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Grammar Notes

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    2. 3. 1. Grammar Parts of speech All the English words are divided into eight groups according to the work they do in a sentence. Each group is called Parts of speech. Kinds of Parts of speech: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection Noun A noun is the name of a person, animal, place, thing, feeling or idea. A noun is the name of anything. A noun is a naming word. Kinds of Nouns: 1) Proper Noun 2) Common Noun 3) Collective Noun 4) Material Noun 5) Abstract Noun Proper Noun: A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, animal, place or thing. Examples: Ram, Cow, Patna, English Book. Common Noun: A Common Noun is a name given in common to every person, animal, place or thing of the same class or kind. Examples: boy, girl, cat, town, mountain. Collective Noun: A Collective Noun is the name of a number of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole. Examples: class, crowd, army, team, Material Noun: A Material Noun is the name of a material substance. Examples: water, milk, wood, stone, rice, bread,
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    Abstract Noun: An Abstract Noun is name of the things which are not seen or touched but only thought of are called Abstract noun. Examples: goodness, honesty, love, Modern Classification of the Noun There are only three nouns according to Modern English Grammar. 1) 2) 3) Proper Noun Countable Noun Uncountable Noun Is the name of a particular person, place, animal, day, month or thing. Proper noun: Examples: Sohan, Nepal, Moti, Sunday, January, Gita. Countable Noun: is the name of the things which can be counted. Examples: cow, man, river, is the name of the things which can't be counted Uncountable Noun: Examples: oil, rice, gold, honesty. 4. Pronoun ' A Pronoun is a word which is used in place of/instead of a noun. • A Pronoun stands for a noun. Examples: Ram is my friend. Ram reads in my class. Ram is absent today, because Ram is ill. Ram is my friend. He reads in my class. He is absent today, because he is ill. Kinds Of Pronouns 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Personal Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Emphatic Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns Distributive Pronouns Reciprocal Pronouns Relative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns
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    Personal pronoun: l, we, you, they, he, she, it are called personal pronouns. Possessive Pronouns: The pronoun which is used to show possession. Examples: mine, ours, theirs, his, hers, yours. Reflexive Pronouns: myself, yourself, yourselves, ourselves, herself, himself, itself and themselves are used in a situation when action turns upon the subject. Note: In Reflexive Pronouns, myself, yourself, yourselves, ourselves, herself, himself, itself and themselves always come just after main verbs. Examples: I Hurt myself. She ruined herself. Emphatic Pronouns: When myself, yourself, yourselves, ourselves, herself, himself, itself and themselves are used for the sake of emphasis. Examples: I killed the tiger myself. He himself said so. Demonstrative Pronouns: is used to point out the subject or objects to which it refers. Examples: This, That, these, those This is a boy, That is a car, Note: This/ That/ There/ Those can be adjective if any noun comes just after them. (This book is mine) Indefinite Pronoun: does not refer to any definite person or thing. Examples: Somebody, Nobody, anybody, one, all, none. ( Some are gentle) Note: Somebody, Nobody, anybody, one, all, none can be Indefinite adjectives if any noun comes just after them. (Some boys are ready) Distributive Pronouns: when each of, either of, neither of are used as pronouns. Examples: Each of the boys is intelligent (Pronoun) Each boy is intelligent (Adjective) Reciprocal Pronouns: Each other, one another are called Reciprocal pronouns. They loved each other/one another. Examples: Relative Pronouns: A relative pronoun prohibits the repetition of some noun/pronoun going before by being used in place of the noun/pronoun. Examples: who, which, whose, whom, what, that. This is the book. The book was given to me.- - This the the book that was given to me. Interrogative pronouns: The Pronoun which is used to ask a question is called I.P. Examples: Who, Which, whom, what, why, whose (Who are you?)
