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    "JULIUS CAESAR' By:-WiIIiam Shakespeare DRAMA-2 Reference to context type questions. Read the extracts and answer that follows. 1. CAESAR Cowards die many times before their death The valiant never taste of death but nc . Of all the wonders that I yet hav eard. It seems to me most strange tha men should fear Seeing that death neceSs ry end, Will come w e it will ome. (a) Who is Caesar speaking to? Wh does he say these words? 1 10th ENGLISH Caesar is speaking to Calpurma. She want him to stay at home as she feels his life is in danger. (b) What. fears has the listenec,expressed? She fears his death is imminent. (c) What is the basis for the fears expressed? He dream, unusual sights seen the previous night. 2. CAESAR Nor heaven nor earth have against the conspirators. Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out, 'Help, ho! They murder Caesar!'
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    2 (a) Explain : 'Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night'. Ans. There has been a terrible storm at night and the skies have been raging all night. Calpurnia, too, has had a disturbed sleep at night. Three times at night she cried out that Caesar was being murdered. (b) What did Calpurnia dream of? Ans. Calpurnia dreamt of the murder of Caesar. She saw Caesar's statue run with blood like a fountain, while many smiling Romans bathed t i hands in the blood. (c) In what mood does Calpurnia speak to Caesar a out the events of the night? Ans. She is frightened by the unnatural occurren es the nl ht beforea very anxious about Caesar's safety. She feels these porte—tsand omens signify that a major calamity will befall Caesar as these unnatural Slg ts indicate the death of a great leader. 3. CALPURNIA Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies. Yet now he fright me. There is one within, Besides t e things that we have heard and seen, Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch. (a) Exp am,'l never stood on ceremonies'. Ans. I did no believe In mens and portents. (b) Mention any twp sights seen by the watch? Ans. A lioness whelping in the streets; graves opening and dead bodies lying around; warriors fighting upon the clouds, and their blood falling on the Capitol; horses neighing in fear, dying men groaning, ghosts shrieking about the streets. (c) How does Calpurnia's attitude towards the strange occurrences of the night differ from Caesar's?
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    3 Ans. While Calpurnia is frightened by the strange occurrences of the night and sees them as omens foretelling grave danger to Caesar, Caesar is not afraid and regards them as natural happenings. 4. DECIUS BRUTUS CAESAR I have, when you have heard what I can says; And know it now: the senate have concluded To give this day a crown to mighty Caesar. If you shall send them word you ill not come, Their minds may change How foolish do your fears seem now, Calpurnia! I am ashamed I di ield to them. (a) What argument does Decius give to convince to go to the senate? Ans. He tells Caesar that the senate hav ecide ovTfer a crown to him that day, and if he does not attend the eeting of enate, may change their minds. (b)How does Caesar react to Decius's words? Ans. Caesar dismisse senate. urnia sffears as being foolish and gets ready to go to the (c) Mention two qualities of Caesar shown by his action. Ans. Caesar is ambitious, he disregards personal safety; he is not a good judge of character. 5. ANTONY O might Caesar! Dost thou lie so low? Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure? Fare thee well. I know not, gentlemen, what you intend,
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    4 Who else must be let blood, who else is rank: (a) Where does the mighty Caesar lie? What is meant by 'this little measure'? Ans. On the ground at the foot of Pompey's statue. This small piece of land. (b) Who are the gentlemen Antony addresses? Ans. The conspirators standing next to Caesar's body. (c) Give the meaning of 'Who else must be let blood, who else is rank:'. Why does Antony say this? Ans. Who is the other person who has to be • Iled nex Anthon -wants to know the intentions of the conspirators towards him. 6. ANTONY My credit now tands on uch slippery ground, That one o st o bad Wa s you mUYconceit me, Either a c ward or attere . Tha I did ve ee, Cae ar, O, 'tis true'. (a) When and to whom does Antony speak these words? Ans. After Caesar's ssassmätion. o the conspirators. (b)What is eant by the word 'credit'? Why does Antony's credit stand on slippery ground? Ans. Credit refers to reputation. Antony's reputation stands on unsteady ground as he was Caesar's friend and he was shaking hands with his murderers. (c) What does Antony think the conspirators would regard him as? What effect do these words have on the listeners? Ans. They would regard him as a coward or a flatterer. Cassius is taken aback by Antony's direct speech. He asks Antony if they may consider him a friend or a foe.
