modified to give required meaning En lish, French, Hindi, Arabic, Urdu Ben ali & other Indo-Euro ean Ian ua e To 25 Cities of USA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. New York Cit Los An eles Chica o Houston Philadel hia Phoenix San Die 0 Dallas San Antonio Detroit San Jose Indiana olis San Francisco Jacksonville Columbus Austin Baltimore Mem his Milwaukee Boston Washin ton Nashville El Paso Seattle Denver New York California Illinois Texas Penns Ivania Arizona California Texas Texas Michi an California Indiana* California Florida Ohio* Texas* M land Tennesse Wisconsin Massachusetts* Washin ton DC Tennesse Texas Washin ton Colorado* * - Captial cities of respective states Some 1m ortant Land Locked Countries (Not Exhaustive) Central African Re ublic, Ethio ia, Malawi, Swaziland Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Laos, Armenia, Azerbai an Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Hungary, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova. Bolivia & Para ua Andorra, parliamentary principality, southwestern Europe, situated in the eastern Pyrenees Mountains, bordered on the north and east b France, and on the south and westb S ain. 131
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geor ia is not landlocked because it lies on the Black Sea side. 1m ortant Breeds of Cattle Geography Notes Holstein Friesian A rshire/lreshire Jerse Brown Swiss Guernse Netherlands Scotland Channel Island Switzerland Channel Island Princi al Lan ua es of the World Langua e Mandarin En lish Russian Hindi S anish Arabic Ben ali Portu uese Mala -Indonesian Ja anese German French Branch Chinese Germanic Slavic Indic Romance Semitic Indic Romance/Latino Austro Ja anese-Korean Germanic Romance Tribes Tutsi Hutu Creole Yoruba Dinka Twa Hazara Tehuelche Aka Pueblo Minhasa Fili inos are ori Lake Su erior Lake Michi an Lake Erie Lake Ontario Burundi & Rwanda. Killed in masses b Hutu a rival rou Rwanda & Burundi A descendant of European settlers or of Black slaves, in the W. Indies or Central or S. America Ni eria & Benin Native eo le of Sudan Ori inal Inhabitants of Burundi Central A fhanistan (Main). Also in Pakistan & Iran Collective name for the tribe of Pata onia Another name for P mies (Con o) Southwest USA. Known for Adobe buildin s Indi enous eo le of Sulawesi (Celebes) inall Mala eo le. The Great Lakes & 1m ortant Cites Around Duluth Milwaukee, Chica o & Gar Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Buffalo Toronto, Hamilton 132
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    Ghanshyam Thori Ma •or Air Dulles International Ai ort Geor e Bush International Ai ort Hartsfield International Ai ort Geography Notes orts of the World John F. Kenned International Ai ort O' Hare International Air ort Roiss — Charles de Gaulle International Ai McCarran International Air ort Gatwick International Ai ort ort Washin ton D.C. Houston Atlanta New York Chica o France Las ve as London Seoul Haneda International Ai Kim o International Ai Bedouins Masai Bushman Kir hiz Peltoratsk Hashemite Kin Koni sber Lanxan Andalas Trucial States ort ort Chan dom Tribal Shelters Khaimas Kraals Scheoms (thatched hut) Kstau Sida (Sida) ed Geo ra hical Names Ashkabad (Turkmenistan) Jordan Kalinin rad Laos Sumatra UAE Scientific Names of Common Plants Rice Wheat Maize or Corn Oats Rubber Barle Tea Gra es So abeans Oroville Dam Oriza Sativa Triticum Aestivum Zea Di 10 erennis Avena Sativa Hevea Brasiliensis Hordeum Vul are Camellia Sinensis Vitis vini era Gl cine Max Jute Mustard Silk Worm Abaca (Menila Hem Banana Oil Palm Teak Sal Corchorus ca sularis Brassica ni ra Bombyx Mori Musa Textilis Musa Sa ientum Elaeis Guineesis Tectona Grandis Shorea Robusta Grand Coulee Dam Hoover & Boulder Dam Ro un Dam Owen Falls Dam Itai u Dam Bratsk Dam 1m ortant Dams Feather river Columbia river Colorado river White Nile Parana river An ara river 133 U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. Ta•ikistan U anda Brazil/Para ua Russia
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    Ghanshyam Thori Guri Dam In a Dam Bo oma/Stan1e Falls Dne ro etrovsk Dam Kitimat Scheme St. Anthon Falls Snow Mountain Scheme Ord River Scheme Caroni river* Zaire/Con o river Zaire Dnei er Nechako River Mississi i Snow & Eucumbene rivers Ord river Geography Notes Venezuela (Count 's ma •or) Dem. Re ublic of Con o Con o Ukraine British Columbia, Canada USA New South Wales, Australia Western Australia * - An el Falls is located on Rio Churün (Caroni) river. Extemities Ca e Horn Ca e A ulhas Ellesmere Island Pelee Island Ke West Southernmost ti of S. America Southermost ti of Africa Northernmost art of Canada Southernmost art of Canada Southermost town of USA Ca e of Good Ho e is erroneousl re arded as the extremit of Africa. T es of Fishes Other Fishes Pela ic Sardines Herrin Swordfish Anchovies Tuna Mackerel Pilchards Salt Water Fish Demersal Cod Halibut Hake Haddock Pollock Flounder Fresh Water Fishes Stur eon Trout Perch c Anadromous Fish Salmon Chinook Pelagic Fish live near the surface of water & demersal fish near the ocean bottom Anadromous fish live in Saline water but return in fresh water to spawn. Catadromous fish live in fresh water but breed in Saline water Ichthyology is the study of fish Anchovies, Ca elin & Menhaden are known as trash fish — used for non human consum tion Areas & Lar est fish Catch Coast of Peru Cas ian Sea USA's East Coast West Coast of Canada Ke west, Florida Chesa eake Ba Southern Euro e & Mediterranean Sea 134 Anchovies Stur eon Menhaden Salmon S on es O ster Sardine & Anchov
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    Ghanshyam Thori Miscellaneous Facts: Geography Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Continents in descending order of area are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia. Calgary is the largest city in the province of Alberta & is also known as the energy capital of the country. Tar Sands deposits are found in Alberta & Venezuela. Uranium City is on the northern shores of Lake Athabasca. Canada has the longest coastline (—60,000 miles) of any country in the world. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado river is in northwest Arizona. Allegheny Mountains is a complex of ranges and uplands of the Appalachian system. The name is usually applied to the ranges west of the Blue Ridge in Pennsylvania & neighboring states. In the eastern United States a fall line forms the border between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The mountain ranges of USA from west to East is Coast Mountains, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada & The Rockies. The term 'Antilles' applies to the whole of West Indies except the 'Bahamas'. The Greater Antilles includes Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Australian provinces & their capitals are Northern Territory (Darwin), Queensland (Brisbane), New South Wales (Sydney), Victoria (Melbourne), South Australia (Adelaide), Tasmania (Hobart), West Australia (Perth). The bottled trees (related to Baobab trees) are found in NW Australia especially in the Kimberley plateau region. Murrumbidgee, river is the longest tributary of Murray Darling. Freemantle is the outport of Perth. The most populated province of Australia is New South Wales. The transcontinental Stuart Highway of Australia runs between Adelaide and Alice Springs near Macdonnell ranges in Northern Territory. Between 1980-90 corals on large scale in the Great Barrier reef were destroyed by the Crown of Thorns starfish. 135
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 9. Taranaki plains of New Zealand is famous for dairy industry. The biggest city of New Zealand is Auckland. 10. The Trans Amazon highway connects Rio Branco to Sao Louis 11. The Orentes river rises in Northern Lebanon, flows in a northerly direction parallel to Mediterranean in Syria & enters Turkey & finally Mediterranean. Zaire is the only river to cross the equator twice. 12. The Grand Canal (Da Yunhe) of China is the world's largest canal system & connects Yangtze Kiang & Hwang Ho. 13. European countries in descending order of density are Netherlands, Belgium, U.K., Germany & Italy. In ascending order the countries are Iceland, Russian Federation, Norway & Finland. 14. The evolution order of humans is Apes — Dyropithecus — Ramapithecus — Australopithecus (Pliocene age) — Hamo Habilis — Homo Erectus (Fossils of Java Man & Peking man belong to Homo Erectus — appeared during Pleistocene) — Neanderthal Man — Cro Magnon Man — Homo Sapiens. 15. A progressive age structure is one in which both birth & death rates are high. A regressive age structure is one in which birth rates are low & declining. 16. A Mega city according to UNO is any city with a population of over 8 millions. In India the population criteria for mega city is 5 million. A perforated state is one whose territory is completely surrounded by another. Eg. Lesotho, Swaziland. 17. Trans Arabian Pipeline links the oil fields of Persian Gulf to Saida Lebanon. 18. According to Malthus Preventive (or negative) checks are celibacy and abstinence. Positive checks included famine, war, disease etc. Zelinsky in his Mobility Transition theory basically incorporated impact of migration on the Demographic transition theory. 19. Currently 50 % of the world's fish comes from Pacific Ocean & 25 % are from North Pacific alone. Horticulture includes pomology (growing of fruits), Olericulture (production of vegetable crops), floriculture & Ornamental Horticulture (Landscape gardening). 20. In Brazil 'Sertao' refers to semi-arid regions. It consists mainly of low uplands that from Brazilian highlands. Coffee is indigenous to Ethiopia. Potato is native to Andean Highlands. 21. Forward Capital: When a state relocates its capital to a sensitive area, perhaps near a zone of dispute with an unfriendly neighbour in part to confirm its determination to sustain its position in that zone. 22. Von Thunen model has the following zones central city, market gardening & milk production, Firewood & lumber production, crop farming without fallow, crop farming — fallow & pasture, three field system & livestock farming. The margin between two zones of landuse is called margin of transference. 136