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    5. Verb ' A Verb is a word which denotes an action, possession, relation or a state of being. ' A Verb is a word which is used to tell or assert something about some person or thing. Examples: Play, walk, talk,etc. The clock strikes-(Action). I have a car.-(Possession). Sita is tall/happy -(State of being) Kinds of Verbs: 1) Principal/Main/FuIl Verb 2) Auxiliary/Helping Verb Principal/Main/FuII verb: The verb which is of main importance in the sentence. Examples: I read. lam reading. She will dance. I will do. Auxiliary/HeIping Verb: The verb which is used together with other verbs to help them in the formation of tenses, voices, moods. Examples: I am reading. My brother has come. She should walk. I will go. There are 24 AuxiliarylHeIping verbs which are mentioned below: Is, am, are, was, were, do, does, did, have, has, had, ought to, should, must, can, could, may, might, shall, will, would, need, dare, used to. Note 1. If there is only one verb in the sentence then it will be main/principal/full verb. Ex. I am a boy. She has a car. They were students. Principal verbs have been divided into two parts. 1) Transitive Verb 2) Intransitive Verb Transitive Verb: The verb which is used with an object. Examples: Ram eats rice. I love you. I know this. I like this beautiful flower. Intransitive Verb: The verb which is used without an object. Examples: I eat. Ram walks in the field. lggto school. (No object)
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    Verbs Forms 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) V 1----------- Present Tense form, (go, eat, run, play, etc) V2-----------Past Tense form, (went, ate, ran, laughed, etc) V3--------- -Past Participle form, (gone, eaten, run, broken, etc) V4----------Present Participle form, (going, reading, laughing, etc) V5---------Verb+s/es form, ( goes, reads, laughs, runs, etc) 6. Adjective ' An Adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun. ' An Adjective is a word which is used to add something to the meaning of a noun or pronoun. I have red/a lot of/six/several pens. Examples: Kinds of Adjectives 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Adjective of Quality Adjective of Quantity Adjective of Numbers Demonstrative Adjectives Possessive Adjectives Distributive Adjective Interrogative Adjectives Proper Adjectives Emphasizing Adjectives 10) Exclamatory Adjectives Adjective of Quality: it shows the quality of a noun or pronoun. Examples: good, bad, strong, cold, red. (Ram is a good boy) Adjective of Quantity: It shows how much of a thing is meant. Examples: some, much, little, whole, all, no, any, enough, a lot of/lots of. ( he lost his wealth) Adjective of Numbers: it shows the number and order of person or thing. Examples: few, no, many, some, enough, several, all, one, first, (All men must die) Note: Cardinals one, two, three, four,etc Ordinals first, second, third, fourth, fifth, six, etc. Demonstrative Adjective: the adjective which is used to point out some person or thing is called D.A. Examples: This, That , These, Those, such. (This, That , These, Those, such+Noun)
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    This man will guide you. Possessive adjectives: It shows possession or relation. Examples: my, our, your, his, her, its. (my, our, your, his, her, its+Noun) Distributive Adjectives: each, every, either, neither are called D.A. when they are followed by a noun. Examples: Each boy had a pen. (each, every, either, neither+Noun) Interrogative Adjectives: What, which, whose are called I.A. when these are used with nouns to ask question. Examples: Which box is yours? Proper Adjectives: are made from proper nouns. Examples: He is an Indian student. Indian farmers are honest. Emphasizing Adjectives: The adjectives which come before noun and are used to convey emphasis on the nouns. Examples: Own, very, same, very same. (l saw them with my own eyes) Exclamatory Adjective: 'What' is called exclamatory adjective when it is used as an adjective in exclamatory sentence. Examples: What folly! 7. Adverb What an idea! ' An Adverb qualifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Examples: The child runs slowly. Kinds of Adverbs: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Adverbs of Time Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of Place Adverbs of degree Interrogative Adverbs Adverbs of negation and Affirmation Adverbs of Reason Relative Adverbs Adverbs of Time: tells the time of an action. Examples: today, yesterday, tomorrow, now, then, soon, late, lately, just, ago, before, immediately.