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    7. ANTONY 5 And am moreover suitor that I may Produce his body to the market-place; And in the pulpit, as becomes a friend, Speak in the order of his funeral. (a) What request does Antony make of the conspirators? Ans. He requests the conspirators to alloy him to take aesar's body to the market place and as his friend speak at Caesar's funeral. (b) How does Brutus react to Antony's request? Ans. Brutus agree to Antony's request. (c) Why does Cassius try to dissuade Brutus?1What is the consequence of Brutus' mistake? Ans. Cassius says the Antony ill be ab e to stlr.e emotions of the people and turn them against the conspirators. Ant ony was le to stir the emotions of the people and turn the tide agains the conspirators. 8. BRUTUS B patien till the last. Romans ountrymen, and lovers! Hear me for my cause, and be silent, that you may hear: believe me for mine honour, and have respect to mine honour, that you may believer: censure me in your wisdom, and awake your senses, that you may the better judge. (a) Where is Brutus at the present moment? What is the occasion? Ans. In a pulpit in the market place in Rome. The conspirators have just assassinated Caesar and Brutus is giving the Romans the reasons for the assassination. (b) What is Brutus's cause for killing Caesar?
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    6 Ans. His fear that Caesar was becoming a dictator. (c) What error of judgement does Brutus make while delivering the speech? Ans. Brutus misjudges the Roman mob. He appeals to reason but the mob does not understand his logic. This is evident from the speech of the citizen who declares at the end of Brutus's speech, 'Let him be Caesar'. 10. You know not what you do: do not consent That Antony speak in his funeral: Know you how much the people may be move b that utter? hich he will (a) Who advises whom? Ans. Cassius advise Brutus. (b) Whose 'funeral' is referred to? Ans. He is referring to aesar's uneral. (c) What light do these words throw on the character of the speaker? Ans. The speaker is goo judge ofcharacter. TEXTUAL QUESTIONS 1. How do the heaven 'blaze forth' the death of Julius Caesar? Ans. Sending omens foretelling a major calamity-Calpurnia's dream of Caesar being murdered, a lioness whelping in the streets- graves opening and dead bodies lying
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    7 around- warriors fighting upon the clouds, and drizzling blood upon the Capitol-horses neighing, dying men groaning, ghosts shrieking about the streets. 2. Of what does Calpurnia try to convince Caesar? Ans. Calpurnia tries to convince Caesar to stay at home-not go the Capitol. 3. Why does Capurnia say Caesar's 'wisdom is consumed in confidence'? What does she mean? Ans. Though Caesar is wise, he is over-confident. His wisdom i destroyed by his over- confidence. 4. What did Calpurnia dream about Caesar? How did Decius Brutusyinterpret the dream? Ans. Calpurnia dream she saw Caesar's statue spout blood li fountain with a hundred spouts and Romans came smiling and di pe their hands In it. She saw the dream as a warning that danger was imminen . Deciu Brutus interprets the dream as a lucky vision. He said it signified that rom Caesar ome shall imbibe fresh life and great men will earnestly desire relics-marked it his blood 5. What are the arguments put forward by Decius Brutus to convince Caesar to go to the Capitol? Ans. Decius fla ters Caesar into disregarding the fears of his wife. He says that the senate has decided to offe a crown to Caesar that day and if he does not go they may change their minds and mock' im for being afraid. They may say that the senate should be dismissed his death. 6. Why is Decius more successful than Calpurnia in persuading Caesar? Ans. Decius is more successful than Calpurnia in persuading Caesar because he applied to Caesar's ambition and vanity. Caesar accompanies the conspirator's to the Capitol and to his death.
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    8 7. What is the petition put before Caesar by the conspiratiors? How does Caesar respond to it? Ans. The conspirators want Caesar to recall the order of exile passed against Metellus Cimber's brother, Publius. Caesar refuses to listen to them and change his mind. 8. Who says 'Et tu, Brute'? When are these words spoken? Why? Ans. Caesar says these words just after Brutus stabbed him. aesar loved Brutus and could not believe Brutus would do such a deed. 9. In the moments following Caesar's death, wha do the conspirator proclaim to justify Caesar's death? Ans. Liberty, freedom and enfranchisement the have kille aesar to free Rome of him and to establish democracy. 10. Seeing the body of Caesar, Antony is overcome_by grief. What does he say about Caesar? Ans. The sight of aesar's bod ills Antony's mind will utter grief and disbelief. He wounders how a man lik Caesar, great in deed and reputation could be reduced to a small, pat eticbod on mall piece of ground. He grieves openly over Caesar's body is angry at the col blooded murder. 11. Whom has Anton call "the choice and master spirits of this age?" Why? Ans. Antony calls the conspirators-Brutus, Cassius and the others-'the choice and master spirits of this age'. He does not actually regard them so. He seems to mock them, though he pretends to please them. 12. How do Brutus and Cassius respond to his speech?