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 23. The five stages of Rostow's Model of Development are the Traditional Society, Preconditions for Take off, Take off, Drive to Maturity & The Stage of Mass Consumption. 24. The Gatun lake, Panama forms the key to Panama canal system. Mittelland Canal joins the three major rivers Ems, Weser & Elbe & continues eastwords to Berlin & into Poland. The Ludwig canal links a main tributary of Rhine to the Danube & allows waterborne traffic from the Black sea to reach Atlantic via the Rhine. 25. Lardarello, Italy was the first to produce geothermal energy. U.S.A is the largest producer of geothermal energy. Iceland has highest percentage contribution of geothermal energy. 26. Tidal energy is produced at Rance river in Northwest France & Bay of Fundy in Canada. Bay of Fundy is a large tidal inlet separating the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. 27. The top countries in solar energy production are Japan, USA, Germany & India. 28. Kharkov is the second largest city in Ukraine & Duluth is in N.E Minnesota. Entreport is a port where goods are stored & deposited for further distribution. 29. The first five zones in Concentric zone, Sector & Multiple Nuclei model are all same:- Zone I — CBD, Zone Il — wholesale (or Transition), Zone Ill — low income houses, Zone IV — Medium class houses, Zone V — high class housing (See Models). 30. In Christallers model K=3 (Marketing Principle), K=4 (Transport Principle) & K=7 (Administration). The rank size rule was first noticed by F. Auerbach in 1913 but developed by G.K. Zipf in 1949 in his book 'Human Behaviour & Principle of Least Effort'. 31. The age of town scheme in the form of infantile, juvenile, adolescent, early mature & mature was given by Griffith Taylor. A dynamic explanation of urban development based on centrifugal & centripetal forces is known as Colby's Hypothesis. 32. Kibbutz (cooperative farming in Israel), Kung-She (China), Sovkhoz (state owned farms in Russia), Kolkhoz (collective farms in Russia), Ejido (Communal farm in Mexico) & Volksguter (Germany) 33. Many of Israel's rural Jews live in two types of cooperative communities, the kibbutz and the moshav. In a kibbutz, residents own all property collectively and contribute work in exchange for basic necessities. In a moshav, families own separate farms but cooperate in some aspects. 34. Lewis Mumford classified cities on the basis of technology into Eotechnic, Palaeotechnic, Neotechnic & Biotechnic. He also divided cities on the basis of cultural rise & fall into Eopolis, Polis, Metropolis, Megalopolis, Megalopolis, Tyrannopolis & Necropolis (City of the dead). 35. Weight loosing industry (Mineral Smelting), Weight Gaining industry (Bread Manufacturing), Bulk loosing industry (Cotton Textile), Bulk Gaining Industry (glassware). 137
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 36. The correct sequence of European river from North to South is Elbe, Weser (End in Germany's Atlantic region) Rhine, Meuse (Netherlands) Seine, Loire, Dordogne (France) Ebro, Duero, Tagus & Guadiana & Guadalquivir (Spain). 37. Hebrides or Western Isles is an archipelago of about 500 islands, western Scotland, in the Atlantic Ocean. New Hebrides is Vanuatu. 38. The correct chronological order of the arrival of various racial groups in India is as follows Negroids, Palaeomediterraneans, Mediterranean's & Nordics. 39. In Malaysia & Indonesia an irrigated rice field is known as 'Sawah'. Rubber plantation is concentrated on the western coast of Malaysian peninsula. The underground channels slightly inclined used to bring water for irrigation from aquifers near the base of a mountain to neighbouring lowland areas esp. in Sahara are called Foggra. Population per unit of cultivable land is known as physiological density. Mongolia is the least densely populated country & Monaco the most. 40. Hispaniola is the second largest island in West Indies & is divided into the separate countries of Haiti, which occupies the western third of the island, and the Dominican Republic. Patagonia is a cold desert. 41. The rivers arranged in descending order of discharge volume are Amazon, Congo, Mississippi-Missouri, Rio de la Plata-Parana, Congo & Ganga. The Parana river is formed by the confluence of Rio Grande and Paranafba River. Andes is the longest mountain chain in the world. 42. Norway has virtually no illiteracy. India has longer railway network than Australia & Germany. The countries in descending order of road networks are U.S.A, India, Brazil & China. 43. The largest islands are Greenland, New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Baffin & Sumatra. The following four lakes are arranged in descending order Superior, Victoria, Huron & Michigan. The Yangtze river is the third largest in the world & is longer than Mississippi-Missouri combined. Yenisey-Angara, Ob-lrtysh & Lena are all longer than Volga. Volga is the longest in Europe. 44. South America has the highest percentage forest area in the world. Large mammals are rare in Brazil as the dense Amazon forest does not support free movement. 45. Asal lake, a salt lake located in Djibouti is the lowest point in Africa & Valdes peninsula is the lowest point in S. America. The river by length in Africa are Nile, Zaire (Congo), Niger river & Zambezi. In Africa most of the cities are primate cities. 46. Lake Nasser (Behind Aswan dam) in Southern Egypt & Northern Sudan is the larges artificial lake in Africa. The 'Great Man Made River', an ambitious irrigation scheme is in Libya. Jabal al Akhdar (Green Mountains) also lies in Libya. 138
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 47. The people of Madagascar originated from Indonesia. Benguela seaport lies in Angola. Orange Free State is a part of South Africa. In Africa the heaviest rainfall is recorded in Cameroon. 48. Suez canal (built by French engineer Ferdinand De Lesseps) utilizes three bodies of water—Lake Manzilah, Lake Timsäh, and the Bitter Lakes. It is a sea level canal without locks. 49. Tea plantations in India, China & Sri Lanka are carried out on acidic soils. In New Zealand sheep outnumber people by 20 is to 1. 50. Bush fallowing is a form of shifting cultivation in West Africa where only the clearings are shifted & the settlement is permanent. 51. Africa is known as plateau continent & Australia is topographically the lowest continent. Antarctica has the maximum mean elevation. A series of nearly parallel faults produced by compressional forces when the crust is horizontally shortened is referred to as Echelon fault. 52. Mount Fujiyama & Mt. Krakatau are dormant. In Philippines, two well-known volcanoes that have been active in recent years, Mount Pinatubo and Taal Volcano, are each about 80 km from Manila. Solfatara is small volcano on the outskirts of Naples. It takes it name form the sulphur gases which escape from it. 53. Paricutin Volcano is in Mexico. It is the youngest mountain in the world & was created from an eruption of lava and ash through a fissure in 1943 growing to more than 400 m in year. Mount Kelut & Tambora are one of the major volcanoes of Indonesia. 54. Laki & Surtsey volcanic island are major volcanoes of Iceland. Mount Taupo is one of the greatest volcanoes of New Zealand which created the Taupo crater lake (largest lake of New Zealand). 55. The largest active shield volcano in the world is Mt. Mauna Loa in Hawaii. Kilauea, the most active volcanic crater in the world, is located on the southeastern slope of Mauna Loa. 56. The stretch between the rock of Gibraltar (Spain) & Cape Ceuta (Morocco) is called the Pillar of the Hercules. The Atlas Mountains are an extension of the Alpine system of Europe. The Tell or Maritime Atlas are lower slopes of the Atlas Mountains. The coastal belt of Mediterranean climate if referred to as Tell in Algeria. 57. Alberta is coal & petroleum rich in Canada. Labrador & Newfoundland are iron mining regions of Canada. Texas, Alaska & Gulf of Mexico are rich in petroleum deposits in USA. California is the most populous state of USA. Florida is the largest producer of orange. Kansas is the largest producer of wheat. Badlands of the Dakota are famous in USA. 58. The Hudson river flows between the Taconic range & the Catskill Mountains (both belonging to the Appalachians). 139