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    8. He came yesterday. He will come soon. Adverbs of Frequency: tells how often or how frequently an action is done. Examples: never, always, once, daily, regularly, again, seldom, occasionally. He came here once. I have always helped you. Adverbs of Manner: tells how or in what manner an action is done. Examples: slowly, carefully, beautifully, well, hard. She writes beautifully. Adverbs of Place: tells where or at what place an action is done. Examples: here, there, everywhere, up, down, outside. Go there. I shall wait for you outside. Adverbs of Degree: It indicates the degree of intensity of an action or an adjective. Examples: very, much, enough, too, quite, hardly, exactly, nearly, almost, Sita is very happy. She hardly knows me. Interrogative Adverbs: When, where, how, why, how long, how much, how often, how many are called I.A. when they are used in/for asking questions. Examples: Where is Ram? Adverbs of negation and Affirmation: yes, surely, certainly are called Adverbs of Affirmation and no, never, not are called Adverbs of negation. Examples: Will you go there? Yes, I will. Adverbs of Reason: tells the reason of an action. Examples: therefore, hence, thus, so, etc. Thus, she became angry. He, therefore, left school. Relative Adverbs: modifies verbs following them and at the same time join two sentences together. Examples: where, how, when, why, how long, etc. I do not know how much he has. Let me know when you will come. Preposition • A Preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence.
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    Examples: in, into, on, at, to, with, without, of, among, between, under, over, below, near, after, before, for, up, since, from, by, behind, towards, about. Note: Preposition is almost used before a Noun/Pronoun. But in some state it is used at the end of a sentence/clause. Examples: what are you looking at? I know the house she lives in. Note: The same word as per use, can be a preposition or some other Parts of speech in a sentence. Examples: He is jn the room. (in — preposition) Come in. I have not seen this before. He stood before the gate (in — Adverb) (before — adverb) (before — preposition) The train had started before we reached the station. 9. Conjunction (Before — Conjunction) ' A Conjunction is a word used to join words, phrases, clauses or sentences together. Examples: that, and, but, or, because, therefore, although, though, yet, still, as well as, otherwise, when, if, after, since, before, as, unless, while, as if, weather, where, so, that, until, till, either.....or, neither......nor, not only.....but also, both......and, etc. Examples: This is the book that I bought yesterday. (that — relative pronoun) I know that he was innocent. (that — conjunction) This is the house where he lived. (Where — relative adverb) He found the watch where he had left it. (Where — Conjunction) Note: The same word can be used as Conjunction or some other Parts of speech in a sentence. Examples: He stood before the gate. (Before — Preposition) I have seen this before. (Before — Adverb) The train had started before we reached the station. Kinds of Conjunctions 1) Co-ordinating Conjunctions 2) Sub-ordinating Conjunctions (Before — Conjunction) Co—ordinating Conjunction: the conjunction which joins two items of equal rank. Examples: and, but, or, also, yet, still, too, as well as, otherwise, either....or, neither....nor, not only....but also,both.....and.
