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How To Make Sentences- Basics

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Phrases, Clauses, Types of Sentences

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    1 Introduction to the Enqlish Course Phrases and Clauses l. Phrase A group or collection of words that work together to make meaning, but it is not a complete sentence. May have nouns or verbals Does not have subject (Noun) doing a verb. It does not have both a subject and a verb Phrases are units of meaning that can be put together to make up sentences. Examples of phrases: the brown hat (noun phrase) my English teacher (noun phrase) the grocery store (noun phrase) blowing away (verb phrase) ran quickly (verb phrase) has been raining (verb phrase) stopped (verb phrase) in the wind (Prepositional Phrases) on the boat (Prepositional Phrases) above the stove (Prepositional Phrases) around the corner (Prepositional Phrases) Example of phrases put together in a sentence: The brown hat was blowing away in the wind. More other E.g.s: leaving behind the dog smashing into a fence between ignorance and intelligence broken into thousands of pieces
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    2 Clause Collection of words having meaning. Has a subject (Noun) that is actively doing a verb A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a predicate (or a verb). since she laughs at diffident men I despise (hate) individuals of low character when the saints go marching in because she smiled at him There are two types of clauses: 1. Independent Clause: Collection of words Has a subject (Noun) that is actively doing a verb Stand by itself Forms complete sentences with punctuation without any extra words attached That's why ICs are called so. They can stand alone and express a complete thought. E.g. : I despise individuals of low character Complete Sentence: "l despise individuals of low character." I want some cereal. Marie likes cats. Joseph is a good soccer player. 2. Dependent Clause : Collection of words Has a subject doing a verb Has a conjunction placed in front Subordinator means that the clause can't stand independently by itself Dependent upon another clause--it can't make a complete sentence by itself, even though it has a subject doing a verb. Makes no sense by itself. They cannot stand alone. Do not express a complete thought. since she laughs at diffident men when the saints go marching in because she smiled at him When it is raining Because you were late Before you go to bed Cause the listener to expect some extra material.
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    3 Three types of dependent clauses: adjective, adverb, and noun. An adiective clause describes or gives more information about a noun-tells us which one, what kind, or how many. The bag that someone left on the bus belongs to Mrs. Smith. An adverb clause describes or gives more information about the verb-tells us when, where, how, to what extent, or under what condition something is happening. She cried because her seashell was broken. A noun clause takes the place of a noun in the sentence. Whoever ate the last piece of pie owes me! Even though the train was late, I got to the exam on time. Dependent clause Independent clause I got to the exam on time T even though the train was late. Independent clause Dependent clause Coniunction A part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses, called the coniuncts Conjunction Types: Coordinating/ Correlative/ Subordinating/ Starting a Sentence 1- Coordinating conjunctions (Coordinators) Coordinate two or more (words, main clauses, or sentences) of equal syntactic imp Mnemonic/ Acronym FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. Way of using Coordinators: For: "They do not gamble or smoke, for they are ascetics." And: "They gamble, and they smoke." Nor: "They do not gamble, nor do they smoke." But: "They gamble, but they don't smoke." Or: "Every day they gamble, or they smoke." Yet: "They gamble, yet they don't smoke." So: "He gambled well last night, so he smoked a cigar to celebrate."
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    4 Coordinators Changes the meaning of the sentence. In both sentences below, happening of events changes just by changing the Coordinator. Ram played cricket, so Sham went shopping. Subjects: 'Ram' & 'Sham' Verbs: 'Played' & 'went' Coordinator: 'so' Punctuation: 'comma' Ram played cricket, for Sham went shopping. Subjects: 'Ram' & 'Sham' Verbs: 'Played' & 'went' Coordinator: 'for' Punctuation: 'comma' That joins two independent clauses. And thus form compound sentence. 2- Correlative conjunctions Work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence. either... Or neither. nor both... and whether... or just as...so as much...as/ as fast... .as rather... than not only... but The... the You either do your work or prepare for a trip to the office. He is not only handsome, but also brilliant. Neither the basketball team nor the football team is doing well. Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well. You must decide whether you stay or you go. Just as many Americans love basketball, so many Canadians love ice hockey. The more you practice dribbling, the better you will be at it. Football is as fast as hockey (is (fast)). Football is as much an addiction as it is a sport. 3- Subordinating conjunctions (Subordinators)
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    5 Linking words that are used to join clauses together, used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. That joins an independent clause and a dependent clause, and also introduces adverb clauses. And thus form complex sentence. "l wonder whether he'll be late. I hope that he'll be on time". Common Subordinators Comparison & Contrast Although Though Even though While Possibility as if whether unless Cause I effect Since So that Because Place & manner VAv/herever VVhere How Time When Until Whenever Before 4- Starting a sentence We can also begin sentences with Conjunctions ("and", "but", "because", and "so") in Formal Writings. "But she must give security that she will not marry without royal consent, if she holds her lands of the Crown, or without the consent of whatever other lord she may hold them of." "And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor." "Because, in the end, free markets and free minds will win Punctuation- Vital in giving the meaning of sentences.