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 59. The US NE region cities from North to South are Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington DC. The coca cola company is based in Atlanta (Capital of Georgia). 60. The major sources of revenue of Monaco is Casino (mainly in Monte Carlo). The countries/regions with decreasing number of islands are Oceania (25000), Indonesia (14000), Philippines (7100), Japan (3000). 61. Australia is an exporter of wheat. Australia boasts the world's largest known recoverable resources of lead, mineral sands, tantalum, uranium, silver, and zinc. The southwest coast of the south island in New Zealand is characterized by deep fiords (Fiordland National Park, largest in the country lies here). 62. In Lebanon 90 % of the population is Urban. In Turkey literacy rate is around 87 %. Pyongyang & Seoul are both coastal cities. Jordan is not land locked because of Gulf of Aqaba. 63. Malaysia is not the leading producer of tin in the world (China & Indonesia lead). Copper is the leading mineral of Philippines. Iran also has one of the world's largest reserves of copper 64. With a mean elevation of approximately 650 m (2,100 ft) above sea level, Africa is high compared to other continents.. Gold is Ghana's principal mineral resource. More than 90 % of Burundi's population is rural. River Niger has two deltas—an inland delta in central Mali and a coastal delta along the Gulf of Guinea 65. South East Asian countries in descending order of population density are Philippines (290), Indonesia (132) Thailand (125) Malaysia (70) & Brunei (62). Area wise the descending order is Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia & Philippines. 66. Europe has longer coastline than North America Rhine is connected to Rhone & hence the Mediterranean. About 50 % of Netherland's landmass lies below sea level. 67. The ten highest peaks of USA are in Alaska. The Great Lakes were formed during the ice age. The largest single cause of the decline in the Amu Darya's water level is the Garagum Canal, the longest canal in the former Soviet Union and one of the longest in the world. The Aral Sea is a remnant of Tethys Sea. 68. France has a major tidal power plant on the Rance River in Brittany. France produces more electricity than it uses and is a major exporter of electricity to neighboring countries, including the United Kingdom, Italy, and Switzerland. 69. Kuwaiti Oilfields are located at Fao, Burgan, Wafra. The largest lakes of Brazil are are Sobradinho, on the Säo Francisco; Tucuruf, on the Tocantins; Balbina, on the Amazon; and Furnas, on the Paranå. 70. The world's top waterfalls in a descending order of discharge of volume of water are Niagara falls, Victoria falls, Iguazu falls (On Parana river in Argentina-Brazil border) & Kaieteur Falls (on river Potaro in Guyana, S. America). 140
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 71. In Africa the leading states for various commodities are: Tea (Kenya), Oil Palm (Nigeria), Cocoa (Ghana), Coconuts (Tanzania), Cotton (Egypt). S. Africa leads in wheat, maize, fruits & wool. 72. Kalahari means 'the great thirst' & a major part of it is in Botswana. Khartoum is located at the confluence of Blue Nile (Lake Tana) & White Nile (Lake Victoria). White Nile (longer) lies to the west of Blue Nile & contains sudds (the swampy land). A region of inland drainage in Africa is Lake Chad. 73. South Africa has 3 capitals: Cape Town (legislative capital); Pretoria (Executive/Administrative capital); and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital. 74. The four most populous countries of Africa are Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia & Zaire. Countries comprising the horn of Africa are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia & Somalia. 75. River Limpopo forms the boundary between S. Africa & Botswana. River Orange forms the boundary between S. Africa & Namibia. 76. Ethiopia & Liberia were never colonized. Eritrea was carved out of Ethiopia during 1990s. Djibouti faces the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. Countries bordering lake Victoria are Tanzania, Kenya & Uganda 77. Panama city is the only capital city of the Central American Country having a coastal location. The cities on the edges of Panama canal are Balboa (Pacific side) & Colon (Atlantic side). Chagres Locks, Pedro Miguel Lock & Mira Flores lock are on the Panama Canal. 78. Central American Countries: Puerto Rico is the largest exporter of Chemicals. El Salvador is the only country on having an Atlantic Coastline. Belize is the only country not having a Pacific coastline. El Salvador is the smallest in area & has the highest density. Guatemala the most populous in the region. Trinidad is the only Carribean Island with large oil reserves. 79. Jura (mountains), mountain range, is located along the border between France and Switzerland (& not Germany). Vosges are in Germany. 80. Rhode Island is the smallest state of USA. California is the most populated state of USA. The confluence of Mississippi & Missouri is at St. Louis. Niagara falls lie between Lakes Erie & Ontario. 'Big Apple' describes the city of New York. 81. The number of provinces & federal territories in Canada is 10 & 3 respectively (total 13). Quebec is the largest province of Canada & Ontario is the most populous. The capital of various provinces of Canada are Quebec (Quebec city), Ontario (Toronto), Manitoba (Winnipeg), Saskatchewan (Regina), Alberta (Edmonton), British Columbia (Victoria). 82. Mahaweli Ganga is the longest river of Sri Lanka. Hawaii is known as crossroads of the Pacific. At Basel, Rhine River turns north and enters the Rhine rift valley, a flat-floored rift valley lying between the Vosges on the west and the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) on the east.
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 83. Lake Albert, Lake Edward, Lake Kivu, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi is the correct sequence of the Lakes form north to south in Middle Africa. 84. English is the official language of Nigeria. Copenhagen (Entreport), Honolulu (port of call) are different types of ports. New York is known as a city that never sleeps. Minnesota is known as land of 10,000 lakes, which is an understatement as it has more than 15000 lakes. Colorado accounts for the largest production of Uranium in USA. Missouri & Tennessee share borders with the maximum number of other states in USA (each borders 8 states). 85. Mackinder termed British & Japanese islands as offshore islands. Extensive agriculture is characterized by high per capita production but poor per acre production. 86. Shannon river is the longest in the British Isles. Guano (mainly Peru) is a source of phosphatic fertilizer. Nitrate fertilizers are prepared form Caliche (Chile — Chile saltpeter or NaN03) 87. Shinano river is the longest river of Japan. 88. Belem is the biggest cocoa exporting port of Brazil. Hudson Bay is the world's largest bay & Davis Strait is the worlds broadest strait. British Columbia accounts for half of Canada's timber. 89. The coasts of Canada are highly indented as eustatic changes in the past have led to the submergence of low lying land. 90. Queensland is the largest producer of Sugarcane & leads in cattle (40% of total) in Australia. Australia is the world's largest producer of both gem/near-gem and industrial-grade diamonds, producing about two- fifths of the global total. Tasmania is the leading producer of apples in Australia. 91. Western Australia is the largest province in terms of Area . Dongara in south west Australia is known for Natural gas. Whyalla is a city and port in southern Australia near Adeilade & is important for ship building. Located on the northwest shore of Spencer Gulf, an arm of the Indian Ocean, Whyalla is a center of heavy industry, with gas refineries and chemical industries. 92. Danube crosses through the maximum countries of the world. The capital cities of Vienna, Budapest, Bratislava (Slovakia) & Belgrade (Serbia & Montenegro) lie on its bank. Iceland's economy mainly depends on exports of fish. 93. Kuwait is the most urbanized Arab State (virtually entire population is urban). Turkey has virtually no desert & is quite unlike middle east. The Anatolian plateau (Asian Turkey) is bounded by Pontine mountains to the north & Taurus mountains to the south. 94. Maldives has a density of 1100 persons/sq km. The top four most dense countries of south Asia are Maldives, Bangladesh, India & Sri Lanka. In Pakistan 33 % of the population is urban & Sri Lanka has 23 % urbanization. Western Sahara is the most urbanized in Africa. Djibouti also has one of the highest 142
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes urbanization (85%). South Africa has 60 percent urbanization. Uruguay is the most urbanized nation in South America. 95. Ferro-nickel is one of the prominent exports of Dominican Republic. 96. Christchurch is the main urban centre of the Canterbury plains in New Zealand. Kruger National Park, is in northeastern South Africa, adjacent to the Mozambique border & is among the ten largest national parks in the world. 97. Texas is known for the maximum number of tornadoes in USA. Greenland is more sparsely populated than Mongolia. Canada produces the maximum hydroelectricity in the world. 98. The correct sequence of Chinese cities in descending order of population is Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin & Nanjing. Within China Chernozem soils are only found in Manchuria. 99. The Chinese cities form North to South are: Fushun, Shenyang, Anshan, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai & Wuhan. Nanjing is almost at the same latitude as Shanghai & is close to it. 100. The correct decreasing order of population concentration in various Japanese provinces is Honshu, Kyushu, Hokkaido & Shikoku. The population of following Japanese cities in descending order is Osaka, Nagoya, Kobe & Kyoto. Miscellaneous Facts Il: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Muroran is an important industrial centre in Hokkaido. Chiba is another industrial centre near Tokyo. River Mekong is called the Danube of SE Asia. A fragmented strip of Malaysia (Sarawak) separates Brunei into two divisions. Brunei is a member of Commonwealth of Nations. Borneo is an ancient stable crust pushed above the sea level by tectonic forces & is not subject to volcanism. Indonesia is the worlds largest archipelago. The Indonesian Islands in decreasing order of area is Kalimantan (Borneo Island), Sumatra, Irian Jaya (or Papua), Java & Bali. Java is the most populous island. Jakarta is the largest city of SE Asia followed by Manila. Borneo is the least developed part of Indonesia. Indonesia is the largest producer of Liquefied Natural Gas in the world. Palembang (Sumatra), Bogor (Java), Balikpapan (Kalimantan), Manado (Sulawesi) are some of the principal cities of Indonesia. Makassar is the largest city and chief port of Sulawesi Hmong is a minority ethnic group that lives primarily in China and Southeast Asia. About 2 million Hmong live in Southeast Asian countries, such as Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar. Another 10 million Hmong live in the southern provinces of China. 143