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    10. 11. Sub-ordinating Conjunction: The conjunction which joins a sub-ordinate clause to a principal clause. Examples: when, if, that, whether, after, before, because, unless, until, till, so, since, while, where, etc. Alas, Oh---------------------------- for extremely sad. Interjection An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion. Examples: Alas, Oh, Ah, Hurrah, Hello, Bravo, hush, etc. -- ----------for sharp disappointment. Hurrah/Hello/Bravo-------------for extreme happiness. Number Numbers of the noun There are two Numbers of noun. 1) Singular number 2) Plural number Singular Number: ' Singular number denotes one person or thing. ' A noun that denotes one person or thing is said to be in the singular number. Examples: cow, dog, pen, boy, etc. Plural Number: ' Plural number denotes more than one person or thing. • A noun that denotes more than one person or thing is said to be in the plural number. Examples: cows, dogs, pens, boys, etc. Note: Countable nouns have plural forms but proper nouns and uncountable nouns have generally not plural forms. Rules for making singular to plural 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)
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    9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Numbers of the Pronoun Pronouns in singular number: Me, Mine, Myself, He, Him, His, Himself, She, her, hers, herself, it, itself, yourself, this, that, somebody, nobody, anybody, everybody, someone, no one, anyone, everyone, something, nothing, anything, everything, each, either, neither, etc. Pronouns in plural number: we, us, ours, ourselves, yourselves, they, them, theirs, themselves, these, those, many, both, etc. Note: The pronouns which are used as singular and plural both: you, yours, all, some, none, who, whom, whose, which, what, etc. Numbers of the Verb Verbs in Singular number: am, is, was, has, does, goes, etc. Verbs in Plural number: are, were, have, do, go, etc. Verbs as singular & Plural both: had, did, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought, need, dare, used, etc. 12. Gender Gender of the Noun 1) 2) 3) 4) Masculine gender Feminine Gender Common gender Neuter gender Masculine Gender: The masculine gender denotes a male. Examples: Ram, Dog, Man, Father, bull, Prince, etc.
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    Feminine Gender : The feminine gender denotes a female. Examples: Sita, woman, mother, cow, sister, etc. Common Gender: The Common gender denotes either a male or a female. Examples: friend, teacher, doctor, child, thief, parent, deer, Neuter Gender: The neuter gender denotes the noun which is neither a male nor a female. Examples: wood, oil, crow, ant, bench, school, army, etc. Note 1 : Non living things, germs and small animals come under Neuter Gender. Note 2 : Collective Noun Material Noun and Abstract Noun also come under Neuter Gender. Gender of The Pronoun Pronouns of masculine Gender: Pronouns of feminine gender: Pronouns of Common gender: He, Him, His, Himself. She, Her, Hers, Herself. Me, Mine, Myself, We, Us, ours, ourselves, you, yours, yourselves etc. Pronouns of Neuter gender: It, Itself, nothing, anything, everything, something, which, eyc. Pronouns used for all genders: They them, theirs, themselves, this, that, each, either, neither, many, both, whose, what, all, some, none, etc. 13. Person Kinds of Persons 1) First person 2) Second Person 3) Third Person First Person: is the person who is speaking. Examples: l, We Second Person: is the person who is listing or the person spoken to. Examples: You Third Person: is the person spoken about. Examples: He, She, It, names, they Note: If I speak to you about Ramesh, I am the first person, you are the second person and Ramesh is the third person.
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    14. Case Kinds of Case 1) Nominative Case 2) Objective Case 3) Possessive Case Nominative case: When a noun or pronoun is used as the subject of a verb. Examples: Ram is eating. Cows eat grass. He speaks English. Objective case: When a noun or a pronoun is used as the object of a verb or preposition. Examples: He eats rice. She loves me. Possessive Case: When the form of a noun or pronoun is used to show possession or relation. Examples: This is Sohan's cow. She is my sister. Rules to make Possessive Case. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 15. Degree of comparison Note: In Degree of comparison, the form of adjectives keep changing. Kinds of Degree 1) Positive Degree 2) Comparative Degree 3) Superlative Degree Positive Degree: When an adjective or adverb is in its simple form. Examples: good, old, fat, She is good. He is an old man. My brother is strong. Comparative Degree: When an adjective or adverb is used to compare the quality of two persons or things.
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    Examples: better, older, bigger, stronger, etc. This pen is better than that pen. Superlative Degree: When an adjective or adverb is used to compare the qualities of three or more than three persons or things together. Examples: best, oldest, biggest, strongest, etc. Ram is the best boy in the class. Formation of Comparative & Superlative Degree 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 16. The Sentence A Sentence is a group of words which put together in a certain order to give complete sence. Kinds of Sentences 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Assertive/Affirmative Sentence Interrogative sentence Imperative sentence Optative sentence Exclamatory sentence Assertive/Affirmative Sentence: that makes a statement. Examples: I am going to school. He will come soon. Note: Assertive/ Affirmative sentence can be divided into Affirmative & Negative Sentence. Interrogative Sentence: that asks a question Examples: What is your name?