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    6 "The use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and the correct reading, both silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts." "The practice, action, or system of inserting points or other small marks into texts, in order to aid interpretation; division of text into sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks." "woman, without her man, is nothing" (emphasizing the importance of men), "woman, without her, man is nothing" (emphasizing the importance of women) "eats shoots and leaves" (which means the subject consumes plant growths) "eats shoots and leaves" (which means the subject eats first, then fires a weapon, and then leaves the scene). E.g.: commas, semicolons, and colons etc. The man from the shop subject Subiect & Predicate isa monster. predicate subject Predicate: stole my bike last week. predicate verb in yellow The part of a sentence (or clause) which tells what the subject does or is Everything that is not the subject In addition to the verb, a predicate can contain direct objects, indirect objects, and various kinds of phrases Classification of Sentences- By Structure & By Purpose
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    7 By structure: Simple Sentence Consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses Contains a subject and a verb and expresses a thought "l like goats." Compound sentence Consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses o Joined together using Conjunctions, Punctuation, or both. Unless the sentence is very short, there is a comma before the Coordinator (Conjunction) "l tried to speak Tamil, and my friend tried to speak Bengali." Subjects: 'I', 'friend' Verb: 'Tried' Coordinator: 'And' is coordinator 'This house is too expensive, and that house is too small.' FANBOYS can be used for joining independent clauses. 'l think you'd enjoy the party, but I don't mind if you stay home.' In this sentence, the coordinator 'but' shows a clear relationship between the two independent clauses, in this case, that the speaker is making a suggestion that the person being addressed isn't expected to follow it. Without the coordinator 'but,' the relationship isn't apparent, making the writing choppy and the meaning less clear: 'l think you'd enjoy the party. I don't mind if you stay home.' You can also join independent clauses with a semicolon (;) , which looks something like a cross between a colon and a comma. If you join clauses with a semicolon, you add an abrupt pause, creating a different kind of effect, as shown in the sentence below: 'He said he didn't mind if I stayed home; it soon became clear he wasn't being honest.' You should use a semicolon when the independent clauses are related, but contrast in a way that you want to stand out. In the sentence above, the contrast is that the person being talked about in the first clause sounded honest when he said he didn't mind if the speaker stayed home, but in the second clause, the speaker is telling you that the person being talked about was not honest. You could just as easily have written the sentence using a coordinating conjunction:
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    8 'He said he didn't mind if I stayed home, but it soon became clear he wasn't being honest.' The sentence still means the same as before, but using the coordinator 'but' softens the impact of the second clause. Complex sentence • Has an independent clause which is joined by one or more dependent clauses • It always has a Subordinator (because, after, since, although etc.) or a Relative Pronoun (that, who, which etc.) "l enjoyed the bananas that you bought for me." 'C: I enjoyed the bananas DC: that you bought for me RP: that Punctuation: Full Stop Subject: 'i' & 'you' Verbs: 'enjoyed' & 'bought' "When he handed over his project work, he forgot to write his roll number." 'C: he forget to write his roll number DC: when he handed over his project work Subordinator: when Punctuation: Comma Subject: 'he' Verbs: 'handed' & 'forgot' "After he finished homework, he went to the movie." 'C: he went to the movie DC: after he finished homework Subordinator: after Punctuation: Comma, Full Stop Subject: 'he, he' Verbs: 'finished' & 'went' He went to the movie after he finished homework. 'C: he went to the movie DC: after he finished homework Subordinator: after Punctuation: Full Stop Subject: 'he, he' Verbs: 'finished' & 'went'
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    9 Both sentences are same, differs is way of saying, convey the same meaning in a slight different way. When a sentence starts with dependent clause, the dependent clause will be followed by a comma. When a sentence starts with independent clause, there will be no comma following it. Comma signifies the Pause A sentence containing Adjective Clause (or Dependent Clause) is also complex, because it contains an independent clause and a dependent clause. "The man who(m) my father talked to sells fruits. Independent Clause: The man sells fruits "The book that Ram read is on the self." Independent Clause: The book is on the shelf "The village where I grew up is in Pakistan." Independent Clause: The village is in Pakistan A sentence consisting of at least one dependent clauses and at least two independent clauses may be called a complex-compound sentence or compound-complex sentence. The dog lived in the garden, but the cat, who was smatter, lived inside the house. The dog lived in the garden and the cat lived inside the house are both independent clauses; who was smarter is a dependent clause. A set of words with no independent clause may be an incomplete sentence, also called a sentence fragment. "What an idiot." A noun phrase but no verb. It is not a grammatically complete clause. By purpose A declarative sentence, "l have to go to work." An interrogative sentence, "Do I have to go to work?" An exclamatory sentence (a more emphatic form of statement expressing emotion): "l have to go to work!" An imperative sentence (command): "Go to work." Combination of both exclamatory & imperative "Go to work! Comparing Sentence Types
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    1. 2. 3. 4. 10 The simple sentence is an independent clause with one subject and one verb. For example: 'Katniss can survive in the forest.' The compound sentence is, as noted previously, two or more independent clauses joined with a comma, semicolon or conjunction. For example: 'Katniss can survive in the forest, and she is a capable archer.' The complex sentence combines independent clauses with dependent clauses. For example: 'When equipped with her bow and arrows, Katniss can survive in the forest.' The compound-complex sentence has at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. For example: 'When carrying her bow and arrows, Katniss can survive in the forest, and she is a capable archer.'

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