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 7. 8. 9. The correct sequence of cities north to south in SE Asia is Hanoi, Vientiane, Yangon & Bangkok. Ferries on Bangkok's extensive system of canals (khlongs) serve thousands of commuters every day. Bangkok has in the recent years faced the problem of sinking ground due to excessive withdrawal of water. In the eastern part of Thailand lies the Khorat plateau which comprises of sandstone & is a region of cassava production. Sjælland, also Zealand, island of eastern Denmark is the largest and most important island of Denmark Pennine chain of Mountains is in England & Pyrenees is in Spain. Cantabrian Mountain chain is also in Spain lying west from the Pyrenees to the Atlantic Ocean 10. Prut (also Pruth or Prutul river) flows through southwestern Ukraine, western Moldova, and eastern Romania & is a major tributary of the Danube River. The northern Dvina flows into the White Sea. The port of Arkhangelsk lies on its bank. The western dvina called Daugava rises in Belarus & flows northwest through Latvia, emptying into the Gulf of Riga. The Duero river lies in Spain & Portuagal. 11. Russia, Ukraine & France are the top 3 countries in Europe by Area. 12. Australia is the driest & the hottest continent of the world. Gulf of Joseph Bonaparte lies to the west of Arnhem land in Australia. Sharks Bay lies to the west of Hammersley ranges. Gulf of Spencer is near Adeliade & Flinders range. Significant petroleum deposits have been exploited in Barrow Island, Bass Strait and southern Queensland. 13. In Russia the various ports are Murmansk (Barents Sea), Magadan (Sea of Okhotsk), St. Petersburg (Gulf of Finland) & Arkhangelsk (White Sea). The various cities are Nizhny Novogorod (Central region), Magnitogorsk (Ural region), Kazan (Volga region) & Novosibirsk (Kuzbas). 14. The largest proportion of world electricity comes from thermal power. The Ruwenzori mountain range in Africa is a block mountain produced by faulting. 15. In Pakistan Baluchistan lies to the west of Kirthar ranges & Sind lies to the east. Pakistan has higher percentage of irrigated land than India, Bangladesh & Nepal. Mardan has the largest sugar factory in Pakistan. Sylhet is the most important teas cultivation area of Bangladesh. England & Ireland 144
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    Ghanshyam Thori Kalakot Coalfields Indira col Walon Town Raheera Creek Kukrail Pro•ect Goran Ghat Char Bils/bhils TerisTTheris Bhur Geography Notes UNITED KINGDOM Edinbur h Glas Castleber A. Galwa ARE-LAN éeJfasy aublin airminghårn Cork Cardiff Ne castle upo Tyne Manc ester Lei ast r Lend on •ENGLAND Plymöuth Geography of India Various Geo ra hical re ions/terms Located in J & K. Northern most oint of India Eastern Most oint of India in Arunachal Pradesh Western most oint of India in Kachhch Protection of crocodiles Located in Ra asthan. U lands in the Gan a Delta Marsh lands / Ox Bow lakes in Assam Coastal sand dunes in Kerala (Malabar Coast) Elevated iece of land situated alon the bank of Gan a 145
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    Ghanshyam Thori Barind Pats Chalkas Thali Konda Pensi La Dahe• Saharan ur Pancham Island Osam & Barda Da ha Bum Blue Mountain Barail Ran e Jele La Karbi Analon Nakki Lake Mulshi Lake Geography Notes extensive laterite formations Bhan ar in deltaic re ion of Ben al havin Lateritic lain (Hi h level) Name for red soils in Telen ana district. Sand lain Residual Hillocks on the Telen ana Plateau Connects Himachal Pradesh with Kar il Centre of Chemical indust in Gu•arat Famous for Pa er Industr Lies near Gu arat Volcanic hills in Kathiawar. Hi hest eak in Eastern Himala as (Mishmi Hills). Hi hest eak of Mizo hills Se arates Na a hills from Mani ur Hills Connects Kalim on with Lhasa. Located in Sikkim Another name for Mikir Hills (Assam) Ra •asthan Maharashtra 1m ortant Institutes Central Soil & Materials Research Station Central Water & Power Research Station National Institute of H drolo Wool Research Association National Shi Desi n & Research Centre National Man rove Genetic Association Forest Resource & Human Resource Develo ment Indian Boundaries New Delhi Pune Roorkee Thane Vishakha atnam Orissa Chhindwara Ban ladesh China Pakistan M anmar Bhutan 4096 Km 3917 Km 3310 Km 1752 Km 1458 Km 578 Km Guntur V fa wada Ra•mundhur Machili atnam Porvorim Palem Man alore Trichur Punaloor 1m ortant Industrial Centers of India Tobacco Pharmaceuticals & To Makin Pa er Mill Imitation Jeweller , Hand-woven clothes Com uter Flo Pi Iron Plant Roofin Tiles Diamond cuttin Pa er Industr Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Disk & Polishin 146
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    Ghanshyam Thori Dhuravani Hubli Karimna ar Kurnool Waran al Baleshwar Modina ar Patna Rai Bareli Greater Noida Jind Pitham ur Naini Bho al Kota Ludhiana Saharan ur Panki India's First tele hone manufacturin Cotton Textile Silver Fili ree Articles H dro enated Oil Woolen C ets Automobiles T res & Tubes S nthetic Fiber Aluminium Foils Passen er Car Tele hone Tanner Automobile (Scooter) Com ressors & Pum s Heav Electric Machiner Geography Notes facilit Ban alore Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Orissa U.P. Bihar Ha ana M.P. Ra•asthan Pun ab U.P. Precision Instruments Bic cle arts Su ar Industr Automobile 1m ortant A Jal aon Nasik ur & Dhule Kolar Alle e Ra a uram ricultural Districts Oran e Banana Onion Gra es Ge Co Co ser/S rin Manikaran Tata ani Jwalamukhi Pu a Valle Shahastradhara Uni Ta ovan Naraini Foot Sachu Nimboli Koh Dariba Malan•khand (Bala hat) Aridon ri Kendu •har Silk Cotton S nthetic Fibre. s Sites of India Kulu, Himachal Pradesh Shimla, Himachal Pradesh* Kan ra, Himachal Pradesh Patna Uttaranchal Gu arat Bihar Ra asthan Sikkim Maharashtra Mineral sites er er Iron Ore Man anese, Chromite 147 Ra•asthan (Alwar) M.P. Chhatis arh Orissa
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    Ghanshyam Thori Lota Pahar Kolihan Jamar Kotra Kalol Naomundi Ghatsila Chalk Hills Na aur A ni undala Babaduan Hills Area PO ulation PO ulation densit Sex Ratio Co er Co er Rock Phos Oil Iron Ore Co er Ma nesite hate G sum Co er Iron Ore Newl Geography Notes Ra•asthan (South of Khetri) Ra• asthan Ra• asthan Gu arat Jharkhand Bihar Salem Ra•asthan Karnataka Created States: Chhattis arh, Jharkhand & Uttaranchal. Jharkhand, Chhattis arh & Uttaranchal Jharkhand, Uttaranchal & Chhattis arh. Chattis arh has hi hest Jharkhand Hi hest Decadal Growth Miscellaneous Facts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The correct chronological scale of the Indian time scale is Archaean (Dharwar — Early Precambrian), Purana (covers Cuddapah & Vindhyan systems — Late Pre Cambrian), Dravidian (400-600 million years ago) & Aryan (400 million till date). The peninsular plateau cover around 70 % of the India's land area. Most of the peninsular rivers have reached their base level of erosion. The major syntaxial bends of Himalayas are near Pamir (where the Karakoram meets Hindukush) & in Arunachal Pradesh where there is a sharp change from East-west to Southerly trend. The Karakoram range & the Laddakh plateau lie to the north of Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone & originally formed a part of the Eurasian plate. Tectonic earthquakes cause maximum damage. The north-western Himalayas are more prone to earthquakes than the eastern Himalayas. Dharwar system has the most important mineralized rocks of India which are the earliest formed sedimentary rocks found today in metamorphic forms. The major rocks of the Dharwar system include Schist, Quartzite, Slates, Dolomites etc. Vindhyan mountains exhibit the oldest glaciation. The recent rocks are Aryan rocks. Quartzite & cement grade limestone is obtained from the Cuddapah System. Awadh plains lie to the east of Rohilkhand plains in U.P. Bhabar (8-16 km wide) extends from Indus to Teesta & is not suitable for cultivation. Ajodhya hills lie in West Bengal. The Great Boundary Fault lies along the Aravallis 148