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    17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Note: Interrogative Sentence can be divided into Interrogative Negative & Interrogative Pronoun Sentence. Imperative Sentence: that expresses an order, a request or a piece of advice. Examples: Bring a glass of water. Please help me. Take medicine in time. Optative Sentence: that expresses some curse, blessing, prayer or wish. Examples: May you die of cholera! May God help you! May the king live long! Exclamatory Sentence: that expresses some sudden or strong feeling of the mind. Examples: What a beautiful scene it is! What a fall! Article Tense Changing into Negative Changing into Interrogative Subject-Verb Agreement Infinitive When "To" comes with first form of the verb, it is called Infinitive. It can be in the starting/in middle/at the end of the sentence. When t0+verb1 comes in the sentence, t0+verb1 is called infinitive. Examples: I want to go. (To go—Infinitive) To walk is an exercise. (To walk —Infinitive) Bare Infinitive When first form of the verb comes without "To" in the sentence. Infinitive without "To", is called Bare Infinitive. Examples: I made him laugh. (Laugh — Bare Infinitive) He made me cry. (Cry - Bare Infinitive)
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    24. 25. Gerund When Verb+ing are used as noun in the sentence, it is called Gerund. Gerund as a noun is used in the sentence as Subject, Object or Complement. Examples: Walking is an exercise. I like reading stories. Saying is easy but doing is difficult. Note 1: Walking, reading, saying and doing are Gerund. 1. Gerund is used in the sentence where a noun should be. Examples: Tea is bad for health. (Tea- Noun) Taking tea/Smoking is bad for health. (Taking tea/smoking- Gerund) I am fond of sweets. (Sweet- noun) I am fond of travelling. (T ravelling — gerund) Participle A Participle is the form of a verb which helps to make Progressive or Perfect Tense. It is used as an Adjective also. Kinds of participle Present Participle [verb+ingl Examples: Playing, reading, dancing, speaking, etc. [verb+d/ed ( third form of verb, V3)l Past participle Examples: Played, eaten, gone, burnt, given, etc. Use of participles: 1. 2. 3. Progressive Tenses are made by Present participle. Examples: I am playing. They are working. Perfect tenses and passive voice are made by Past participle. Examples: She has gone. He is beaten. Present Participle and past Participle are also used as Adjectives Examples: The child has a beautiful smiling face. This is a boiled egg.
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    26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Note: If Verb+ing is used as Noun, it is called gerund and If Verb+ing is used to make Continuous tense or as an Adjective, it is called Participle. Examples: My hobby is dancing. (Dancing as Noun — Gerund) I am dancing. (Dancing as verb — Participle) Voice Active & Passive Voice Narration Direct and Indirect Speech Punctuation and use of capital Letters Punctuation Marks help for reading out, speaking, and understanding the meaning of sentence. It is convenient for reading out, speaking, and understanding the meaning of sentences with the help of Punctuation Marks. Punctuation Marks 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Full stop Comma Semi-colon (;) Colon (:) Question Mark (?) Exclamation Mark (!) Hyphen (-) Dash Apostrophe (') 10) Inverted Commas ") or
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    Full Stop: (.) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Full Stop will be used for all types of complete sentence, except Interrogative, Optative and Exclamatory Sentence. Examples: He is a boy. Go there. Don't do this. Full Stop is used after Abbreviation and Initial letters. Examples: B. A. L. P. School Full Stop is not used these days with Dr, Mr, Mrs, and St (Saint) as they are not used as Abbreviation; they are used as complete word. Full stop is not used with 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th. If a sentence ends with an Abbreviation, we put only one Full Stop. Examples: He is an l. A. S. I am an M.A. Comma: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It denotes small pause. If two or more than two words of the same part of speech come one by one. Examples: Ram, Mohan, Sohan and Gopal are my friends. He is tall, gentle and handsome. When any word gets repeated. Examples: Go, go; I don't need you. Try, try again. Comma is used before and after Apposition word. Examples: l, Ram, am a student. He, the son of a rich man, is very proud. If the words of address are at the starting of a sentence, Comma will be used just after it. Examples: Mohan, where are you going? If the words of address is in the middle of a sentence, Comma will be used both sides of it. Examples: I know, Suresh, that only you can do this. If the words of address are at the end of a sentence, Comma will be used just before it. Examples: May I go out, Sir? What are you doing, boys?