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    9 Ans. Brutus tells Antony not to beg for his death at their hands. He justifies his killing Caesar, saying he loves Rome more than he loved his friend. Cassius, in a bid to appease Antony, says that he will have a say in the new government. 13. Why does Cassius object to allowing Antony to speak at Caesar's funeral? Ans. Cassius that if Antony is allowed to speak at Caesar's funeral, he might sway the public opinion against them. He is afraid of his oratory. Brutus overcomes his objection by saying that he will speak first and tell the people that Antony has their permission to speak. 14. What are the conditions imposed by the conspirators before-allowing Antony to speak at Caesar's funeral? Ans. The conspirators ask Antony n to b ame the or Caesar's murder while addressing the citizens at Caesar's funeral.N e mus ay that they have permitted him to speak. Moreover, he must s eak fter Brutus has ex lained to the people the circumstances in which Caesar was urdered 15. When he is left alone ith th bod of Caesar what does Antony call Brutus and the others? Ans. When Antony is ft lone wit he body of Caesar, he gives vent to his anger and ca 1 Brutus and thee!her conspiratione butchers. He says that those who had anguish. shed the bloo t e Caesarw uld have to pay a heavy price for the criminal deed. 16. What prediction does Antony make regarding the future events in Rome? Ans. Antony predicts civil war in which there would be much violence, bloodshed and destruction. Mothers would smile only when they see their infants killed in war. Pity would be destroyed due to foul deeds becoming common. Caesar's spirit would roam about for revenge. Dead bodies would rot and stink all around. There would be no one to give them a decent burial. 17. What reasons does Brutus give for murdering Caesar?
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    10 Ans. Brutus tells the Roman mob that he murdered Caesar not out of any lack of love for him but because of his extreme love for Rome. Caesar was ambitious and dictatorial. He feared that the Romans would live as slaves under Caesar's leadership. So he got Rome rid of Caesar. He wants to establish democracy in Rome. 18. Who says, 'Let him be Caesar'? What light does this throw on the speaker? Ans. One of the Romans utters these words after Brutus' speech. He has not clearly understood the reasons Brutus has given for the murder of aesar. His words express mock psychology. He is all praise for Brutus. 19. Why is Antony's speech more effective? Ans. Antony's speech is more effective han that o Brutus. rutus depends too much on logic and reason. Antony appeals to uman ea RThec on people get swayed by the emotional appeal of his speech. They failt unders and the logic of Brutus. 20. At the end of the scene what is he fate of Brutus and Cassius? Ans. At the end of Antony's speech, the people get angry. They attack Brutus and cassius, who somehow escape They rus o set fire to their houses. The Roman citizens are completel wa ed by Anton ' speech and they run to punish the conspiratione. 21.How was Caesar murdered? Ans. The mightly Ju us Caesar, the emperor of Rome, was mercilessly murdered in the Senate Hall. As soon as he entered the Senate Hall, Metellus Cimber, the brother of banished Publius Cimber made an appeal to him that his brother's banishment might be repealed. But Caesar, constant in his resolve, refused to do so unless there was some solid reason. Caesar said that he was firm in his resolve when he banished Publius Cimber and he is still firm in his resolve to keep him banished. When Caesar refused to repeal the banishment, the senators surrounded him and Caska struck him in the back. Then the other conspirators stabbed Caesar on after the other Brutus was the last of all to strike him.
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    11 When Brutus struck Caesar, the latter was shocked. He could not believe that his dearest friend Brutus was capable of such a treacherous act. Caesar loved Brutus, he was kind to him, so he did not expect that Brutus too could be a part of the conspiracy. He uttered only these words: "Et tu, Brute" and fell down. The conspirators then smeared Caesar's blood on their swords and walked towards the market place, raising slogans "Peace, Freedom and Liberty". Additional Questions 1. Write a Character Sketch of Julius Caesar? Ans. Julius Caesar is ve Anuch a warrior. hinks that he is above everyone else and that he is more tha n ordinary n. As result he is very arrogant and over-confident and takes very little noti of the eople around him. Though he claims to be as constant as the northern star, h is Indecisive d easily swayed by others (as in the case of his indecision •n Olng to the senate .Øss far as he is concerned, the senators are not important and to be spurne out o is ay. Common people have a great deal of respect for Caesar and probably believe that he would be a good, powerful leader who has Rome's welfare at heart. Caesar is ruthless and he craves power. He also believes that everybody likes him and that is why he's surprised when the conspirators attack him. 2. What is Calpurnia's dream about Caesar? How does Decius Brutus Interpret the dream? Ans. Calpurnia sees in her dream that blood is pouring forth from sprouts in Caesar's statue. Many Romans come smiling and bathe their hands in Caesar's blood. Calpurnia
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    12 interprets the dream as a kind of warning that there is a danger to Caesar's life. She calls it a bad omen. So she asks Caesar not to go out of the house. 3. Why did Calpurnia try to prevent Caesar from going to the senate house? Did she succeed in her attempt? Why? Ans. Calpurnia urges Caesar not to go out of his because many bad omens had taken place. She has had a dream in which she saw Caesar being assassinated. The watchmen had seen certain horrid sights. Graves had been throwing ou the dead bodies and blood had drizzled upon the building of the Capitol. Ghosts had b heard shrieking and squealing in streets. She had never seen such sights be ore. herefore, he impressed upon Caesar not to leave home, but she failed in her attempts. Caesar was a man and had no faith in superstitious beliefs. 4. How does Decius interpret Calpurnia's dream about aesar? Ans. Calpurnia has seen in her dream Caes 's stat e throwing forth blood in several streams and many Roman bathing t ei hand in his blood. But Decius says that Calpurnia has misinte reted h dream. c ording to his, this dream means that the Romans would draw v alit from Ca sar. He interprets her dream as a good sign, not an evil omen ecording to im, Caesar would prove to be the source of renewed vitality for the country. 5. What is Caesar' reply to Metellus Cimber's petition in the Senate house? Ans. Caesar tells Cimber that no amount of humility and courtesy on his part would melt his heart Humility and flattery might influence ordinary men but not Caesar. Only fools can be deflected from the right path of justice by means of flattery. He says that Cimber has been banished by a decree and if Cimber kneels and implores, he would treat him as if he were a dog. He asserts that he never issues any wrong orders, hence there is no scope of invoking them.