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 7. 8. 9. The length of the regional division of the Himalayas in descending order is: Nepal Himalayas, Assam Himalayas, Punjab Himalayas & Kumaon Himalayas. The submarine canyons along the Indian coasts are found only in a small portion in Kutch coastal region. The Ghaggar is the most important river of inland drainage. It rises in the lower slopes of the Himalayas & forms boundary between Haryana & Punjab & is lost in dry sand near Hanumangarh. Purvanchal hills have trellis drainage pattern. 10. Reserved forests (54 % of total) are under direct supervision of government. In protected forests local people are allowed to collect timber. About one percent of India's forest is 'Private Forest'. 11. The Sambhar, Degana, Didwana lakes are the proof of the recession of the Arabian Sea. Parts of the Indian deserts also resulted due to the recession. The western part of Thar has longitudinal dunes & eastern part is characterized by Barkhans. The 25 cm Isohyet form the limit of Thar desert. 12. Jhelum & Beas are not antecedent but Satluj, Saryu (Kali), Ghagara, Kosi, Teesta & Manas River are antecedent. River Son, Damodar, Chambal & Banas are fine examples of superimposed drainage. The following states are arranged in descending order of area: Assam, Jharkhand, Uttaranchal & Himachal Pradesh. Lakshadweep has the smallest area among UTs. Gujarat has the longest coastline in India followed by Andhra Pradesh. 13. The south-west monsoons of India represent equatorial westerlies. Mizoram is the least irrigated states of India. Shivsamudram is the oldest hydro electricity project. 14. Ganga river has the maximum flow in August & September. Jhelum has the maximum flow in May & June. The Ganga Cauveri link is likely to connect Thanjavur to Patna. 15. In India the top river basins are Ganga (26.2%), Indus (9.8%), Godavari (9.5%), Krishna, Brahmaputra & Mahanadi. Brahmaputra leads in terms of annual water yield & rate of flow. Storage capacity is highest for Ganga. 16. Black soils are suitable for citrus & leguminous crops. Red soils are suitable for Tapioca & cashewnuts. Gangetic soil can be described as azonal. Rock Cover is the most important factor of soil formation. Fallow land in India is about 10 %. The highest area under maize is in the state of M.P. Highest yield of wheat is found in Punjab. 17. M.P & U.P are the top two states in number of cattle & U.P & Punjab are top two in milk production. Cattle density if highest in Manipur. 18. Coal in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaiand, Rajasthan, Kerala, J & K & Tamil Nadu belongs to Tertiary Era. The States with highest coal reserves - Jharkhand, West Bengal Orissa & M.P. 149
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 19. In fish production the top 4 states are Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal. West Bengal is the leading producer of inland fish. 20. The states in order of electricity installed capacity are Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh & Tamil Nadu. 21. Bauxite is associated with Lateritic soil. The Rourkela plant was built with German collaboration. 22. BARC centers are at Trombay, Kalpakkam, Indore & Thiruvananthapuram. Centre for Wind Power & Energy is located in Chennai. The Kayathar & Muphandal wind farms are located in Tamil Nadu. 23. Mundas are the most underdeveloped tribe of India. The period 1971-81 recorded the highest growth rate of population. Agricultural density is highest in West Bengal followed by Kerala & U.P. 24. The widest continental shelf of India is off Mumbai & narrowest off the Godawari Delta. The total number of river basins in India is 113 (14 major, 44 medium & 55 minor). Of the panchnad rivers Beas river basin is completely in India. 25. The Bhagirathi originates from Gaumukh glacier & Alaknanda from Satopanth glacier. Shifting cultivation is known as Podu in Orissa, Penda in Chhattisgarh & Deppa in M.P. Vishnu Prayag is the confluence of Alaknanda & Dhauli Ganga. Nand Prayag is the confluence of Alaknanda & Mandakni. 26. All INSATs were launched from Kourou French Guyana. 27. The States with descending order of metropolitan cities are U.P (6), Maharashtra & Gujarat (4 each), Andhra Pradesh, M.P & Tamil Nadu (3 each). 28. Jhingurda (Singrauli-Shahdol) in M.P with 130 m thickness is the thickest coal seam of India. 29. Conifers are found in Himalayas at the altitude of 1500 m to 3500 m. The following states/UTs are arranged in the descending order of mangrove forests — West Bengal, Gujarat, Andaman & Nicobar and Andhra Pradesh. The correct sequence of forest cover of India is Dense forest, Open forest & Mangrove. Mangrove forests are also found in the Krishna Delta. 30. Assam has boundary with 7 states including West Bengal but not with Sikkim. 31. India is the largest producer of sponge iron in the world. 32. Rajmahal hills are block mountains & Dalma is volcanic in origin. Laterite soils are the most preferable for Dryland farming. Salher & Kalsubai are two important peaks located in the western ghats 33. Rihand is a tributary of Son & Banas is the tributary of Chambal. The extension of Aravallis to the city of Ambala forms the river divide between Ganga & Indus. The Vindhyan range acts as a water divide between the Ganga system & the river system of South India. 34. The Deccan Traps have been formed by both the fissure eruption (western side) & central eruption (eastern side). Sal, Teak, Sandalwood & Sheesham are related to tropical moist deciduous forest. 150
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 35. Black soil is found in the Deccan Plateau region. Red soil is found in the periphery of the plateau & Laterite soil is found on highland plateau. 36. 25 % of the rainfall is received during winter season. About 55 % of the country is vulnerable to earthquakes. East of Maikal range is the Baghelkhand Plateau made of limestones & sandstones on the west & granite on the east. 37. Chilka Lake & Keoladeo National Park are protected under the Ramsar convention. The tertiary rocks are mostly found in the Himalayas. In the Peninsula they occur in the coastal areas of Gujarat, Kerala & Tamil Nadu. The western slopes of Sahyadris are more steeper than eastern slopes as the western part is highly faulted 38. Karakoram range has the maximum glaciers. Namcha Barwa is 7750 metres high & Gurla Mandhata 7728 metres. The theories of monsoon generation are thermal concept (Hadley), Dynamic Concept (Flohn) and Southern Oscillation Theory (Walker). 39. Bhutan touches 4 Sates of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Nepal touches the following 5 states - Uttaranchal, U.P. Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim. Bangladesh touches 5 states of West Bengal Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura & Mizoram. 40. In Assam Brahmaputra has a highly braided course. Purna falls is on Tons river. 41. Vizhingam in Kerala produces wave energy. Muppandal in Tamil Nadu — Wind Energy. 42. The types of Montane forests according to decreasing height are: Alpine (3000-4000 m), Moist Temperate Forest (2000-3000 m), Pine Forest (1500-1750 m) & Wet Temperate Forest (200-1000 m). 43. Hyundai Motors, Hindustan Motors, Ashok Leyland are all in Chennai. 44. Vishakhapatnam is a landlocked harbour & the ships are protected by the Roass hill in the North & Dolphin's Nose to the south. Gujarat will benefit most from the water allocated in Sardar Sarovar Project & M.P will be the main beneficiary in terms of electricity. The Reliance Petroleum Refinery at Jamnagar refines imported petroleum. 45. Alang is the leading ship breaking centre of India of the three centres of Alang, Sachna & Mumbai. 46. India imports cashew nut from the countries of East Africa. The processing industries of Cashew Kernels is concentrated in Quilon. The imported raw cashew nut is processed & exported to other countries. 47. Large part of Deccan plateau is poor in minerals because the Lava has buried the mineral bearing old rocks baring very few exposures of mineral bearing rocks. 48. Marble is quarried along the western region of Sambhar Lake & Sandstone in Kaimur range. Lac is the secretion of tiny insect called the lac insect which lives on the sap of trees like Kusan, ghont, palas, khair, ber etc. 151
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 49. .The coalfields arranged from west to east are Bokaro, Jharia & Raniganj. 50. The States arranged in descending order of cropping intensity are Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh & Mizoram. 51. The utilization of Ground water potential is very high in Punjab area, High in Maharashtra region, Moderate in Tamil Nadu region & low in NE region. 52. Grount Nut is the principal crop of Rayalsema region. 53. The following Urban agglomerations are arranged in descending order of their population & are the last 5 among the 35 million cities - Faridabad, Allahabad, Amritsar, Vijaywada & Rajkot. 54. The following territories are arranged in descending order of their population size: Delhi, Pondcherry, Chandigarh, Andaman & Nicobar, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu & Lakshadweep. 55. Uttar Pradesh is the chief producer of vegetables & tanned hides. Cardamom is the leading cash crop of southern Sikkim & is mainly exported. 56. The shortest National Highway 47 A connects Wellingdon Island & Cochin Bypass. The following features of the Indian Ocean are arranged from North to South Socotra-Chagos Ridge, Carlsberg ridge, Mascarene basin & Prince Edward Crozet ridge. 57. The largest number of Muslim population in India is in Uttar Pradesh. 58. Banas & its tributaries have carved the Mewar upland into a rolling peneplain. The Mandovi Zuari Creek in Goa is an important embayment in the coastline. Parasnath Hill is situated in Haraibagh plateau. The Kaimur hills belong to the Vindhyan range. Dhupgarh (Satpuras), Mahendragiri (Garhjat Hills), Gorakhnath peak (Girnar Hills), Mulangiri (Baba Budan Hills). 59. Siachen glacier is in Nubra valley. Amarnath cave is situated near Kalahoi glacier. 60. The longest beach of India is in Chennai. Dense forests have a tree canopy cover of more than 40 %. The true dense cover in India is about 12 % of the total land area. Western Ghats have two different types of vegetation on its two slopes. The largest portion of India's wasteland occurs in degraded pastures & grazing land. 61. The name of forest & corresponding state is: Manas (Assam), Betla (Bihar), Gorumara (West Bengal) & Madumalai (Tamil Nadu). 62. The centrally sponsored Command Area Development (CAD) programme was launched in the year 1973- 74. Forest conservation Act was passed in 1980. Cyclonic activity in India is a characteristic of the pre & post monsoon periods. Worlds highest observatory is in Hanle, Laddakh. 152