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    7. 8. 9. Comma is used both sides of However, therefore, after all, I hope, I think, etc. Examples: He, however, passed the examination. l, therefore, request you to grant me leave. Comma must be used after Yes/No if a sentence comes after them. Examples: Yes, I will help you. No, you can't. Comma must be used after Yes/No if a sentence comes after them. Examples: Yes, I will help you. No, you can't. 10. Comma is used to keep question Tag away from Main Clause. Examples: Will you go tomorrow, won't you? He is ready, isn't he? 11. Comma is used to keep Direct speech away from remaining part of the sentence. Examples: He said, "l am ready." "1 do not know her", she said. 12. If there is a question/exclamation in Direct speech and after Direct speech, reporting verb comes, then Comma will not be used after that Direct speech. Examples: "Where are you going?" he asked me. "Well done!" he said. Semi-colon (;) 1. 2. 3. We use Semi-colon where we need to stay a bit more of Comma and a bit less of Full Stop. Examples: Semi-colon is used where Full stop can be used. (Come early. Go early/ Come early and go early) Examples: Come early; go early. When we put various Principal Clauses in the same sentence without any linking words. Examples: Honesty is the best policy; it inspires us with greater confidence. Honesty is the best policy and it inspires us with greater confidence. Honesty is the best policy. It inspires us with greater confidence. Colon (:) 1. 2. Colon is used to start any list and examples. Examples: The following words are nouns: cat, cow, dog, girl. I want the following: books, pens and note-books. Colon is used before Direct speech and Quotation. Examples: He said: "l will do it."
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    3. Shakespeare said: "Sweet are the uses of adversity." Colon is used after the name of speaker in Dialogue. Examples: Teacher: What are you doing? Ram: Sir, I am doing my lesson. Question Mark (?) 1. Question Mark is used at the end of Interrogative sentence. Examples: Who are you? What is your name? Note: Full Stop is used after Indirect Question, not Question Mark. Examples: He asked me what my name was. I don't know who he was. 2. Question Mark is used after Question tag. Examples: You are going tomorrow, aren't you? Exclamation Mark (!) 1. 2. Exclamation Mark is used at the end of Optative and Exclamatory Sentence. Examples: May God help you! What a beautiful scene it is? Exclamation Mark is used after Interjection or such phrases/sentences that express the same feelings. Examples: Alas! Hello! Oh! Oh! Enough! Well done! Hyphen (---) 1. If there is not a sufficient space to write a word, Hyphen is used after that incomplete word and then write remaining part in the next line. Examples: I wanted to go to Patna as it is my home town. I like to be there. It is a very beau- tiful city. Note 1: One Syllable words are not divided. Write them without Hyphen. Examples: Dog, cat, boy, box, etc. Note 2: Never give Hyphen (at the end of a line) to write and leave a single letter. Examples: G-rammar, Gramma-r. (It should be Gra-mmar) Note 3: Put Hyphen only after the completion of a syllable.