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    13 6. How does Brutus justify the assassination of Caesar? Ans. Brutus loved Caesar very much but he loved Rome more than anything else. He was convinced that if Caesar lived, the Romans would be treated like slaves by him. It was in the interest of the Romans and Republicanism that Caesar was killed. There was every danger of Caesar becoming a tyrannical dictator. He told the mob that he wept over Caesar's death because Caesar used to love him. No doubt, Caesar was a valiant man, even then Brutus had to participate in his assassination because he (Caesar) was an over- ambitious man. According to him, every Roman, who loves fre dom should be happy at Caesar's death. 7. Give two instances from the Play to prove that Mark Antony was a good orator. Ans. Mark Antony was a gifted and powerfu orator. In i funeral speech he uses irony, satire, pathetic tone and sarcasm in orde to convince peo le that Caesar was not ambitious. He repeatedly calls Brutus an honourable manor. an ironical manner. Then he reminds the crowd that Caesar ad refus the crown offered to him thrice. Then he tells the mob that Caesar was kind and loved the people. Fie has left a will in which Caesar has Nar given many things to the pe ple. T en he ouse the passions of the people by showing them the wounds in icted on aesar's bod y the conspirators whom he calls traitors. The Roman people ar wayed by Antony's powerful speech and they run to punish the conspirator 8. How was Antony successful in instigating the people of Rome against the conspirators? Ans. Antony addresses the Romans at Caesar's funeral. He draws the attention of the mob to Caesar's dead body. He points to many wounds which have been inflicted upon Caesar's body by the traitors. Drawing the attention towards one particular wound that had been made by the dagger of Brutus, he calls it "the most unkindest cut of all" because it was treachery on the part of Brutus. As a great orator, Antony encashes upon the sentimentality of the ordinary people; tears begin to flow from their eyes.
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    14 9. What is the dramatic importance of the supernatural elements in the play? Ans. Supernatural elements are an integral part of the play. They are not of a pleasant or pleasurable kind, but of a fearful and frightening kind. These supernatural events give rise to a feeling of fear and awe. Caesar's death is presaged by numerous omens- the hooting and shrieking by the bird of night, a lioness giving birth to her young ones in the street, graves opening wide, fierce battles being fought in the clouds and blood running out of Caesar's statue. All these sights and incidents prepare us for an atmosphere that is surcharged with mystery, conspiracy and tragedy. 10. What is the importance of the mob in the play? Ans. The mob in the play corresponds in many respects to th Chorus of th Greek plays. In Julius Caesar, we get all the characteristi of he Roman mob-their credulity, ignorance, fits of irresistible but transient erocity, contradictions and violent INT exaggerations. The mob is extreme y ICkle in mind, ost unthinking and impulsive in action, very obstinate, blind in calculatlomand Judgement and quite reckless in action. Immediately after Caesar' murder we see how the mo is excited and exploited. It shouts words of praise at Brutus bu Eth ame time the 0b is ready to burn his house. 11. How was Caesar assassinated? Ans. The conspirators row ed around Caesar in support of a petition presented by Metellus Cimber. rutus and Cassius support the plea. Caesar repels them declaring that Publius had been banished fo good reasons. The conspirators move nearer until suddenly Casca draws a knife and stabs Caesar. Other conspirators follows suit. Brutus is the last to attack. Finding Brutus also among his assassins, Caesar dies with the phrase, 'Et tu Brute' (You also Brutus!) on his lips.


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