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 63. The Gangetic plain has been created by both exogenic & endogenic forces. The expression of earliest volcanic activity is found in India in Dalma hill of Bihar. Soil erosion in India occurs in almost all the states but it is most serious along the coast of Kerala. 64. Chhattisgarh is the only tine producing state in India. 65. The peninsular India has not undergone marine submergence since Archean times. The Aravalli Mountains were one of the oldest geosynclines in the world. Shillong plateau is also known as 'Meghalaya' meaning 'abode of clouds'. It was so named by S.P Chatterjee. 66. The cultural gap theory given by Ogburn states that material aspects (money etc) change faster with time than the non material aspect (like social values) therefore it results in cultural gap. 67. Sunderbans, Simplipal & Manas are the three biosphere reserves which are also tiger reserves. Kaziranga National Park, Nandadevi, Manas wildlife park are among India's world heritage site. Corbett National park (earlier Hailey national park) was the first national park of India & Vedanthagal bird sanctuary is the first bird sanctuary of India. Longest navigable waterway is in Uttar Pradesh. 68. Midnapore canal is on Kosi river. Gujarat is the leading producer of 'Beedi Tobacco' in India. Groundnut is the leading oilseed in India. 69. Wattle a tanning material used in leather industry is grown in Nilgiri & Palni Hills & from here major supplies are done for the entire country. 70. The plants & their power source are Bokaro Steel plant (Jharia), Bhilai Steel plant (Korba), Indian Iron & Steel Co. (D VC power supply) & Visveswaraya Iron & Steel Co (Shravati power project). 71. India's production of gold has been declining. Raniganj is the oldest coalfield in India. In Karnataka plateau the hilly region is known as Malnad & the rolling plain as Maidan. Vindhyas form watershed between the Ganga System & peninsular river system. Cardamom hills is a branch of Annamalai hills. 72. Lakshwadeep (Atoll), Gulf of Kutch (Platform), Palk Bay (Fringing reef) are the types of reef in India. 73. The term 'Bhabhar' implies piedmont plain & it is extensive in the west & narrow in the east. Kolleru lake was formed when marine transgression had taken place forming a lagoon, but at present it is almost a fresh water lake. 74. Atari is the last Indian railway station before crossing into Pakistan on the Amritsar Lahore line. Leh lies between Ladakh & Zaskar. 75. Hoggenakkal falls is on Kaveri river as soon as it enters Tamil Nadu. Wular lake is tectonic, Rakas lake is glacial & Didwana lake is Aeolian. 76. In 2004 a new biosphere reserve was inaugurated in Arunachal Pradesh. 153
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 77. During 1901-2001 the population of India has increased by about 4 times. The sex ratio on a worldwide 2 scale is 986. The sex ratio of India in 1901 was 972 & the density in 1901 was just 77 persons/km . 78. The sex ratio of various religious communities/ other communities is Scheduled tribe (978), Scheduled Caste (936), Jains (940), Sikhs (893). 79. 1921 is taken as the year of demographic divide & 1931 as urbanization divide. 80. Jains have the highest literacy rate (overall, male as well as female) followed by Christians in all the three categories. Muslims have the highest proportion of children population among their total population. The census is conducted under the Census Act 1948. The census moment was 00:00 hours of 1 st March, 2001. India has 2.3 % of world's area & 16 % of total population. The district having least population density is Lahul & Spiti (2 person/Km2) & the highest density is in NE Delhi (29400) 81. Sikhs have recorded the lowest decadal growth rate of 16.9 %. Jain population has registered growth rate of population @ 26 % (highest among all religions) in 1991-2001 compared to 4.6 % during 1981-1991. Parsi population has shown signs of decline. 82. The sex ratio of India in 1991 was 927 which has improved to 933. The density of India in 1991 was 267 which has increased to 324 per/km during 2001 adding 57 persons per square km. 83. The over concentration of urban population in the big urban centers of India is called population implosion. As per the census a person is deemed as literate if he/she can read & write in any language with understanding. For the first time since independence there is a decline in the absolute number of illiterates during a decade. 84. The census 2001 has provided for the first time report on religious data. 85. The correct decreasing order in terms of sex ratio is Kerala (1058), Chhattisgarh (990), Tamil Nadu (986). Among UTS sex ratio is highest for Pondicherry (1001). 86. The urbanization is highest in Goa (49.7), Mizoram (49.5), Tamil Nadu (43.8) & Maharashtra (42.4). The least urbanized state in India is Himachal Pradesh (9%) Bihar (10%) & Sikkim (11%). In terms of absolute number of people living in Urban areas Maharashtra leads followed by UP. U.P has the maximum number of illiterates in absolute number followed by Bihar. 87. Lakshwadeep has the minimum population & maximum literacy rate (87.5) among UTs. Pondicherry has the maximum sex ration (1001) 88. The total number of districts in India in 2001 were 593 & total number of towns is 5161. Tamil Nadu has the maximum number of towns in India. Total number of urban agglomeration in India is 384 (maximum in M.P). The life expectation at birth in India is 61 years. 154
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 89. The Mediterraneans are considered to be the bearers of earliest form of Hinduism in India. Bulk of the population among lower caste is also comprised by the Mediterraneans in Northern India. 90. Jains have the minimum gap in literacy levels of małe & female in India. Muslims have the lowest literacy levels. Neo Determinism Geographical Thought Geogra hers & their Contribution Demo ra hic Transition Model Mobilit Transition Model C lindrical E ual Area Pro•ection Polar Zenithal E ual Area Pro•ection Sea Floor S readin Geos nclinal Theor of Mountain Buildin O timum Po ulation Theor Economic Theo of Po ulation Least Cost Theor Locational Interde endence Sub-O timal Location Economic Rent A ricultural re ions Natural Re ions Five Sta es model of Develo ment Growth Pole Atmos heric Circulation Model Convection Current H othesis Theor of Intervenin O ortunities Theor of Intervenin Obstacles Conce t of Urban Villa e Conce t of Urban Continuum Conce t of Rural Urban Frin e Geoso h conce t (sub•ective conce Geo acifics Conce t tions) Geo olitics Conce t Geonomics Conce t Densit -size rule Demo ra hic Index Po ulation Potential Centralit Index Ori in of rift valle Mo hometric Anal Pan lane conce t Primarum f conce t Panfan conce t sis Conce t of Base Level Griffith Ta lor W.S. Thomson & Frank W. Notestein Zelinsk J. Heinrich Lambert J. Heinrich Lambert Harr Hess Kober Sid wick (Later Dalton, Robbins, Carr Saunders) Leibenstein Weber Palender Smith Ricardo Whitiesse Herbertson W.W. Rostov Francois Perroux Palmen Arthur Holmes S.A. Stouffer E.S. Lee H.J. Hans R.E. Pahl Pr or John Wri ht Griffith Ta lor K Haushofer G. T Renner R.H. Best B.J.L. Be G Torn vist Preston Bullard Strahler Crickma Penck Lawson. Powell 155
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    Ghanshyam Thori Core-Peri her Model Cultural Hearth Conce t of Se uent Occu ance Mental Ma Differential Heatin conce t of Monsoon Cro Combinations Theor Line of Com ensation Etch lain Gravit Model Plastic S ace Com a e Densit & Fecundit Theor Cultural Realms of the World Conce t of Re ional S nthesis Re ional Science Conce t Re ional S stem Conce t Uniformitarianism Mountain Root Theor Cumulative Causation Theo Maximum Revenue Theo Conce t of Natural Boundar G Scale (Scale of Natural Values) IncubatorH othesis Time S ace Conver ence Theo Cit of Need & Cit of Death (Conce ts) Tre en Conce t Tan ent of Avera e Slo e Use of Dots SIAL, SIMA, NIFE classification Identified four basic edo enic re Conce t of Cit Re ion Conce t of 'Garden Cit Social Ph sics Human Welfare conce t S atial Or anization Behaviouralism Humanism Universalism Particularism Idealism Realism Pra matism Positivism Marxism imes Geography Notes Friedmann Sauer Whittlese L nch & Gould Halle J.C. Weaver Pratt Pu h & Thomas T. Q. Stewart Pi Feror Whittlese S addler Broek & Webb Berr Isard Tuan Hutton Air Gunnar M rdal A Losch La er Ha et & Chorie Hoover & Vernon D Janeile W. Bun e Albrecht Penck E Raisz & J Henr A H Robinson E. Suess Simonson R.E. Dickinson Ebenezer Howard Stewart David Harve Smith Philoso hies & Geogra hers Huff, Ha erstand, Cox, Peter Gould, Tobbler John wri ht, Lowenthal, Kirk, Tuan Talcot Parsons Hoselitz Leonard Guelke John Scott, Gibson Pierce Au uste Comte, BJL Berr David Harve 156 David Harve William Bun e
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    Ghanshyam Thori Welfare A roach Radicalism Probabilism Meterolo ica Guide to Geo ra h Quadri aritum (effect of On Airs, Water & Places Histor of Plants General Treatise Geography Notes D.M Smith & David Harve Peet O.H.K. S ate Works of Geo ra hers osition of celestial bodies on Humans) Ex osition of the World S stem The World & its Peo le Prolo ue to PO ulation Geo ra h J otisiddhanta The Economics of Location The Earth & its resources Statistical Anal sis in Geo ra h Land of Britain — Its use & Misuse Editor of Anti ode Methods of Re ional Anal sis On Geo ra h & its Histor Post Modern Geo ra hies The Ma•or Natural Re ions of the World Com arative Method Cosmo ra hic Universalis Nouvelle Geo ra hic Universelle Realm of Nature Territorial Production Com lex 111 Million Jewahirat Descri tion of the Earth The Histor of Geo ra h Geo ra h as Human Ecolo Theoretical Geo ra h Radical Geo ra h Rural Settlement & Landuse S stematic Geo ra h Geo ra h as fundamental research disci line Where is the Research Frontier A roaches to Re ional Anal sis: AS nthesis Geo ra hic Influences on American Histor Princi les of Geolo 157 Aristotle Ptolem Ptolem Hi ocrates Theo hrastus Strabo La lace H.J Fleure (British) W. Zelinsk A abhatta A. Losch Finch, Trewartha & Shearer L.J.Kin Stam R. Peet Isard D. Stoddart E. So•a A. J. Herbertson Carl Ritter Sebastian Munster Elisee Reclus H Robert Mill Kellossvosk Marco Polo Al Biruni Al Battani J N L Baker H H Barrows William Bun e R. Peet M. Chisolhm W. M Davis E. A. Ackerman E. A Ackerman B.J. L Berr Albert P Birmin ham Charles L ell (1830)