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    Apostrophe (') Examples: Beau-tiful, Beauti-ful. Examples: Ma'am ----------- for Madam I'll ------------------for I will '82------------------for 1982 2. 3. 4. Hyphen is used to write Compound Numbers in words from 21 to 99. Examples: Twenty-one, Four hundred and thirty-one. If the same two vowels come together by adding Prefix, put Hyphen after that Prefix. Examples: Co-operation, Re-elect, Pre-eminent. Hyphen is used with some compound and complex words in English. Examples: Sister-in-law, Brother-in-law, a five-rupee note, Ex-Principal. Dash (-) 1. 2. 3. Sometimes, Dash can be used where Colon is used. Examples: I want the following: ten note-books, two pens and one ink-pot. I want the following - ten note-books, two pens and one ink-pot. Dash is used between two numbers to show the numbers that are hidden between them. Examples: 1970-1980, Chapters I-XI. Dash is used in the starting of any Quotation. Examples: The teacher said- "Honesty is the best policy." 1. 2. 3. Apostrophe is used in Contractions in the place of hidden letter or numbers. Apostrophe is used with Possessive form of Noun. Examples: Ram's cow, the cow's milk, the boys' names. Apostrophe S ('S) is used to make numbers and letters plural. Examples: Add four 3's and the result is 12. Your t's and I's look alike. Note 1: If numbers are written in words, they are made plural by adding s/es, not apostrophe S Examples: Sachin hit three fours and two sixes.
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    Inverted Commas (' Inverted Commas is also called Quotation Marks. Inverted Commas can be single ') and double (" ") too. 1. 2. 3. 4. Inverted Commas are used to enclose Quotation and Direct Speech. Examples: He said, "What are you doing?" Shakespeare says, 'sweet are uses of adversity.' Inverted Commas are used with the name of book, story, poem, essay and newspaper. Examples: Have you read "Hamlet"? 'Ode on Solitude' is a famous poem. Inverted Commas are used to pay special attention on words/phrases. Examples: The word 'please' is a very useful word. If there is a quotation inside a quotation then Inverted Commas will be different for insider quotation. Examples: He asked me, "Have you read 'Hamlet'?" He asked me, 'Have you read "hamlet"? ' The use of Capital Letters 1. The very First letter of each sentence is Capital. Examples: 2. The very First letter of each line of a poem is Capital. Examples: ("Have you read", 'Hamlet') ('Have you read' "Hamlet") Note 1: There are some Modern poets who do not accept this rule. 3. The very First letter of each sentence under Inverted commas is Capital. Examples: Note 2: If a sentence in Direct speech/Quotation is divided into two or more than two parts, then the first letter of the first part will only be Capital. Examples: 1. 2. The first letter of the name of human being is capital. Examples: The first letter of title is capital. Examples:
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    3. 4. 5. The first letter of the name of village/city/state/country/continent is capital. Examples: The first letter of the name of a mountain, river, train, airplane is Capital. Examples: The first letter of the name of a book/act/newspaper/magazine is capital. Examples: Note 3: If an Article, Conjunction or Preposition comes in the middle of sentence, it will not be Capital. It will be written in Small letter. Examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The first letter of the title of a story, poem, report, article or chapter of a book is Capital. Examples: The first letter of the name of a day, month, language, group, religion, festival is Capital. Examples: The first letter of each word of the name of Political parties is Capital. Examples: The first letter of each word used for historical incidents is Capital. Examples: The first letter of title and designation is Capita. Examples: The first letter of Proper noun is Capital. Examples: Each letter of most of abbreviation is Capital. Examples: Note 4: When more than one letter is with abbreviation then only the first letter will be Capital. Examples: Note 5: Some abbreviations are written in small letter also. Examples: 1. The first letter of Pronoun l, Interjection O and Personified word is Capital. Examples:
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    2. If the word "God" is used for almighty God, then the first letter of God, pronoun and other words which are used for God will be Capital. Example: Note 6: If the word "God" is used for God (Lord), then the first letter of God, pronoun and other words which are used for God will not be Capital. Example: 3. If Father/Mother/Uncle/Aunt are used, as, it is speaker's own Father/Mother/Uncle/Aunt. And there is no Determiner (the, your, my, his, etc) has been used. Or, they are used as Proper nouns, then first letter of these words (Father/Mother/Uncle/Aunt) will be Capital. Examples: Note 7: If determiners (the, your, my, his, etc) are used, it will be written in small letter. Examples:

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