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    Ghanshyam Thori Cit Re ion & Re ionalism Economic Geo ra h of Britain Isaiah Bowman The s atial or anization of Societ Silent S rin R.E. Dickinson Smith The Pioneer Frin e Morill Carson Famous Saying/Quotation/Thought Earth uakes & Volcanoes are caused b winds Soil Erosion & Land destruction are arts of culture, histor & re eated in man Our senses can tell us fire is hot but not wh it is hot Geo ra h is the science which deals with the art of ma makin laces The best economic programme for a country to follow is determined by nature & it is eo ra hers dut to inte ret this ro ramme As bod is made of soul, the h sical lobe is made for mankind We must ask the earth itself for its laws Geo ra h is the mirror of man; to know the world is to know ourself Give me the map of a country & I pledge myself to tell you what the man count will be & what art that count will la in histor People of cold climate are physically stron, more courageous, less suspicious cunnin than those in the warm climate The environment in essentiall neutral of the & less Environment taken by itself is a meaningless phrase; without man environment does not exist The main obstacle between Hindus & Muslims is the Varna s stem Geo ra h is the Stud of artial distribution & s ace relations on the earth's surface Man can never et entirel rid himself of the hold his environment has on him Human environment relationshi is d namic rather than static Human geography is the study of changing relationship between unresting man & the unstable earth Present is the Ke to the ast I traveled, I sketched, I described Cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the a ent, the natural area the medium, the cultural landsca e the result Geography is the study of things associated in areas, mutually interacting, Geography Notes Aristotle Plato Aristotle Ptolem Stop & Go Determinism Carl Ritter Carl Ritter Yi Fu Tuan Ratzel Montesquiue Edward Ullman O.H.K. spate Al-Biruni E. A. Ackerman L Febvre Sem le Semple James Hutton Ratzel Sauer Blache characterizn articular se ments on the earth surface. Who ets what, where & how Nature to be commanded must be obe ed (Neo determinism) Welfare Geo ra h Regional geographers may be trying to put boundaries that do not exist around areas that do not matter It is the links in the landsca e rather than the breaks that im ress the scientific mind Defined eo ra h as 'Discover of redictive atterns' durin uantitative revolution Dimension of society are analogous to the physical dimensions & include numbers of eo le, distance & time Geo ra h comes throu h the soles of one's shoes 158 Fracis Bacon Kimble Kimble Bun e Social Physics Grieve
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    Ghanshyam Thori Classical Geo ra Lebensrauam Ort Lichkeiten Zusammenhan (Harmonius unit amon diverse Princi le of Activit & Princi le of Interaction Conce t of World Island hical Conce ts henomena on earth) Geography Notes Ratzel Richthofen Humboldt Jean Brunhes Mackinder Kant Ukraine S ace time conce t Er threan Sea Istre Ivernia Irene Palus Maeotis Boresthenes H rcanian Sea of Larve Sea of Shelhat Arbela Nishad Krishna iri Menka iri Kim urusa Arbud Rha ton Ancient Names Arabian Sea/lndian Ocean Sc thia Iceland Ireland Sea of Azov Dnei er Cas ian Sea Arabian Sea Malacca Sea Meso otamia (Ira ) Hindukush Mountains Karakoram Siwalik Tibetan Plateau Aravalli Tan an ika Sinus Arabicus Ta rabone Rha Tanais Euxine Ele hantine Cataract Sea of Kendre Coniaci Mother of Euxine Zaradrus Acesi es H dratoes H hasis Ch rse Arabicus Sinus Aromata Red Sea Sri Lanka vol a Don Black Sea Aswan Gulf of Thailand Ca e Comorin Sea of Azov Sutle Chenab Ravi Beas Mala Peninsula Red Sea Somali Coast * - Name in Italics are Puranic Names Miscellaneous Facts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The term latitude & longitude were first used by Ptolemy. Ptolemy also developed the polyconic projection. Ptolemy considered the Indian ocean as an inland sea. The Greek cartography is said to have attained its culmination (reach zenith) at the hands of Ptolemy. Eratosthenes is considered father of geodesy. Elisee Reclus was an anarchist geographer. The main contribution of Romans was in the field of Historical & regional geography. Anaximander used the term 'latitude' & longitude' for the first time. Hippocrates was the founder of medical geography (also father of medicine). The T-O map was developed during the dark ages (Christian parts — 200 to 700 AD) & was oriented towards east. The main contribution of Al Idrisi was in the field of Cartography & that of Ibn Khaldun in Human Geography. Varenius 'General Geography' was 'Systematic Geography' & 'Special Geography' was 'Regional'. 159
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 6. 7. 8. 9. The Prime Meridian of the classical Indian geographers used to be drawn through the city of Ujjain, Lanka & Mt. Meru (North Pole). The Vedic planets are Buddha (Mercury), Brihaspati (Jupiter), Mangala (Mars) & Shukra (Venus). Humboldt attempted to formulate general or abstract laws. He believed that all the races of man had a common origin. Ritter was the first professor of Geography. The "principle of interaction" was introduced by Brunhes. Strabo is considered the father of Chorology ie 'regional geography'. Strabo attempted to explain that slope, relief & climate were all the work of god. Griffith Taylor applied the concept of 'Zones & Strata' for the evolution of races of mankind. Kant Freed Geography from its tight bonds with theology. Herodotus was associated with Pythagorean School of philosophy. Hipparachus prepared catalogue of star. Thales was associated with Ionian School of Philosophy. Archytas measured the total length of the land & sea. Archimedes deducted that the surface of the sea must be convex. 10. Ruling deity & directions were: Yama (South), Indra (East), Varuna (West), Kuber (North) & Brahma (Zenith). The first Indian university to establish geography department was Madras University. The first detailed map of India was prepared by Ptolemy. Bhaskaracharya was the ancient Indian scholar who divided earth into 360 degrees. 11. The ancient Puranic directions were North West (Vayavya), North East (Isana), South West (Nairitya) & South East (Agneyay). 12. Hartshorne rejected environmental determinism as it separates nature from man & is thus disruptive of fundamental unity of the field. Oscal Peschel was the originator of the dualism between Physical & Human Geography. 13. W.M Davis concept was down wasting & Penck's Concept was back wasting. The quantitative models recognize men as passive agents. 14. G.K. Gilbert was the first to establish the relationship between load of a river, its volume, velocity & gradient. He gave the concept of grade. 15. Thales was the first Greek scholar to be concerned about the measurement & location of things on the surface of the earth. Thales applied the principles of geometry to measuring land area. Herodotus is often called the father of ethnography. 16. Plato conceived the world as having been created in perfection but now in the process of decline from perfection. 17. Aristotle was a teleologist. In fact he is considered the father of teleologist concept as he believed that everything was changing according to a pre-existing plan. Aristotle founded his own school in Athens 160
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes which he named Lyceum. Aristotle added 'ether' to the list of four basic substances (earth, water, fire & air) comprising all materials on the earth. He considered equatorial regions as uninhabitable. 18. Eratosthenes accepted an invitation from the king of Egypt to become the royal tutor & was also named as 'Alpha fellow' at the museum in Alexandria. 19. Pytheas was the first Greek to tell about ocean tides & showed that tides were related to the phases of the moon. Eudoxus, a contemporary of Plato developed the theory of zones of climate based on increasing slopes (Klima) away from the sun on a spherical surface. 20. Homer was considered by Strabo as the founder of all geographical knowledge but Strabo considered Herodotus as a 'fable monger' & 'fiction retailer'. Herodotus described about the "dumb commerce" practiced by Carthagians with primitive tribes in western Africa. 21. As a result of the voyage of Ibn Haukal to the south of equator the wrong notion about the inhabitability of the torrid zone came to an end. 22. Al-Masudi said that there is no place on the earth that is always covered with water, nor one that is always land but a constant revolution takes place. Al Masudi also said that the power of the earth vary in their influence on man on account of three causes viz water, natural vegetation & topography. Al Masudi correlated the colour of ocean water & its salinity 23. Al-Biruni referred to the "Mountain of Moon" situated near the equator which was the source of Nile river & was of the opinion that floods in the Nile occurred because of the heavy rains in the upper reaches of the Nile. 24. Pferre d' Ally wrote 'Imagine Mundi' which influenced Columbus to search a route to Asia moving westward from the Canary Islands. 25. Varenious in his treatise on regional geography outlined its contents under three sections: Celestial properties, terrestrial properties & human properties. 26. Kant recognized the importance of commercial geography, theological geography, moral geography & mathematical geography & saw them heavily influenced by underlying physical geography. Kant believed that physical geography is the first part of knowledge of the earth. 27. Ritter emphasized that he was teaching a 'new scientific geography' in contrast to the traditional lifeless summary of facts about countries. 'Erdkunde' means earth science. 28. The term 'anthropogeographic' was coined by Ratzel & was used by him for the Organic theory of society & state. 29. Sauer established a research group at Berkeley School that focused on the historical — ecological study of cultural landscapes. 161
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 30. Chisolhm is considered father of economic geography. Mackinder renamed his 'Pivot Area' as 'Heartland' in his famous book 'Demographic ideals & reality'. 31. Humanism emphasizes the importance of participant observation, iconography, place & hermeneutics. The humanistic geography aims at 'Verstehn' which means understanding of man in his environment. 32. Behavioural geography did not bring about a revolution away from quantitative geography, it became an attachment to it. Behavioural geography also adopted positivist approach. Preds work represents an attempt to incorporate probability into the locational analysis. 33. White had presented the PhD thesis on 'Human response to floods'. Taylor on the basis of climatic cycles evolved a theory known as the 'Migration zone theory of race evolution' where he assumed that climate has been a cause of human migrations. 34. O' Riordian has given forms of environmentalism. 'Ecocentrism' & 'Technocentrism' are the two major forms of Environmentalism according to him. 35. The basic dictum of existentialism is 'Man makes Himself'. To the existentialist for every landscape or existential geography someone can be held accountable. 36. To the idealist the explanation of an action is complete when the agent's goal & theoretical understanding of his situation have been discovered. 37. The American School represents the major tradition of Cultural Geography in the 20th century. 38. Patanjali described the crop regions on the basis of climate & soil. The area drained by Saptasindhu contained all the rivers of Punjab along with Saraswati & Present Gagghar. 162
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    Ghanshyam Thori Techniques of Geographical Analysis Various Measurin Instruments Geography Notes H drometer Atmometer Cam bell Strokes Recorder Cielometer Octas Reversin Thermometer Sundial Wind Vane O tical S uare C nometer Analemma Tachometer Tacheometer Odometer Rotameter Auxanometer Udometer Wentworth Scale Saffir Sim son scale Fu •ita Scale Miscellaneous Facts: Relative densit of a li uid/ Measurement of water flow in currents Rate of Eva oration Sunshine Hei ht of Clouds Amount of Cloud cover Tem erature of Ocean De th Duration of Sunshine Wind Direction onl (not winds eed). For short off-sets from chainline to an ob•ect close b Blueness of Sk Scale drawn on the lobe to show dail declination of the sun indicates rotational (an ular) s eed in revolutions er minute ( Measurement of horizontal & vertical osition of a oint Measurin distance traveled b a vehicle Measurin len th (es stream lines on ma )/ rate of fluid flow Measurin rowth in lants A rain ua e Classif articles ran in from boulders to colloids Measurin Hurricane Intensit Measures Relative severit & dama e of Tornado m) 1. 2. 3. Cadastral map can be best reduced by Pantograph & wall maps are generally reduced with the help of Camera Lucida. A map with diagrammatic statistical information is known as Cartogram. One yard is equal to 3 feet. 1760 yards make a mile. Gall's Projection is most suitable for general purpose world map. In Mercator projection the scale along the Meridians & Parallel is the same & hence it maintains accuracy of shape. Sinusoidal (Sansom Flamsteed) projection is suitable for Africa. For drawing map of small countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka, France, Portugal the Simple conical projection with one standard parallel is most suitable. Galls projection is rectangular in shape & is most suitable for General purpose map of the world. 163
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The Ria coast contours are shown below the sea level. The chorographical maps are drawn on a very small scale & give more or less highly generalized information. Hypsometer measures the proportion of area of the surface at different elevation above or below the sea level. Most globes are formed from a series of roughly triangular maps called gores, which are glued on the outside of a sphere. The earliest known globe is said to have been constructed by a Greek scholar Crates about 150 BC. The Indian topographical maps have the scale 1" = 1 mile. The scale of degree sheets published by the Survey of India is 1:250,000. Aerial photographs of India are supplied by Survey of India. March to April & September to October is the best period for aerial photography. Europe (Polyconic projection) Asia (Zenithal Equidistant), General purpose map of India (Bonnes) & USA (Lambert's Zenithal Equal Area) Distribution map of world (Cylindrical Equal Area) The Gnomonic Projection is a great circle projection. Transverse Mercator's projection is also known as Gauss conformal projection & it never shows pole. LANDSAT orbit allows the imaging of the location about every two & a half weeks. 10. Topographical maps are prepared on a smaller scale than a map of Delhi. 11. Halley prepared the first weather map of the world. In the year 1884 the meridian that passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich in London was established as the global starting point for measuring longitudes. 12. Conical map projections were the first map projections developed by ancient Greeks. Pole is represented by an arc in conical projections. Cardinal points refer to the four main directions on a compass. 13. In Azimuthal projection the direction of one point with respect to the other point is the same as it is on the globe. In all cylindrical projections, meridians are equispaced. In all cylindrical projections latitudinal scale is correct only along the equator. 14. Perspective projection is also known as geometrical projection. In Mercators projection, a straight line drawn is a line of constant bearing (Loxodrome) but it does not give the shortest distance. Still it is popular among navigators as they project the great circles into smaller loxodromes & then navigate through Mercators projection. 15. The stereographic projection is suitable for navigational chart. Gnomonic projection is used for air routes in the higher latitudes. Mercator projection is also referred to as Cylindrical Orthomorphic projection. 16. The counters showing vertical cliff come very close to meet each other but do not intersect each other. Longitudinal profile would suit to show a waterfall. 164
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    Ghanshyam Thori Geography Notes 17. The direction of the hachures is the same as that in which water would flow ie the direction of slope. Hachures cut contours obliquely. Hill Shading is a modern substitute for hachures. It involves shading the slopes which are usually shadowed form the sun. 18. The true north is called geographic north. 19. For a map, horizontal equivalent is generally not constant, however the vertical equivalent is constant. 20. The various colours used in making maps are Cultivated area (yellow), Grasslands (light green), Forests (Dark Green) & Built up area (Brown). 21. The balloon borne instrument used to measure different atmospheric elements & sending information to the ground is called Radio Sounde. 22. The wet bulb & dry bulb thermometer is used to measure Humidity. 23. Equal area projections are Cylindrical equal area, Bonnes projection, Sinusoidal projection, Stereoscopic projection & Mollweids projection. 24. The world is divided into 136 million sheets. The million sheets are further divided into 16 parts — A to P. The reduced bearing equivalent of whole circle bearing 2250 is S 450 W. 25. On a topographical map built up areas like village site, towns, roads are shown by brown colour. 26. SPOT was the first satellite to offer a stereoscopic cover. Quick bird is the highest resolution satellite of the world. At international date line west side of the line is always one day ahead of the east side. 27. The IRS satellite has a polar, sun synchronous orbit. It returns to its original orbit after 22 days. The satellite takes about 103 minutes for completing one orbit. 28. Daylight Saving, system of setting clocks 1 or 2 hours ahead so that both sunrise and sunset occur at a later hour, producing an additional period of daylight in the evening. Daylight saving was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin. 29. China with a longitudinal extent of 50 degrees has only one time zone corresponding to the eastern part of the country. 30. Africa cannot be shown suitably on Bonnes projection. 31. Ancient period maps: Circular showing Europa north of Asia surrounded by Oceanus on all sides (Hecataeus), Rectangular having cylindrical projection (Eratosthenes) & Conical shape projection (Ptolemy), Heart shaped map (Peter Apian), world in two hemispheres (Mercator) — [Refer last 3-4 pages of S.K Manocha for map]. 165
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